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The Effect of Invasive Cricket Species, Gryllus bimaculatus on the Survival of Korean Cricket Species, Teleogryllus emma (외래종 쌍별귀뚜라미(Gryllus bimaculatus)가 토착종 왕귀뚜라미(Teleogryllus emma)의 생존율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eunaa;Kwon, Ohseok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2013
  • This research was conducted to investigate the competition for survival between the two cricket species: Gryllus bimaculatus (GB) and Teleogryllus emma (TE). The test insects for this research were bred in the greenhouse of the Ecological Entomology Lab, College of Agriculture and Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Korea. The feeding environment was $28^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$, Long-Day condition (16L : 8D) and Relative Humidity: 50%~60%. The changes of the individual number in two species (TE, GB) were checked every day. This research had three experimental conditions which the ratios of individuals (TE : GB) were set at 1 : 2, 1 : 1 and 2 : 1. The survival rate of GB was net better than that of TE in the result of this study. However, due to the absence of the diapauses period in the egg stage, GB would dominate over TE in the field condition. The appropriate legal measure against GB is recommended.

Concept Analysis of Self-help Groups (자조그룹에 대한 개념 분석)

  • Lee, Eun Nam;Eom, Aeyong;Eun, Young;Cho, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Song, Rhayun;Kim, Jong Im;Shin, Gyeyoung;Lim, Nan-Young;Lee, Myung Sook;Bak, Won-Sook;Oh, Doo Nam;Choi, Mi-Kyung;Choi, Hee Kwon
    • Journal of muscle and joint health
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to identify the attributes of self-help groups, their antecedents and consequences relating to self-help groups. Methods: We used the Walker and Avant (2010) method using the key word "self-help groups" the Korea Education and Research Information Service (www.riss4u.net), Pubmed, CINAHL and ProQuest for articles on this topic published between January 2000 and March 2013 were searched. Ultimately, 64 domestic and 21 foreign papers were selected for in-depth analysis. Results: The attributes of self-help groups are as follows: 1) members share common experiences and are supportive of each other; 2) members set goals for individual change; 3) groups are self-monitoring; 4) groups learn problem-solving processes through voluntary and active participation; and 5) groups are small and meet regularly. The antecedents of self-help groups are as follows: 1) an intervention by an expert; 2) a diagnosis of their illness; 3) motivation to change individuals' state; and 4) educational desire. The consequences of self-help groups are the relief of symptoms, the improvement of physiological parameters and quality of life, the decrease in depression, stress, and anxiety, the improvement of illness-related knowledge and self-help activity, and a change in beliefs. Conclusion: Self-help groups can be used as an intervention strategy to help people with chronic illness manage their own problems.

A Study on the Reduction of Traffic Induced Contributions through Installing a Parking Guidance System (주차유도시스템 설치에 따른 교통유발부담금 경감을 위한 연구)

  • Choi, Yang-Won;Cho, Hyun-Seog
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 2014
  • There are many traffic problems in a city such as parking, traffic jam caused by traffic induction facility. Therefore it is essential to demand for traffic demand management to building's owner whose building location causes traffic induction. According to the 90s traffic policy, government collects fee for traffic induction facility through traffic policy management and they encourage the building owner to join reduction of traffic jam program by reduction of traffic induction fee. However there are not many buildings owner joined this program because the program is not ghat beneficial. For example, if government set out parking guidance system (part of parking demanding system) in a city, it will reduce to 20% of traffic induced contributions but t can be used only once a year, so it is not efficient to used even it is valuable for about 10 years. In particular, according to the economic efficiency analysis, evaluate economically as net present value (NPV) to 2,160.44 million won, ratio of benefit/cost (B / C) to 2.44 during 10 years. Therefore this research will find out what is necessary for parking guidance system.

Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy of InXGa1-XN Films on C-plane Sapphire Substrates (플라즈마분자선에피탁시법을 이용한 C-면 사파이어 기판 위질화인듐갈륨박막의 에피탁시 성장)

  • Shin, Eun-Jung;Lim, Dong-Seok;Lim, Se-Hwan;Han, Seok-Kyu;Lee, Hyo-Sung;Hong, Soon-Ku;Joeng, Myoung-Ho;Lee, Jeong-Yong;Yao, Takafumi
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.185-189
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    • 2012
  • We report plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of $In_XGa_{1-X}N$ films on c-plane sapphire substrates. Prior to the growth of $In_XGa_{1-X}N$ films, GaN film was grown on the nitride c-plane sapphire substrate by two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. For the growth of GaN, Ga flux of $3.7{\times}10^{-8}$ torr as a beam equivalent pressure (BEP) and a plasma power of 150 W with a nitrogen flow rate of 0.76 sccm were fixed. The growth of 2D GaN growth was confirmed by $in-situ$ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) by observing a streaky RHEED pattern with a strong specular spot. InN films showed lower growth rates even with the same growth conditions (same growth temperature, same plasma condition, and same BEP value of III element) than those of GaN films. It was observed that the growth rate of GaN is 1.7 times higher than that of InN, which is probably caused by the higher vapor pressure of In. For the growth of $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films with different In compositions, total III-element flux (Ga plus In BEPs) was set to $3.7{\times}10^{-8}$ torr, which was the BEP value for the 2D growth of GaN. The In compositions of the $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films were determined to be 28, 41, 45, and 53% based on the peak position of (0002) reflection in x-ray ${\theta}-2{\theta}$ measurements. The growth of $In_xGa_{1-x}N$ films did not show a streaky RHEED pattern but showed spotty patterns with weak streaky lines. This means that the net sticking coefficients of In and Ga, considered based on the growth rates of GaN and InN, are not the only factor governing the growth mode; another factor such as migration velocity should be considered. The sample with an In composition of 41% showed the lowest full width at half maximum value of 0.20 degree from the x-ray (0002) omega rocking curve measurements and the lowest root mean square roughness value of 0.71 nm.

Market Structure and Pricing Behavior in the Korean Transportation Fuel Market (국내 수송용 석유제품 시장의 시장구조와 가격행태)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.311-342
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    • 2015
  • We evaluate two main rationales of massive policy intervention of Lee Administration in the Korean transportation fuel market: high market share of domestic refineries, perceived by the Administration as the result of high market concentration, and asymmetry in price adjustment, perceived as the result of collusion. Domestic refineries, huge in capacity and located at seaports, maintain international competitiveness in price. Considering market openness offering preferential treatment to importers, they set domestic prices competitively on the basis of MOPS prices. Yet, the price competitiveness of domestic refineries is so high that they are able to sustain high market share. We confirm that the Korean before-tax consumer prices of gasoline and diesel are lower than Japan's and the weighted averages of 27 EU countries by as much as 159KRW and 21KRW per liter in the case of gasoline and 170KRW and 63KRW in the case of diesel. Price asymmetry is caused by diverse economic and managerial reasons and, as FTC (2005) states, price asymmetry does not immediately imply exercise of market power or collusion. We analyzed price asymmetry in Korea, Japan and 14 EU countries, and found asymmetry in Korea and 11 EU countries in the case of gasoline and in Korea and 8 EU countries in the case of diesel.

New Tool to Simulate Microbial Contamination of on-Farm Produce: Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation (재배단계 농산물의 안전성 모의실험을 위한 개체기반 프로그램 개발)

  • Han, Sanghyun;Lee, Ki-Hoon;Yang, Seong-Gyu;Kim, Hwang-Yong;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to develop an agent-based computing platform enabling simulation of on-farm produce contamination by enteric foodborne pathogens, which is herein called PPMCS (Preharvest Produce Microbial Contamination Simulator). Also, fecal contamination of preharvest produce was simulated using PPMCS. Although Agent-based Modeling and Simulation, the tool applied in this study, is rather popular in where socio-economical human behaviors or ecological fate of animals in their niche are to be predicted, the incidence of on-farm produce contamination which are thought to be sporadic has never been simulated using this tool. The agents in PPMCS including crop, animal as a source of fecal contamination, and fly as a vector spreading the fecal contamination are given their intrinsic behaviors that are set to be executed at certain probability. Once all these agents are on-set following the intrinsic behavioral rules, consequences as the sum of all the behaviors in the system can be monitored real-time. When fecal contamination of preharvest produce was simulated in PPMCS as numbers of animals, flies, and initially contaminated plants change, the number of animals intruding cropping area affected most on the number of contaminated plants at harvest. For further application, the behaviors and variables of the agents are adjustable depending on user's own scenario of interest. This feature allows PPMCS to be utilized in where different simulating conditions are tested.

