• Title/Summary/Keyword: Severe liver damage

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Study on Bromobenzene Metabolism in Rats with Liver Damage (흰쥐에 있어서 간손상 정도에 따른 Bromobenzene 대사)

  • 신중규
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 1997
  • To compare the severe liver damage with the slight one on the bromobeazene metabolism in rats, the animal group described as B7 group was induced the stage of slight liver damage with 7 times bromobenzene injection every other day (400 mg/Kg body wt. i.p.), whereas B40 group was induced that of more severe liver damage with bromobeazene 40 times injection as identified with determination of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity and the histopathological findings. In the present experimental animal model, the decreasing rate of glutathione(GSH) and the increasing rate of glutathione S-transferase activity to the control group were higher in B7 group than B40 group. Furthermore the single dose of bromobenzene was injected to the two groups and sacrificed at 8hr and the hepatic aniline hydroxylase(AH) activity, GSH content and GST activity were determined. The increasing rate of AH activity to the control was lower in B40 group than B7 group and the decreasing rate of GSH to the control was also lower in B40 than B7 group. Moreover, B7 group showed the increased activity of hepatic GST to the control whereas B40 group showed the decrease activity of the enzyme. And Vmax value in GST was more decreased in B40 group than B7 group.

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Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride Administration on the Serum and Liver Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Ethanol-Pretreated Rats (Ethanol을 전처리한 흰쥐의 간 및 혈청 Xanthine Oxidase 활성에 미치는 사염화탄소의 영향)

  • 윤종국;김병렬;이상일
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 1993
  • In the present study, the comparison of liver damage in carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_4$)-treated rats with that those pretreated with ethanol and an effect of liver injury on the serum and liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity were evaluated. The increasing rate of liver weight per body wt., the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, and the decreasing rate of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity and the protein contents in the liver cell were higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated animals pretreated with ethanol than the carbon tetrachloride-treated group. Especially, the histopathological findings also showed more severe liver damage in the ethanol-pretreated rats than the rats treated with carbon tetrachloride only. In such a experimental condition the xanthine oxidase activity of serum and liver both of carbon tetrachloride-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol were higher than that of each control group. And the increasing rate of xanthine oxidase enzyme activity to the control group was higher in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those treated with CCl$_4$. In addition, the heptic uricase activity and the serum levels of uric acid were more increased in carbon tetrachloride-treated group pretreated with ethanol than those in the CCl$_4$-treated rats. On the other hand, there were no statistical differences in hepatic catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities between the CCl$_4$-treated rats and those pretreated with ethanol. In conclusion, it is assumed that the more severe liver damage in ethanol pretreated rats would be due to oxygen free radical produced by the xanthine oxidase system.

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Critical Review on an Effect of Dietary Protein Content on the Xenobiotics Metabolism in Rats (식이성 단백질 함량이 Xenobiotics 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종국
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.385-394
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    • 1995
  • Our previous reports on the effect of dietary protein on methanethiol, ethacrynic acid, bromobenzene and carbon tetrachloride metabolism were overall reviewed. The methanethiol, ethacrynicacid and bromobenzene treated rats showed the more severe liver damage in those fed a low protein diet than those fed a standard protein diet. These xenobiotics treated rats showed the lower content of hepatic glutathione and its conjugated enzyme, glutathione S-transferase activities in those fed a low protein diet than those fed a standard protein diet. In case of carbon tetrachloride treated rats, the liver damage was more reduced in rats fed a low protein diet than those fed a standard protein diet. Concomitantly the hepatic cytochrome P-450 content, and its decreasing rate to the control were lower in rats fed a low protein diet than those fed a standard protein diet.

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YH439, a Hepatoprotective Agent, Suppresses Cytokines and Nitric Oxide Production in LPS-primed Rats Administered with $CCL_4$ ($CCI_4$와 Lipopolysaccharide로 유도한 흰쥐 간 독성에 대한 YH439의 방어작용 : cytokines 및 nitric oxide 생성의 억제)

  • 김연숙;이종욱;김낙두
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.198-207
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    • 1999
  • The aim of the present investigation was to examine whether YH439, a hepatoprotective agent, exerts protective effect against hepatotoxicity and reduces the production of cytokines and NO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed rats with carbon tetrachloride ($CCl_4$). Administration of LPS following a single dose of CCl4 injection resulted in remarkable elevations of the serum $TNF{\alpha},{\;}IL-l{\beta$ and IL-6 level. The serum NO level was moderately elevated and severe liver damage was evidenced by increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities. YH439 decreased the levels of TNF, $IL-l{\beta}$, IL-6, ALT, SDH as well as NO in the serum elevated by CCl4+LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level was decreased in the liver of rats treated with YH439. The increased iNOS activity induced by LPS and $interferon-{\gamma}$ was significantly decreased in RAW 264.7 cells by YH439 treatment. YH439 increased the GSH level decreased by $CCl_4+LPS$ and suppressed the ratio of GSSG/GSH. The reduction of hepatotoxicity by YH439 may associated with the decrease in the production of cytokines as well as suppression of iNOS protein in conjunction with an increase in the GSH level.

