Purpose: Sex education should be given priority to address dating violence. Comprehensive sex education has been developed based on a nonviolent communication model between couples for the smooth resolution of problems with the opposite sex. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply Comprehensive Sex Education for unmarried couples in their 20s-30s and to examine the effects on sex communication, problem-solving communication, and relationship competence. Methods: This study developed a total of six web-based sex education sessions. A comprehensive sex education program combined with nonviolent communication between couples was developed based on the UNESCO Sex Education Guidelines. A pre- and post-equivalence control design was used to provide moderation-based sex education to compare the effects on gender communication, communication dissatisfaction, and relationship development. Results: We developed a comprehensive sex education program for couples that took three minutes per episode, on a web-based basis. Sex communication, problem-solving communication, and love relationship competence showed significant pre- and post-test differences between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The program of this study is an attempt to introduce Korea to comprehensive sex education, which has already been shown to be effective through numerous verification processes abroad and will provide assistance in forming future relationships between lovers.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
The purpose of this study was to be of use for the preparation of more desirable sex education system at elementary school, by making content analysis of the current textbooks related to sex education and surveying what opinions the persons concerned had about it. The purpose of this study were as follows; Elementary school textbooks were analyzed to find out what kind of sex education was included in them. And questionnaires on how to improve school sex education content were prepared, by which 207 male and female teachers were surveyed in the city of Paju and Koyang, Kyonggi province. The conclusions were as follows; 1. Content Analysis of Textbook Sex Education The content related to sex education was relatively much included in textbooks of the right life, morality and physical education. Although morality was a subject to be instructed for the third-grade students or older, elementary school students virtually received sex education from the first grade, as the right life and the joyful life were a subject for the lower-grade students, and this met the goal of sex education or the need of the times. However, sex education content leaned heavily toward family, family life or parental love. There was no mutual complement among subjects, and no link among grades, either. 2. Teacher Opinion on Sex Education Content for Each Grade When the subjects were asked about if sex education content was appropriate for each grade, they answered 20 items should be more emphasized and 6 items might be left out. And there were 6 items regarded by them as one that should be rearranged in consideration of grade. 3. The Ideal Opinion of Sex Education Content The following model could be recommended for elementary school sex education, which was designed to meet the objectives of school sex education as much as possible and to offer a systematic link among grades, based on the findings by textbook analysis and Questionnaire survey, and on elementary school sex education materials recommended by the Ministry of Education: The content selected for the first grade of elementary school was my body, cleanness of genitals, male-female cooperation, and family cooperation. For the second grade, the selected content was male-female physical difference, male female psychological difference, parental and I(origin of a birth). For the third grade, the selected things were important a body(cleanness of genitals), birth of a life, and male-female comprehension and cooperation. For the fourth grade, the selected things were physical development, management of genitals, physiology and management of menstruation, propagation and growth of organism, concern for the other sex, comprehension of and cooperation with the other sex, and prevention of sexual violence. Four the fifth grade, the selected things were secondary sex characteristic, physiology and management of menstruation, operation for phimosis, understanding of seminal emission, structure and function of the genital organs, birth and growth of a baby, television/sex information, and mass communications/sex information. For the sixth grade, the selected things were secondary sex characteristic, understanding of seminal emission, male-female cooperation, male and female role, male-female manners, mass communications/sex information, family and family life. Finally, what should be taught in sex education must be studied constantly, as it should be revised or supplemented periodically, according to student's sexual maturity or social, cultural changes.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