Cultural Practices for Reducing Cold Wind Damage of Rice Plant in Eastern Coastal Area of Korea (동해안지대 도작의 냉조풍피해와 피해경감대책)

  • 이승필;김칠용
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.407-428
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    • 1991
  • The eastern coastal area having variability of climate is located within Taebaek mountain range and the east coast of Korea. It is therefore ease to cause the wind damages in paddy field during rice growing season. The wind damages to rice plant in this area were mainly caused by the Fohn wind (dry and hot wind) blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the cold humid wind from the coast. The dry wind cause such as the white head, broken leaves, cut-leaves, dried leaves, shattering of grain, glume discolouration and lodging, On the other hand the cold humid wind derived from Ootsuku air mass in summer cause such symptom as the poor rice growth, degeneration of rachis brenches and poor ripening. To minimize the wind damages and utilize as a preparatory data for wind injury of rice in future, several experiments such as the selection of wind resistant variety to wind damage, determination of optimum transplanting date, improvement of fertilizer application methods, improvement of soils and effect of wind break net were carried out for 8 years from 1982 to 1989 in the eastern coastal area. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. According to available statisical data from Korean meteorological services (1954-1989) it is apperent that cold humid winds frequently cause damage to rice fields from August 10th to September 10th, it is therefore advisable to plan rice cultivation in such a way that the heading date should not be later than August 10th. 2. During the rice production season, two winds cause severe damage to the rice fields in eastern coastal area of Korea. One is the Fohn winds blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the other is the cold humid wind form the coast. The frequency of occurrence of each wind was 25%. 3. To avoid damage caused by typhoon winds three different varieties of rice were planted at various areas. 4. In the eastern coastal area of Korea, the optimum ripening temperature for rice was about 22.2$^{\circ}C$ and the optimum heading date wad August 10th. The optimum transplanting time for the earily maturity variety was June 10th., medium maturity variety was May 20th and that of late maturity was May 10th by means of growing days degree (GDD) from transplanting date to heading date. 5.38% of this coastal area is sandy loamy soil while 28% is high humus soil. These soil types are very poor for rice cultivation. In this coastal area, the water table is high, the drainage is poor and the water temperature is low. The low water temperature makes it difficult for urea to dissolve, as a result rice growth was delayed, and the rice plant became sterile. But over application of urea resulted in blast disease in rice plants. It is therefore advise that Ammonium sulphate is used in this area instead of urea. 6. The low temperature of the soil inhibits activities of microorganism for phosphorus utilization so the rice plant could not easily absorb the phosphorus in the soil. Therefore phosphorus should be applied in splits from transplanting to panicle initiation rather than based application. 7. Wind damage was severe in the sandy loamy soil as compared to clay soils. With the application of silicate. compost and soil from mointain area. the sand loamy soil was improved for rice grain colour and ripening. 8. The use of wind break nets created a mocro-climate such as increased air. soil and water temperature as well as the reduction of wind velocity by 30%. This hastened rice growth, reduced white head and glume discolouration. improved rice quality and increased yield. 9. Two meter high wind break net was used around the rice experimental fields and the top of it. The material was polyethylene sheets. The optimum spacing was 0.5Cm x 0.5Cm. and that of setting up the wind break net was before panicle initiation. With this set up, the field was avoided off th cold humid wind and the Fohn. The yield in the treatment was 20% higher than the control. 10. After typhoon, paddy field was irrigated deeply and water was sprayed to reduce white head, glume discolouration, so rice yield was increased because of increasing ripening ratio and 1, 000 grain weight.