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Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

  • El-Guindi, Mohamed A.
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2016
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future.

Aberrant Left Hepatic Artery Arising from Left Gastric Artery at Curative Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

  • An, Chansik;Lim, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of International Society for Simulation Surgery
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.87-89
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    • 2014
  • An aberrant left hepatic artery is one of the most common variants of hepatic arteries, and its prevalence has been reported 6.5-30%. During D2 lymph node dissection for gastric cancer, an aberrant left hepatic artery arising from left gastric artery is ligated which may lead to hepatic damage. In this case report, a 66-year-old male patient underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection during which the aberrant left hepatic artery was ligated. Post-operative liver function tests revealed elevated liver enzymes, and ischemic changes in the left lateral hepatic section was seen on the CT scan. On retrospective review of preoperative CT images, a replaced left hepatic artery from left gastric artery could have been identified. The information on the presence of aberrant LHA and its supplying area is clinically important when planning curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer, because extended lymph node dissection requires division of the left gastric artery and this may lead to severe liver damage. By using preoperative CT scan, detection of aberrant left hepatic artery could be done.

Comparison of Protein Electrophoresis Fractions in the Leptospirosis Patient Serum

  • Kim Chong Ho;Park Seung-Taeck;Oh Geum-Ga
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 2004
  • The mechanisms by which leptospires caused disease are not well understood. A number of putative virulence factors have been suggested, but with few exceptions their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. In these days, many cases of leptospirosis are diagnosed by serological immunoassay. Leptospirosis is characterized by the histopathology of liver, kidney, heart, and lung, but the electrophoresis fractions of serum protein are not compared. We analyzed total protein, albumin, aspartic aminotranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and urea nitrogen (UN) in sera of patients diagnosed leptospirosis. Total protein and albumin were decreased in 18.5% and 31.2% of patients, respectively. AST, ALT, ALP, UN and creatinine were increased in 90.4%, 66.9%, 28.0%, 15.9% and 10.8% of patients, respectively. We performed cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (EP) on sera of patients increased both of AST and ALT, and of patients increased both of creatinine and UN. In patients increased both of AST and ALT, and in patients increased both of AST and ALT, the relative percentage of albumin to total protein in patient serum was dcreased in 89.1 % of patients. α₁-globulin, α₂-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were increased in 85.1 %, 75.2%, 33.6% and 98.0% of patients, respectively. In patients increased both of creatinine and UN, the relative percentage of albumin to total protein in patient serum was dcreased in 93.8% of patients. α₁-globulin, α₂-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were increased in 87.5%, 100%, 31.2% and 93.8% of patients, respectively. These data indicate that infection of Leptospira causes severe liver damage to most of leptospirosis patients, but doesn't cause renal damage to most of them. The relative rate of serum protein electrophoresis fractions to total protein are not identical with them of typical hepatitis patient.

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Effect of Hepatic Damage on the Toluene Metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Pretreated-Rats (흰쥐에 있어서 톨루엔 대사에 미치는 간손상의 영향)

  • Cha, Sang-Eun;Yoon, Chong-Guk;Lee, Sang-Il
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effect of liver damage on toluene metabolism in rats pretreated with carbon tetachloride. Liver damage in rats was induced by administration of 0.1ml of carbon tetrachloride per 100g of body wight intraperitoneally every day for four weeks except the last day before sacrifice. One day before sacrifice, toluene was administered to the animals instead of carbon tetrachloride. Rats were sacrificed at the 1st, the 2nd, the 3rd and the 4th week after the first administration of carbon tetachloride. Based on the histopathological findings, liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase, the $CCl_4$-preteated group was found to have gradual severe liver damage. Especially the degree of liver injury became increasingly severe throughout the whole course of the experiment. The contnts of hippuric acid in urine lower in the all groups pretreated with $CCl_4$than that of the control. The contents of hepatic cytochrome P450(CYP), benzylalcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were decreased in $CCl_4$-pretreated rats than those of the control. The $CCl_4$treated animals showed the gradual decreased activities of these enzyme as injection times elapsed. Km values of the benzylalcohol dehydrogenase in pooled liver samples from $CCl_4$-pretreated or control groups were similar. On the other hand, Vmax values of the $CCl_4$-pretreated group was lower than of the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that reduction of the toluene metabolism in damaged rat liver induced with $CCl_4$was due to the inhibition of CYP content, bezylalcohol and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase activities which related with toluene metabolic enzyme system.