The purpose of this study was to serve as a basis for more effective sex education, by examining the influence of obscene media on elementary school student's sex consciousness. For attaining the purpose, the research questions were posed as follows: 1) What's general characteristics of elementary school students? 2) How much are elementary school students exposed to obscene media? 3) Is their sex consciousness different according to the degree of being exposed to obscene media and the appearance of secondary sex characteristic? The subject of study were the 400 male and female students who were in the sixth grade at elementary school in the city of Paju. The questionnaire survey was conducted to find out their general characteristics, sex consciousness and degree of being exposed to obscene media. The conclusions were as follows; 1) Basic Information 94% of the students investigated were living with their parents. The greatest number of their parents were in their fourties. Concerning the religion of their families, 47.5% belonged to Christianity or Catholicism. 47.3% got in touch with obscene media, which indicated that the harmful influence of that media was great. Their basic knowledge of pregnancy was very poor, as 27.2% weren't sure whether being pregnant could be caused only by shaking hands, hugging or kissing. 34.7% considered it a natural behavior to contact the other sex. Regarding their practice of sexual behavior, they'd have an experience of hugging or kissing. 2) Group Comparison The female students underwent the appearance of secondary sex characteristic faster than the male students. As a result of examining if their degree of being exposed to obscene media was affected by the presence or absence of secondary sex characteristic, no statistically significant difference existed in all the groups: the entire group, male student group and female student group. There appeared, however, statistically significant differences between male and female students, as the number of male student who hadn't yet been exposed to obscene media was less than that of female student who hadn't. And the number of male student who had been much exposed to obscene media was more than that of female student who had. 3) Sex Knowledge, Sex Attitude and Sex Practice The extent of making contact with obscene media didn't make statistically significant difference to the sex knowledge of all the groups. But more extent of getting in touch with obscene media led to more sex attitude and sex practice in the entire group. However, as a result of analyzing these things by the presence or absence of secondary sex characteristic, it's found in general that the group that had secondary sex characteristic possessed statistically better sex knowledge than the other group that hadn't. For the male students, there appeared little disparities in three subareas of sex knowledge, sex attitude and sex practice. For the female students, however, the group that had secondary sex characteristic owned better sex knowledge than the other group that hadn't, and the former group looked upon sex attitude as more natural.
This study was conducted to explore the knowledge of sex, attitude toward sex, sexual satisfaction, the differences of these variables according to the general characteristics, and the correlation of these variables in married women. The data were collected from March 25 to May 20, 2000 by using a mailed questionnaire. The number of subjects were 228 married women in the area of Seoul. Kyunggi-Do and Chungchung-Do. The questionnaire consisted of 67 items including item concerning general characteristics, knowledge of sex, attitude toward sex, and sexual satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. The mean score and standard deviation of the knowledge of sex was $13.76\pm3.01$ with the range from 5 to 20. The mean score and standard deviation of the attitude toward sex was $57.28\pm9.65$ with the range from 31 to 85 score. The mean score and standard deviation of the sexual satisfaction was $33.15\pm6.54$ with the range from 17 to 48 score 2. The variables influencing on knowledge of sex were children number, women's education level. husband's education level. women's job, economic level. and menstruation status. 3. The variables influencing attitude toward the sex were women's age, husband's age, marriage term, children number, women's religion, economic level. menstruation status, and information acquirement about sex. 4. The variables influencing sexual satisfaction were women's age, husband's age, economic level. menstruation status, and information acquirement about sex. 5. Regarding relationship among the knowledge of sex, the attitude toward sex and the sexual satisfaction, those respondents who had more knowledge of sex had more open attitude toward sex and those respondents who had more open attitude toward sex had higher sexual satisfaction.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
The purpose of this research lies in presenting logical viability for the measures that curtail access to lewd Internet contents by middle school students amidst the reality in which lewd contents are circulated freely through the Internet, a medium that the middle school students find most easy to access. In order to establish right form of awareness towards sex, this research identified the ways they access the lewd Internet contents, their reaction after the exposure to those contents, their knowledge of sex, their concerns regarding sex and their accessibility to sexual activities in order to conduct a comparative analysis on the relationship between lewd Internet contents and their awareness of sex. First, realities of accessing lewd Internet contents and reactions according to the demographics of middle school students There isa significant difference in the experience of accessing lewd Internet contents in terms of gender. Mostly, male students tend to access the contents more. As for the way they access the lewd Internet contents, both male and female students replied that they access through spam mail of lewd nature. Thus, measures to address this problem are needed urgently. As to when they