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The studies about the weight-changes during pregnancy and the condition of mother and infant (임신 중 체중변화와 임부 및 신생아 상태에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kwang-Hee
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.68-81
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    • 2001
  • This research is to study about the weight-change of a pregnant woman, conditions of the woman and an infant. The weight-change of a mother during pregnancy was observed and that was expressed as the basis on the body mass index of a mother before pregnancy. The effects of weight-changes on both the discomfort, complications of pregnant mother and the condition of an infant were also investigated. Thus we set a purpose that this study would help pregnant woman and an infant to maintain and enhance their health conditions by proper weight control through nursing mediation. This study was performed in a certain hospital of university in seoul from Feb. 1. 2000 to Mar. 31. 2000. We explained the purpose of this study to the hospital institution and obtained consent of investigation. 152 inpatients who were in condition from PA 37 weeks to PA 42 weeks were the subject of this study. The research materials were made through of question paper that inpatients make answer by themselves and investigation paper. The question paper was about general background, weight and height before pregnancy and discomfort of the physical degree. And the investigation paper was about parity, maternal weight(late pregnancy), high pregnancy, delivery method, hemoglobin level, Apgar score, fetal weight. Physical discomfort was measured using the implement made by Kim hae won(1996) (chronbach's ${\alpha}=0.85$). SPSS was used to do statistics for managing and analyzing data. The results of this study were like followings. 1. The mean value of gained weight during pregnancy was about 13.8kg within from 3 kg to 26 kg. Among 152 research candidates, the gained weight of 80(52.6%) candidates remained within an ideal range. But that of 37 candidates(24.3%) became less than the ideal range. Also that of 35 candidates(23.0%) became over than the ideal range. 2. In the investigation of the relation between the weight change of a pregnant woman and her condition, the scores to represent physical discomfort were middle in all candidates. And the physical discomfort of over weight-gained group was more than that of low weight-gained group, but there was no difference in statistics(F=0.234, p=0.791). The weight-changes of pregnant woman didn't have an influence with the high risk of pregnancy(F=0.509, p=0.477). Also, the weight-changes didn't have an influence on delivery method($x^2=3.825$, p=0.148). However, in the investigation of the relation between weight-change and hemoglobin level, the change of hemoglobin level was highest in over weight gained group(F=3.062, p=0.05). 3. In the investigation of the weight-change of pregnant woman and the condition of infant. the weight changes didn't have an influence on both 1 min Apgar score(F=0.157, p=0.855) and 5 min Apgar score(F=0.030, p=0.970) of infant. Also, in the investigation of weight-change of a pregnant woman and weight difference of a infant with Pearson Correlation Coefficient, the weight-change of a pregnant woman affected vastly the weight of a infant. It was also found that the more pregnant woman gained in weight, the more did gain weighty infants. This relation was in net proportion(r=0.256, p=0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that the weight-changes during pregnancy in Korea women of these days are more increased than that of the past days and individual variation in weight-changes is very high. Also, these results suggest that the changed hemoglobin level of a mother and weight of an infant were meaningfully affected by the weight-changes of a pregnant woman during pregnancy. However, the physical discomfort of a pregnant woman, the high risks of pregnancy, the delivery method and Apgar score of an infant were not affected by the weight-changes during pregnancy. Because the recommendation suggesting the ideal weight-change, used this study, is basis on the subject of American women, therefore, these results also suggest the necessity of such recommendation which is subject to Korean women.

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A Study on the cost allocation method of the operating room in the hospital (수술실의 원가배부기준 설정연구)

