Objectives: This research has been conducted in order to conduct sex education using E-Learning which is currently taught to students of women's high school. 138 students at women's high school in Inchon were applied, and then they were divided two different groups: a comparison group of 69 students, a control group of 69 students. Method: A questionnaire used by the literature studies. After verifying content validity, it was modified and supplemented in this way: sex knowledge was 23, and sex attitude 25. Results: 1) Comparison group will show increased marks on sex knowledge after the education than before whereas those from control group. 2) Comparison group will show increased marks on sex attitude after the education than before whereas those from control group. Conclusion: From the results of this research, it can be said that the sex education using E-Learning was the most effective method in improving the sex knowledge and attitude of students at women's high school. Therefore, it is advisable that the sex education methods using E-Learning should be developed and applied continuously.
This study attempts to propose the possibility of the sex reversal in Tegillarca granosa and Ruditapes philippinarum by confirming the changes in the sex ratio with the shell length (SL) in the same population level. For analysis of sex ratio with SL, 1500 individuals of T. granosa (SL 10.1-45.0 mm) and 712 individuals of R. philippinarum (SL 15.1-70.0 mm) were used. Sex was analyzed histologically. The average sex ratios (F:M) of T. granosa and R. philippinarum were 1:1.22 and 1:0.96, respectively. However, sex ratio was found to differ when the clams were divided into groups according to SL in 5.0 mm intervals. Both species displayed the tendency of increase in the proportion of female with increase in SL. In this study, changes in the sex ratio in accordance with the growth of T. granosa and R. philippinarum are determined to be indirect evidence that signifies their sex reversal.
Kim, Hwa-Ja;Nam, Sun-Young;Chung, Yeong-Kang;Park, Kyong-Sook
Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
A survey has conducted on two hundred high school students of the first and second grade by way of questionnaine in Seoul. The purpose of this study on the information from the survey is to cstimate the level of awareness and probe how they feel and what they wish on sex. X2 inspection is designed to assess general aspects of responded contents by way of percentage and examine degree of satisfaction on previously experienced sex education and demand for sex education. The result is as follows. 1. As a result of the examination of degree of awareness on sex of respondents, 62% delines sex as human relationship including moral values for harmony between men and women. 64% of the men and 70% of the women say that sex is a natural thing. It comes to the conclusion that most of the respondent sgenerally consider sex positive. On chastity, 68.5% of the respondent answer that it means physical chastity, 12.5% that chastity before marriage should be kept, and 43% that it should be kept as far as possible. Most of them pespond that it should be kept. 2. As a result of the examination on the contents of sex, they answer they know well in the order of masturbation(72%), pregnancy(76%), and sex(63%). Contraception, abortion and ejection are contents they poorly informed of. 3. As a result of the examination on experienede of sex education, 83% of men and 100% of women have experienced sex, education, but their degreeof satisfaction to it is very low. And 49% of the whole is dissatisfactory to it. There is some difference between male and female students.(p=0.000) That result translates that female studeuts are educated on sex tjhrough more systematic subjects than male ones. In addition, it turns out that teenagers get most information on sex through friends, seniors, and mass media such as videos, TV and radios. Correct and systematic sex education is need because wrong information on sex culd be taught and bring them to misbehave. 4. 87.5% of the respondents answer that sex education is necessary, so that degree of necessity for sex education, turns out to be very high. Also the main subject that should perform sex education is in the order of school(50%), Society(24.5), home(18.5%). They respond that most appropriated period for the beginning of sex education is about elementary school age(43%), and 34% believes it to be put ahcad of elementary school age. Anurse teacher accounts for 54% for the main subject that addresses sex education, to male students visit teachers are most favored for 50%. As a result of those, it could be concluded that most high school students want sex education from responsible persons who have systematic and professional knowledge on sex. 5. In order to perform proper sex education by the above results, better educational effects are obtained when characteristics and natures of teenagers are known and most wanted knowledge by them is taught in priority in times of planning sex education. Besides, the contents of sex education suitable for each school should be planned before elementary school age and sex education should be performed in accordance with students' demand. In addition, sex education should be attentively performed by home, all organizations of society as well as school. Therefore, sex education will play a great role in making teenagers reestablish their conception on sex when the traditional and moral value systems of our country and the new value systems which are being formed under the influence of the western culture are in harmony.