first accessed the lewd contents, most of the research subjects replied that they accessed either in elementary school period or in the early middle school period. This shows that most of the students got exposed to lewd contents even before they could establish positive, correct awareness of sex. Thus, there is a risk that they may formulate wrong kind of sexual awareness. Accordingly, it is necessary to develop measures through focused sex education. Students are divided into two groups according to the time they spend on the contents averagely: those who spend over one hour and those who spend less than an hour on the lewd contents. If the students spending longer hours are not to be checked and properly guided, it may lead to increasing cases of sexual delinquencies due to their wrongly formed awareness of sex. When the question of existence(non-existence) of guardian was addressed, students with both parents tend to access the lewd Internet contents in a more diverse manner and tend to access more compared to those students from single parent or no-parent families. Accordingly, guardians need to pay attention to how their children are using the Internet. Second, awareness of sex depending on the middle school students' demographics In case of sexual knowledge, middle school students shows relatively high level of knowledge. In particular, female students are found more knowledgeable than male students, and the students in upper years are more knowledgeable as well. As a result, this research recommends that the students in lower years should be guided with more basc and detailed information, while those in upper years need to be taught to form and express their own thoughts and attitudes and to build up independence on this matter. In case of worries about sex, both male and female students don't worry too much about it. However, male students are more concerned about sex than female students in a more diverse ways. As for the differences by academic year, concerns for sex increase, as students get older. Accordingly, sex education that helps establish sound perception of the opposite sex and that focuses on the etiquettes that one must adhere to at the presence of the opposite sex need to be conducted against middle school students. In case of accessibility to sex, male students manifest higher tendency than female students. As for the differences by academic year, those in the first and second years show higher accessibility than those in their third year. In general, younger students tend to be more open-minded toward sex. Accordingly, students in lower academic years need to undergo basic knowledge oriented sex education, whereas those in upper academic years need to undergo discussion centered sex education where they subject to questions regarding their attitude and opinion. Third, relationship between the reactions after the exposure to the lewd Internet contents and their awareness of sex As the frequency of contact with lewd Internet contents increases, awareness of sex increases as well. Thus, the lewd Internet contents contribute to the increase in students' concern for sex as well as increase in accessibility to sex, which eventually become barriers to students' establishment of a healthy perception of sex. Reactions to sex after the exposure to lewd Internet contents and awareness of sex indicate a significant correlation. However, negative correlation is manifested with knowledge of sex. Thus, it is possible to know that the greater access to lewd Internet contents does not necessarily translate into increase in knowledge of sex. However, the study showed there is a correlation between concerns for sex and the level of accessibility to sex. In more detail, the more reactions to the contents they show, the more concerns for sex they have and the more positively they take acceptability to sex. Moreover, it is necessary to develop necessary measures since textbooks today do not include measures needed to address the lewd Internet contents. Given the above findings, it is necessary to continue to complement structural measures in order to prevent easy access of lewd Internet contents by middle school students. Moreover, it is necessary to be considerate of the students so that they themselves can form a healthy Internet culture and grow up within positive framework for the sex education.
Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
Sex education in the U.K. follows an ideal model, co-operation where ever possible between homes, schools, and communities, whereas in Korea schools are mostly responsible for sex education. Moreover, Central Government and LEAs are deeply involved in school sex education in the U.K., in contrast, the concrete help at Government level is very limited in Korea though the necessity of sex education is acknowledged. These differences be accounted for by the different social and cultural backgrounds of the two countries, especially given the different thoughts of the people-oriental and occidental-. In the U.K., sex education has been a compulsory subject in secondary schools since 1994 (by the Education Act 1993), and it is well managed with the support at Government level as compared with that of Korea. Sex education in the U.K. may give some lessons for practising and developing sex education in Korea because the people in both countries have similarly conservative thinking about school sex education and it is implemented very carefully in the U.K.. In this article, a general comparison of background, policy, aims, content, management, teacher training, and materials of sex education between the two countries is made.