  • Kim, Hwi-Jung;Jung, Key-Sun;Choi, Sung-Woo
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.135-164
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    • 2003
  • The operating room is the major facility that costs the highest investment per unit area in a hospital. It requires commitment of hospital resources such as manpower, equipments and material. The quantity of these resources committed actually differs from one type of operation to another. Because of this, it is not an easy task to allocate the operating cost to individual clinical departments that share the operating room. A practical way to do so may be to collect and add the operating costs incurred by each clinical department and charge the net cost to the account of the corresponding clinical department. It has been customary to allocate the cost of the operating room to the account of each individual department on the basis of the ratio of the number of operations of the department or the total revenue by each operating room. In an attempt to set up more rational cost allocation method than the customary method, this study proposes a new cost allocation method that calls for itemizing the operation cost into its constituent expenses in detail and adding them up for the operating cost incurred by each individual department. For comparison of the new method with the conventional method, the operating room in the main building of hospital A near Seoul is chosen as a study object. It is selected because it is the biggest operating room in hospital A and most of operations in this hospital are conducted in this room. For this study the one-month operation record performed in January 2001 in this operating room is analyzed to allocate the per-month operation cost to six clinical departments that used this operating room; the departments of general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neuro-surgery, dental surgery, urology, and obstetrics & gynecology. In the new method(or method 1), each operation cost is categorized into three major expenses; personnel expense, material expense, and overhead expense and is allocated into the account of the clinical department that used the operating room. The method 1 shows that, among the total one-month operating cost of 814,054 thousand wons in this hospital, 163,714 thousand won is allocated to GS, 335,084 thousand won to as, 202,772 thousand won to NS, 42,265 thousand won to uno, 33,423 thousand won to OB/GY, and 36.796 thousand won to DS. The allocation of the operating cost to six departments by the new method is quite different from that by the conventional method. According to one conventional allocation method based on the ratio of the number of operations of a department to the total number of operations in the operating room(method 2 hereafter), 329,692 thousand won are allocated to GS, 262,125 thousand won to as, 87,104 thousand won to NS, 59,426 thousand won to URO, 51.285 thousand won to OB/GY, and 24,422 thousand won to DS. According to the other conventional allocation method based on the ratio of the revenue of a department(method 3 hereafter), 148,158 thousand won are allocated to GS, 272,708 thousand won to as, 268.638 thousand won to NS, 45,587 thousand won to uno, 51.285 thousand won to OB/GY, and 27.678 thousand won to DS. As can be noted from these results, the cost allocation to six departments by method 1 is strikingly different from those by method 2 and method 3. The operating cost allocated to GS by method 2 is about twice by method 1. Method 3 makes allocations of the operating cost to individual departments very similarly as method 1. However, there are still discrepancies between the two methods. In particular the cost allocations to OB/GY by the two methods have roughly 53.4% discrepancy. The conventional methods 2 and 3 fail to take into account properly the fact that the average time spent for the operation is different and dependent on the clinical department, whether or not to use expensive clinical material dictate the operating cost, and there is difference between the official operating cost and the actual operating cost. This is why the conventional methods turn out to be inappropriate as the operating cost allocation methods. In conclusion, the new method here may be laborious and cause a complexity in bookkeeping because it requires detailed bookkeeping of the operation cost by its constituent expenses and also by individual clinical department, treating each department as an independent accounting unit. But the method is worth adopting because it will allow the concerned hospital to estimate the operating cost as accurately as practicable. The cost data used in this study such as personnel expense, material cost, overhead cost may not be correct ones. Therefore, the operating cost estimated in the main text may not be the same as the actual cost. Also, the study is focused on the case of only hospital A, which is hardly claimed to represent the hospitals across the nation. In spite of these deficiencies, this study is noteworthy from the standpoint that it proposes a practical allocation method of the operating cost to each individual clinical department.

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High Density Tilapia Culture in a Recirculating Water System without Filter Bed (무여과순환수 탱크 이용 Tilapia의 고밀도 사육실험)

  • KIM In-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 1983
  • An experiment on the rearing of tilapia stocked in closed recirculating tanks eliminating biological filter beds was carried out at the Fish Culture Experiment Station of the National Fisheries University of Pusan, from May 18 through October 21, 1982, and the growth rates, feed conversion, water quality, spawning prevention and space utilization efficiency were discussed. Finally discussed is the feasibility on the establishment of commercial production units. On the water quality, the water temperature ranged from $22.8^{\circ}C\;to\;29.1^{\circ}C$, and total ammonia arround 10 ppm or slightly up. Maintaining phytoplankton bloom was not successful probably because of the active consumption by the heavily stocked tilapia. Several attempts were made by changing the culture water with green water from a nearby earthen pond with results of fading-away in a couple of days. Feed conversions were relatively high ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 except for experiment 1 when the fish were not fully recovered from weakened wintering state. The feed used was partly laboratory prepared $25\%$ protein diet and mostly commercially available $39\%$ protein carp feed. Spawning was completely controlled during the experiment, resulting from density effect, which ranged from 10kg to 40.7kg per square meter with water depth of 0.5 to 0.6m. Space utilization efficiency was very high. Daily net production from the experiment division 3, which showed the highest result, was 6.206 kg per tank, which is calculated 3,235 metric tons per hectare per year, This time, water temperature ranged from 27.8 to $29.1^{circ}C$, average being $28.4^{circ}C$, and total ammonia arround 10 ppm. An estimation for the commercial set-up of the production system based on the results of experiment divisions which had initial stocking rate $15\;kg/m^2$ or up, is made. If the total facility, 8 tanks comprising $56\;m^2$ in surface area, is used for the present study, the yield would become 5,639 kg from 200 day rearing, which would be possible under double sheets vinyl house without additional heating, and it is thought feasible in the economic view point, when 10 or more units are operated.

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