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Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on the Liver Damage in CCl4-Pretreated Rats (CCl4전처치한 흰쥐에 Cyclohexane 투여가 간손상에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤종국;김현희
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2003
  • TO evaluate an effect of cyclohexane treatment on the degree of liver damage, rats were induced liver damage with 10 or 17 times $CCl_4$ injection (0.1 m1/100 g body wt., 50% $CCl_4$ dis-solved in olive oil) at intervals of every other day. Cyclohexane (1.56 g/kg body wt., i.p.) was administrated to the animals at 48 hours after the last pretreatment of $CCl_4$ . Rats were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of cyclohexane. On the basis of histopathological findings, liver weight/body weight (LW/ BW, %), activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), xanthine oxidase (XO) and akaline phosphatase (ALP), and contents of liver protein and manlondialdehyde (MDA), $CCl_4$ -pretreatment induced liver damage. And $CCl_4$ 17 times treated group showed more severe liver damage than $CCl_4$ 10 times treated group. Administration of one dose of cyclohexane to $CCl_4$ 10 times treated animals resulted in the enhanced liver damage; liver necrosis with proliferation of fibroblast and bile duct abnormality, and increase in hepatic MDA content and the activities of serum ALP and ALT, But the enhanced liver damage was not found in $CCl_4$ 17 times treated animals. Serum cyclohexanone concentrations at 4 or 8 hours after injection of cyclohexane were higher in all liver damaged groups than normal group and were somewhat higher In $CCl_4$ 17 times treated animals than $CCl_4$ 10 times treated ones. Among the oxygen free radical metabolizing enzymes, hepatic cytochrome P45O dependent aniline hydroxylase (CYPdAH) activity in cyclohexane metabolizing enzyme system was meaningfully increased by the injection of cyclohexane to the liver damaged rats, with increased Vmax and high affinity to aniline. LW/BW (%) and activities of serum XO and ALT were more significantly increased in liver damaged groups than normal group by administration of cyclohexanone. In conclusion, it is assumed that an enhancement of liver damage by injection of one dose of cyclohexane to liver damaged animals might be caused by oxygen free radicals and cyclohexanone.

Effect of Cyclohexane Treatment on Serum Level of Glutathione S-Transferase Activity in Liver Damaged Rats ($CCl_4$ 에 의한 간손상 모델 실험동물에 있어서 cyclohexane 투여가 혈청 glutathione S-transferase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 오정대;윤종국
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2003
  • To evaluate the effect of cyclohexane(CH) treatment on the serum levels of glutathion S-transferase(GST) activity in liver damaged animals, damaged liver was induced with pretreatment of 50% $CCl_4$ dissolved in olive oil (0.1 m1/100g body weight) intraperitoneally 17 times every other day. To $CCl_4$-treated rats, CH (1.56 g/kg body weight, i.p) was injected once and then the animals were sacrificed at 4 hours after injection of CH. The $CCl_4$-treated animals were identified as severe liver damage on the basis of liver functional findings, 1,e, increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase(ALT), alkaline phosphate(ALP) and xanthine oxidase(XO) activities. On the other hand, $CCl_4$-treated animals injected with CH once($CCl_4$-pretreated animals) showed more decreased serum levels of ALT and XO, and more increased those of ALP rather than $CCl_4$-treated animals. In case of comparing the GST with ALT activity in liver, both $CCl_4$-treated and pretreated animals showed similar changing pattern of enzyme actvity. Especially $CCl_4$-pretreated animals showed significantly increased serum level of GST actvity compared with the $CCl_4$-treated those, whereas those of ALT showed reversed tendency. In aspects of GST enzyme kinetics, $CCl_4$-pretreated animals showed higher Vmax of liver GST enzyme than $CCl_4$-treated animals. In conclusion, injection of CH to the liver damaged rats led to enhanced liver damage and more increased activity of serum GST which may be chiefly caused by the enzyme induction.