Yum, Myung Soon;Cho, Bok Hee;Kwon, Hee Kyoung;Han, You Me
Korean Journal of Child Studies
This study used reversed sex-typed programs as an educational tool to teach preschool children about varieties of sex roles. The subjects were 85 four- and five-year-old kindergarten children, half of whom were assigned to the experimental group and half to the control group. The children's sex role stereotypes decreased after participation in reversed sex-typed programs. Girls' scores of sex role stereotypes were higher in terms of own sex and in child and adult activity but lower in terms of the opposite sex than those of boys. There were differences in the scores of sex-role stereotypes in terms of child activity and adult activity.
The object of this study was to examine the sex role attitudes of the housewives(mothers) and daughters in Seoul, and whether mother sex role attitude had influence on her daughter's and the sociodemographic variables of mother had an effect on her daughter sex role attitude or not. Questionnaire was given to randomly selected mothers and daughters in Seoul in sept., 1983. Data from the 384 responses was analyzed by percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, F-test and t-test . It was found that; 1) Generally, the housewives in Seoul had traditional sex role attitudes. 2) the housewives who were educated the high level, paied the higher salary and employed in professional job had the moderner sex role attitudes, age, religion, employed or unemployed were not variables to have influence on the mother sex role attitude. 3) The adolescent daughters in Seoul had moderner sex role attitude than that if their mothers. 4) Mother sex role attitude had influence on the daughter's 5) The daughter sex role attitude was influenced by the mother's sociodemographic variables. The daughter sex role attitude brought up form the mother who was educated the higher level and employed in professional job was modern. But mother's age, religion and employed or unemployed had little influence on the daughter sex role attitude.
Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between the sex role types and the interests toward contents in practical arts of elementary school students. The questionnaire was composed of questions about the types of sex role and interests toward contents in practical arts. contents in practical arts subject were hoe economics agriculture technology computer. The respondents were 123 sixth grade boys and 122 girls from elementary schools in Seoul and Taegu. 245 questionnaires were used for data analysis. Frequency. percent x(sup)2-test. average, standard deviation, F-test. and Duncan’s multiple range test were followed. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Generally speaking androgynous and undifferentiated sex role type are more frequent than masculine and feminine type in elementary school children. 2. Androgynous sex role type students were higher than undifferentiated and masculine sex role types in scores of the interest toward home economics in practical arts subject. 3. Androgynous masculine and feminine sex role type students were higher than undifferentiated sex role types in scores of the interest toward agriculture in practical arts subject. 4. Masculine sex role type students were higher than androgynous types and undifferentiated and feminine sex role types were lower than androgynous in scores of the interest toward technology in practical arts subject. 5. Androgynous and masculine sex role type students were higher than feminine and undifferentiated sex role types in scores of the interest toward computer in practical arts subject.
This study is attempting to examine the possible determinants of the rise of the sex ratio at birth from 106 to 110 in past decade in Taiwan. The basic hypothesis for the sudden rise of the sex ratio at birth is due to a combination of prenatal sex determination and abortion. The reasoning for this hypothesis involves three types of considerations - motivation, norm, and access. The theory is evaluated by analyzing data from birth registration and a large and representative sampie of Taiwanese wives of childbearing age. The empirical data seem to support the theoretical preposition and the basic hypothesis that the rise of the sex ratio at birth in Taiwan is due to a combination of prenatal sex determination and abortion. There is striking evidence of son-preference in the rise of the sex ratio at birth in higher birth order. In 1990 the sex ratio was 119 for third births and 128 for fourth and fifth births compared to the expected 106. Also, the 1991 KAP data indicated that women who have only daughters but no any son are more likely to make prenatal sex screening and terminate their pregnancies in male live births at higher birth order. Obviously, genetic diagnosis through chorionic villus sampling which was available in recent years was misused for prenatal sex determination and sex selective abortion.
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