The purposes of this study are to identify sex-role Identity and stereotypes in students-specifically, to compare men with women, and high school students with college students The subjects consisted of 283 college students and 392 high school students in Seoul A Bem's Sex-Role Inventory translated by Hur, Sookja for sex-role identity stereotype scales and modified by Kim, Dongil was used The major findings were as follows 1 Androgyny type was the most prevalent of all four types (35 3%) in college male students, but undifferentiated type was the most common (36 8%) for college female students 2 The sex-role identity distribution of high school male and female students was undifferentiated, androgyny, feminity, and masculinity in that order 3 There was a significant difference between male and female students in the perception sex stereotypes Women were inclined to oppose traditional sex-roles rather than men 4 There were significant differences between high school and college students in the perception of domestic sex-roles, appearance and occupational characteristics, as well as the psychosocial traits of sex stereotypes The college students tended to resist traditional sex-roles rather than high school students 5 There were no significant differences between sex-role types and sex stereotypes In conclusion, women have difficulty in developing a sex-role identity owing to the contradiction between a woman's desirable sex-role and her feminity sex-role identity.
This research was to identify the relationships between sex role attitude and the preference of fashion advertising formatted by sex role expression, and to examine the relationships among sex role attitude and sociographic variables. This research has been done for 618 university students and working group who are living in Cheongju and Seoul. For data analysis, descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and t-test were used. The results are the following: 1. In the view of the preference of fashion advertising, the stereotypical fashion advertising has more point than the androgynous fashion advertising. 2. The advertising formation preference showed a little difference significantly by sex role attitude. The group with conservative sex role preferred the stereotypical fashion advertising. The group with open-minded sex role preferred the androgynous fashion advertising. 3. Women preferred the androgynous advertising. As the aged, they preferred the stereotypical fashion advertising and have the conservative sex role. University students have more intention to buy with an androgynous fashion commercial than working group have and they have the open-minded about sex. The group subscribed the fashion magazine has more preference for androgynous fashion advertising, as they have more open-minded sex role than other group not subscribed the fashion magazine. This results imply that the androgynous formatted advertizing is still hard to get the influence of a general market promotion because most consumers have a low androgynous fashion advertizing preference. The preference of the fashion advertizing which expressed a sex role showed significant differences as social demographics, and a sex-role attitude. Therefore, the market segment and advertising strategies which are based on sex role and consumer characteristics would be very effective.
Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to compare the teaching status, utilization of the teaching materials, and the need to solve matters of sex education between the school health educators and teachers working in an elementary school in Busan. Method: 182 school health educators and 125 teachers participated in the research. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, and analyzed by frequency and x2 -test using the SPSS WIN 10.0 Program. Results: While school health educators carried out most of the sex education in the extra curriculum and physical education class, teachers did in the regular curriculum and physical education class. Regarding the utilization of the teaching materials on sex education, although the majority of school health educators used the teacher's manual, only a few teachers used it. Most of the school health educators used the ICT teaching materials while only half of the teachers did. Regarding the methods to solve matters on sex education, school health educators responded that a sex-related subject should be combined with a health subject, and an independent sex-related subject was necessary. The teachers, however, responded that it was necessary to secure enough time for sex education, the sex-related subject combined with a health subject was necessary, and there is a need to designate a sex educator. Conclusion: School health educators utilized more teaching materials for sex education and suggested more active methods to solve matters related to sex education. Therefore, school health educators should be more active as sex educators, and the subject of sex education should be adopted as a regular course.
