• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sex

Search Result 9,604, Processing Time 0.065 seconds

Sex-Role Development in Late Childhood and Adolescence: -Relationships among Sex-Role Stereotypes, Sex-Role Ideology, Sex-Role Identity, and Self-Esteem (아동 후기에서 청소년기에 이르는 성역할발달에 관한 연구 - 성역할 고정관념, 성역할 이데올로기, 성역할 정체감, 자아존중감간의 관계를 중심으로 -)

  • Yoo, Ka Hyo
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.127-144
    • /
    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to identify intrapsychic processes of self socialization in sex role development during late childhood and adolescence. For this purpose I investigated the sex-role stereotypes, sex-role ideology, sex-role identity, and self-esteem of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and examined the causal relationships among these sex-role variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered twice with an interval of three months. The methods of analysis were one-way ANOVA, $x^2$, and multiple regression. The results showed, (1) Adolescents' sex-role stereotypes had significant relationships with sex typing. Subjects with low scores on sex-role stereotypes were more likely to show opposite sex typing. (2) Sex-role ideologies had significant relationships with sex typing. As Subjects agreed more with egalitarianism, they were more likely to exhibit opposite sex typing. (3) Adolescents' sex typing had significant relationships with their self-esteem. The androgynous group exhibited the highest scores on self-esteem. (4) Path analysis from the multiple regression analysis indicated different processes between sexes in sex-role development. In the boys' sex-role development, it was found that only masculinity contributed to self -esteem. Girls' masculinity also contributed most to self -esteem, but other sex -role variables such as femininity and sex-role stereotypes made some contributions to girls' self-esteem.

  • PDF

A Study on Sex Consciousness, Sex Problems and Sex Education of Urban Adolescents -Focusing on the Validity and the Necessity for Enforcement of Sex Education- (도시 청소년의 성의식 및 성문제와 성교육에 관한 조사 연구 -성교육 실시의 타당성과 성교육 지도방향 개선의 필요성을 중심으로-)

  • 이문희;정옥분
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.41-58
    • /
    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the sex consciousness, sex problems and sex education of adolescence emphasizing the validity and necessity for the systematic enforcement of sex education. For this purpose, a questionnaire representing six categories, the relationship, with the opposite sex, sexual knowledge, sex consciousness, sex morality, sex problems, and sex education, was developed by the researchers. The subjects of this study was 224 middle school students and 267 hight school students in Seoul. Sex ratio of these subjects was about the same; For the satistical analysis of the collected data, frequency, Chi-square, and severed one way ANOVA’s and two way ANOVA’s were performed.05 was used as a significance level in this study. The most important findings in the study showed that most of the students wanted the systematic sex education in school, especially by the professionals in the sex education field.

  • PDF

Effects of Sex Education on Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitudes of Middle School Girls (성교육이 여자 중학생의 성지식과 성태도에 미치는 효과)

  • Ha, Sook-Young;Kim, Chung-Nam
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.227-238
    • /
    • 1999
  • The goal of this study is to discover the effect of sex education on sex-related knowledge and attitudes of middle school girls. Non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The number of experimental group students was 134 and the number of control group students was 134. A total of 268 second grade middle school girls were selected for a convenience sampling method. This study was carried out in a middle school located in Taegu City, Korea, from February 5 to February 18, 1998. To des cover the needs of sex education, the researcher sent a predesigned questionnaire to 1464 girls in 19 different middle schools. The sex education curriculum was designed on the basis of this survey's results. 'The Sex Education Teaching Plan' (published by the Research Institution of Korean School Health Education) and 'Sex and Happiness' (published by the Seoul City Education Ministry) were used to redesign the sex education curriculum and content. Fifty minute long sex education classes were taught to the experimental group every other day and the total number of classes was five. The contents of the teaching -learning plan for sex education were: 'The Characteristics of Adolescence', 'Pregnancy and Contraception', 'Friendship with the Opposite Sex and Prevention of Sexual Violence', 'Prevention of Venereal Disease', and 'Sex and Society'. To measure the degree of sex knowledge of the subjects, the researcher used the modified sex knowledge tools of Kim(l995) and Han(1997). The reliability values of these sex knowledge tools range from 0.71 to 0.74, using Cronbach's alpha. To measure the degree of sex attitude in the subjects, the researcher used the modified sex attitudes tools of Han(l997). The reliability values of these sex attitude tools range from 0.73 to 0.78 using Cronbach's alpha. The PC-SAS package program was used to analyse the data along with Frequency, Percentage, XLtest, t -test, and a paired t -test The results of this study were as follows; 1. The first hypothesis was accepted. The experimental group showed more change in sex - related knowledge than the control group(t =22. 76, p=0.0001). 2. The second hypothesis was accepted. The experimental group showed more change in sex-related attitudes than the control group (t=11.91, p=0.0001). In conclusion, the level of sex-related knowledge and sex-related attitudes of middle school girls who received sex education was higher than that of the girls who did not receive sex education. According to this research, planned sex education was effective in forming accurate knowlege and appropriate attitudes related to sex. Clearly, we must carry out a well-designed step by step sex education program that is well-suited to the sex education needs and the developmental level of the students.

  • PDF

The Effects of Traditional and Reversed Sex-Typed VTR Programs on Preschool Children's Sex Role Stereotypes (전형적·비전형적 성역할 VTR 프로그램이 유아의 성역할 고정관념에 미치는 효과)

  • Hong, Yeon Ae;Chung, Ock Boon
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-57
    • /
    • 1993
  • The primary purpose of this study was to develop an educational tool that can be used in teaching young children about different types of sex roles. The secondary purpose was to observe and analyze the effects of watching different sex role video programs on preschool children's sex role stereotypes and to determine the lasting effects. The subjects of this study were 89 six year-old kindergarten children, forty five were girls and forty-four boys. Each child was interviewed individually and tested at three different points in time: 1 week before the treatment, immediately after the treatment, and 4 weeks after the treatment. Three different statistical procedures were used in analyzing the data: ANOVAs for sex differences in sex role stereotypes. ANCOVAs for the different effects of traditional sex role programs and reversed sex-typed sex role programs, and ANCOVAs and Lindquist type III ANOVAs for the lasting effects of the treatment. The findings of the study indicated that (1) the children showed sex differences in the scores of sex role stereotypes of own, opposite sex and child activity; (2) there were differences in the scores of sex role stereotypes in terms of own and opposite sex. That is, viewing the reversed sex-typed programs caused a decrease in children's sex role stereotypes; and (3) the traditional and reversed sex-typed sex role programs tested four weeks after treatment showed significant lasting effects of sex role stereotypes in terms of opposite, composite and adult activity. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the sex stereotypes of kindergarten children can be changed through sex role VTR programs.

  • PDF

Need for Sex Education in Middle School Students (중학생의 성교육 요구)

  • Park, Choon-Hwa;Park, Geum-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.124-137
    • /
    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the need for sex education in middle school students Research subjects were 194 students who attended at I seminary in B city. The period of data collection was from July to August, 2001. Research instrument was composed of 61 structured items 17 items related to demographics and sex, 44 items related to the need of sex education. Data were collected through the self-report method by the researcher and one trained assistant. The instrument developed by the researchers was employed to measure the need of sex education and it's Cronbach's $\alpha$ = 0.9349 in this research. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage factor analysis and t-test using SPSS WIN Program. The findings of this study are summarized as follows : 1. The highest score among characteristics of sex was 'less interest about sex(42.6%)', 39.0% of subjects got information about sex from friends or elders. 52.3% of subjects consulted friends or elders about sex problems. The number of sex education lessons was 1-2 times in school during last semester (61.0%). Education by the school nurse was 35.9% to students. 43.1% of subjects announced moderate satisfaction on sex education. 2. The mean score of the need for sex education was $2.88{\pm}0.47$ (lowest value 1, highest 4). The most wanted sex education factor was 'chastity and sexual responsibility($3.33{\pm}0.67$)' and followed by 'family and marriage ($3.26{\pm}0.62$)' and 'considerations of sex($3.07{\pm}0.69$)'. Meanwhile, the lowest wanted sex education factor is 'physiological characteristics of male ($2.47{\pm}0.72$)', followed by 'sexual behavior ($2.49{\pm}0.75$)'. The most wanted sex education item was 'the meaning of family ($3.54{\pm}0.75$)' and followed by 'the cautions to prevention from sexual abuse ($3.49{\pm}0.78$)' and sexual activity and responsibility($3.43{\pm}0.77$)'. Meanwhile, the lowest wanted sex education item is 'masturbation ($2.16{\pm}0.97$)', followed by 'circumcision($2.32{\pm}0.97$)'. 3. There is no significant difference between boys and girls in mean score about the need for sex education(t=-.715, p=.476). Sex education factor that girl-students wanted was 'physiological characteristics of female'. Sex education factor that boy-students wanted was 'family and marriage'. Sex education items that girl-students wanted were 'cautions during menstruation', the relation of ovulation and pregnancy', caution to prevention from sexual abuse' and sexual behavior and responsibility'. Sex education items that boy-students wanted were 'the meaning of family', 'the importance of marriage', 'male's sex organs', 'a wet dream', 'the method to resolve sexual curiosity', 'sexual intercourse' and 'the connection with the other sex'. In conclusion, the mean score of the need for sex education is medium. The route to attain knowledge about sex and sexual problem is through consulting friends and elders. Therefore, it is necessary to give sex education that is suitable to the subject's needs and methods. Also, it is necessary to give differently strong point about sex education between female and male students.