Objectives: The propose of this study was to compare the effects of sex education methods between CAI and Lecture on to improve sex related knowledge and attitudes of middle school female students. Methods: The subjects were selected from one of the Kyoungbuk province's girls middle school. Out of 9 classes of first grade, 2 classes were selected as experimental group and 2 classes were selected as control group. This research was conducted from September 1st to October 1st, 2004. 8 lessons of CAI sex education program was given to experimental group and 8 lessons of sex education lectures was given to control group. To measure the level of sex related knowledge and attitudes of the subjects, the researcher used the modified Kye's, Sung's and Jung's sex related knowledge and attitudes scale. SPSS/Win 10.0 program was used to analyse the data along with Frequency, Percentage, $x^2$-test, t-test, and paired t-test. Results: 1. Sex related knowledge score in the experimental group educated by CAI program will be different from the control group using lecture education(t=3.49, p=0.001). 2. Sex related attitudes score in the experimental group educated by CAI will be different from the control group using lecture education(t=2.94, p=0.004). Conclusions: From the above results, CAI sex education program showed as more effective than lecture method to improve sex related knowledge and attitudes.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of cooperative learner-centered methods of sex education. Methods: This study was carried out on 5th grade elementary school students in D-district. Nine classes were divided into 3 groups using each different teaching methods: group A (a cooperative learning), group B (a lecture) and group C (a control group for a comparison). The study period was from Oct. 17 to Dec. 2 in 2011. Both groups A and B received sex education lessons for 40 minutes for 4 weeks and were tested their sex knowledge and attitude to compare the differences. Results: The scores of sex knowledge for all three groups were increased and their sex attitude was increased as well. The points of sex knowledge between pre and post test in group A are greater than the group B's. Thus, the cooperative learning approach with Group A was more effective to improve student's sex knowledge. But the difference between the sex attitude scores was not statistically significant. Group A and B showed a positive improvement in both their sex knowledge and attitudes compared with the control group. Conclusion: This experiment shows that an active teaching methods is more effective to improve student sex knowledge than a passive approach. Thus, a cooperative learning method results in increases of both student's sex knowledge and interests in learning sex education. It needs to develop more diverse teaching methods and programs on sex education that are more systematic and tailored.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
The purpose of this study is to provide substantial foundation to establish effective sex education plan for female college students. For this purpose, we compared female college students with health related majors and the ones with non-health related majors in knowledge in sex, attitude toward sex, and sexual experience. We took the form of self-recording to survey 269 single female college students. The result is as follows. For knowledge in sex, including reproductive organs, contraception, delivery, sexual disease, and sexual intercourse, students with health-related majors(20.59) gained higher scores than students with non-health related majors(16.82). Scores for attitude toward sex indicated 2.43 for the health related majors and 2.35 for the non-health related majors. Attitude toward pre-marital sex, sex admissibility, and abortion showed especially distinct result between the two groups. Whether a student has ever engaged in sexual intercourse served as a significant variable to determine knowledge in sex overall, and the indexes such as sexual pleasure, chasteness, marital values, and attitude towards sex indicated significant differences. The result may be interpreted that the students with sexual experience tend to show more open attitude toward sex. The result indicated that contraception, pregnancy, and delivery were the parts that the participants most wanted to be educated on. Knowledge in sex is both positively correlated with attitude toward sex and sexual behavior. Also, the result indicates that knowledge in sex, both subjective and objective, significantly affects sexual behavior.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the direction and strategy of education for sex role concepts of children on the basis of factor analysis of the present situation in sex role concepts and their formation. Although some maintain that sex role concept of our society has been changing slowly, the traditional sex role concept still dominates and is potentially immanent. the analysis of present condition of our society indicates that the formal as well as informal education are facing with various crucial problems in providing the direction of behavior demanded for carrying out the role. The close analysis of the three theories, psychoanalytic theory , social learning theory, cognitive development theory, lends a support to the laim of the study that cognitive development theory provide an integrated frame of reference for us to see the sex role education analytically Furthermore, the factors which are found to have influences on the formation of sex role have been analyzed in three areas: Family, School and society. 1)The factors in family such as parental behavior of upbringing and their concepts of sex role have a direct relationship with the nature of sex tole concept of children. Therefore, the first step to make children to habe a new type of sex-role conception appropriate for modern societies is to change that of parental conception and attitudes. 2)the quantitative as well as the qualitative aspects of school education showed no exceptional trend from the dominant conception of the society, although school are expected to lead the society as formal education institution rather than just reflect the society. The educational activities and contents such as the conceived goal of education for eoch sex, textbook constitation, teaching behavior and sex-role concepts of teacher are found to be still dominated by the traditional sex-role assumption. 3) The social factors that have direct relationship with children's sex-role formation are social and cultural, which include social milieu, condition of employment, family structure and mass-media. Since family and school do not educate the young in a social vacuum. their educational function of sex-role formation are doomed to be limited and determined by these social factors. Unfortunately, the analysis of present conditions showed the dominance of traditional types of sex-role concepts in all these social factors. The education of sex-role concept for children should be treated as one of the most crucial value problems related with many other important problems, such as direction and patterns of behaviors of each sex, the degree of self-development and capabilities, and consequently human right, equality, humanization and the quality of happiness. Neverthless, the analysis of researches on sex-role education which have been surveyed in this study lead to a conclusion that concerted effort to change the education, formal as well as informal should be provided in every aspect of social life. If the sex role education of the past has aimed at the "feminization"of girls which indoctrinate girls into a limited and fixed role of house wives, the new education in the future should be directed foward "humanization" of both sexes which opens the diversity of roles for both boys and girl on equal levels and provide future possibilities in accordance to their individual capabilities and interests.
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