  • PDF

Effects of a Parent-Involvement Sex Education Program for High Primary-School Graders (초등학교 고학년을 위한 부모참여 성교육 프로그램 효과)

  • Eum Jin Sug
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.143-153
    • /
    • 2004
  • The study tried to develop a parent-involvement sex education program and find out its effects for more effective sex education methods for high graders of a primary school. The subjects were recruited from 5 classes of 6th graders in Y Primary School in N city, Kyeonggido province, South Korea. Data collection was done from October 4, 2003 to November 7. The experimental group consisted of 43 students from 3 classes with the help from class teachers and parents' involvement in the program. The control group consisted of 43 students randomly sampled by computer from the other two classes. For the experimental methods, the experimental group was given a parent-involvement sex education program as well as a student sex education program: the control group only received the student sex education program. The results were analyzed according to frequency, percentage, $x^2$-test, fisher's exact test and t-test using SAS program. As a result of the homogeneity test, both the groups proved to be the same (t=-0.29 p=0.77, t=0.49 p=0.62) in preliminary sex-attitude and sex-related communication frequency score. But the two group showed meaningful differences (t=2.52 p=0.01, t=2.04, p=0.04) in preliminary sex-knowledge and sex-related communication quality score. After the sex education programs, the two groups didn't show meaningful statistic differences(t=-0.42 p=0.68, t=1.57 p=0.12) in preliminary sex-knowledge and sex-related communication quality score. But the experimental group was statistically more meaningful (t=2.16 p=0.03, t=4.86 p<0.0001) in the difference of sex attitude and sex-related communication frequency than the control. The parent-involvement sex education program developed in this study was more effective for improving their sex attitude and for increasing the frequency of their sex-related communication with parents than the existing student program. Therefore, for sex education, it's necessary to develop and spread various programs where parents can be involved.

  • PDF

Sex Differences in Cancer: Epidemiology, Genetics and Therapy

  • Kim, Hae-In;Lim, Hyesol;Moon, Aree
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.335-342
    • /
    • 2018
  • The incidence and mortality of various cancers are associated with sex-specific disparities. Sex differences in cancer epidemiology are one of the most significant findings. Men are more prone to die from cancer, particularly hematological malignancies. Sex difference in cancer incidence is attributed to regulation at the genetic/molecular level and sex hormones such as estrogen. At the genetic/molecular level, gene polymorphism and altered enzymes involving drug metabolism generate differences in cancer incidence between men and women. Sex hormones modulate gene expression in various cancers. Genetic or hormonal differences between men and women determine the effect of chemotherapy. Until today, animal studies and clinical trials investigating chemotherapy showed sex imbalance. Chemotherapy has been used without consideration of sex differences, resulting in disparity of efficacy and toxicity between sexes. Based on accumulating evidence supporting sex differences in chemotherapy, all clinical trials in cancer must incorporate sex differences for a better understanding of biological differences between men and women. In the present review, we summarized the sex differences in (1) incidence and mortality of cancer, (2) genetic and molecular basis of cancer, (3) sex hormones in cancer incidence, and (4) efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy. This review provides useful information for sex-based chemotherapy and development of personalized therapeutic strategies against cancer.

A Study of Experience of Sex Education, Awareness of Sexual Abuse, Sex Knowledge, and Sexual Consciousness of Children (아동의 성교육 경험, 성학대 인식, 성지식 및 성의식에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Young Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.355-368
    • /
    • 2013
  • This research was performed for examining the differences of experience of sex education and the awareness of sexual abuse according to child's sex and economic background. Also the differences of sex knowledge and sexual consciousness were analyzed according to child's sex, economic background and sex education. Subjects were 425 children from two elementary schools and 10 community child centers in H city, Gyeonggi-do. The results were as follows. First, more girls thought the desirable place for sex education was home and more girls consulted sexual problems with their parents. Children from low economic backgrounds experienced sex education at school and community child centers rather than at home. Second, both boys and girls replied that sexual abuse was due to the attacker's fault but more girls than boys attributed the fault to themselves. Third, girls' sex knowledge grade was higher than boys. Fourth, boys showed a more open attitude toward heterosexual dating, and children with a low economic background showed a higher sex drive. Fifth, a high sex drive was related to low sexual knowledge, openness in dating and high sexual ethics.

Sex Role Stereotypes among Children and the Effect of Traditional and Reversed Sex-typed Stories (유아의 성역할 고정관념 발달과 이야기 유형의 효과)

  • Hong, Yon Ae
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
    • /
    • v.12 no.2
    • /
    • pp.94-110
    • /
    • 1991
  • This study examined the developmental aspects of sex role stereotypes among children and the impact of stereotypic and reversed stereotypic sex role content on children's sex-stereotypic thinking. In study I, subjects were 181 Korean children ranging from nursery and kindergarten to grade 1. SERLI was used to measure children's sex role stereotypes. In study II, the subjects were 62 six-year-old kindergarten children of each sex. 4 experimental stories were developed haled on Hong(1991). A test-retest design was used to study sex role stereotypes and the impact of stereotypic and reversed-stereotypic sex role content. Statistical analysis of obtained data was by an ANOVA and two-way analysis of co-variance. Results revealed that 6-year-old children's sex role stereotypes were higher than 5-and 7-year-old children. Boys were higher than girls on children's sex role stereotypes. Children exposed to reversed sex role content changed significantly in the direction of reversed stereotyping.

  • PDF

Consumer's Attitudes Toward Jeans Wear Advertisements by Appeal Type (소구 유형별 Jean 의류광고에 대한 소비자 태도-성적.비성적 소구유형을 중심으로)

  • 황춘섭
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
    • /
    • v.37
    • /
    • pp.191-209
    • /
    • 1998
  • The present study was made to contribute to thed improvement of the quality of jeans wear advertising, and to the establishment of more effective advertising policy by which the jeans wear advertisements can go well with the unique charateristics of jeans wear. The study analyzed the consumer's attitude and dimention of affective responses toward jeans wear advertisements by type of appeal. The research was implemented through the survery with a representative sample of 344 consumers residing in Seoul. Means, Standard Deviation, ANOVA, Duncan Test, Facor Analysis and Regression were imployed to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study are as follows : (1) There are four dimentions of affective responses toward jeans wear advertisements ; upbeat-activation dimention, erotic-activation dimention, calm-emotional dimention, negative emotional demention. (2) According to consumer's sex, there are significant differences in each dimention of their affective responses. Toward sex-appeal advertisements, men show high degree of affective responses in upbeat-activation dimen-sion and calm-emotional dimension. (3) There is a probability that non-sex-appeal advertisement covers wider range of consumer than sex-appeal advertisements. (4) There is no significant different in affective responses towards both sex-appeal and non-sex-appeal advertisement of jeans wear between and among sex·age and involvement level of consumer. (5) Men prefer sex-appeal advertisement to non-sex-appeal advertisement, while there is no significant differences between the attitude of female consumers toward sex-appeal adver-tisement and non-sex-appeal advertisement. (6) In particular, age of 15∼18 and 30∼35 group of female consumer show very positive attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement. Therefore, there is a need to segment female jeans wear market by age groups. (7) According to the age and the involvement level of consumers, there is a significant differences in their attitudes toward advertise-ment. In case of male consumers, group of low level involvement prefer sex-appeal advertise-ment to non-sex-appeal advertisement. While high level involvement group did not show any significant differences between the attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement and the attitude toward non-sex-appeal advertisement. And the age of 15∼24, low level involvement group of female consumers also more positive attitude toward sex-appeal advertisement than toward non-sex-appeal advertisements.

  • PDF