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Effects of Dietary Intake of Agarum cribrosum Ethanol Extract on Lipid Level in Diet-induced Obese Rats (구멍쇠 미역 에탄올 추출물의 섭취가 비만유도 흰쥐의 지질농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Lee, Sang-Ah;Song, Hyo-Nam;Park, Tae-Gil
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.361-366
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    • 2013
  • This research was performed to investigate the effect of Agarum cribrosum ethanol extracts on the levels of lipids in the serum of rats fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. Experimental groups were divided into basal diet only (BDG), high fat diet control (HFDCG), high-fat diet and 5% Agarum cribrosum ethanol extract powder (HF5S), and high-fat diet and 10% Agarum cribrosum ethanol extract powder(HF10S) groups. The levels of hematological variables were not significantly different among the four groups. Compared with the control group's serum total cholesterol level of 89.14 mg/dL, the levels of the HF5S and HF10S groups were significantly lowered to 77.26 and 75.47 mg/dL, respectively. Compared with the control group's LDL-cholesterol leve of 27.41 mg/dL, the LDL-cholesterol levels of the HF5S and HF10S groups were significantly lowered to 20.64 and 20.17 mg/dL, respectively. Also, compared to the control group's serum triglyceride level of 98.36 mg/dL, the triglyceride levels of the HF5S and HF10S groups were significantly lowered to 87.94 and 87.39 mg/dL, respectively. These results indicate that dietary intake of Agarum cribrosum ethanol extracts might have beneficial effects on obesity by reducing body weight and improving blood lipid profile.

The Effect of the Context Awareness Value on the Smartphone Adopter' Advertising Attitude (스마트폰광고 이용자의 광고태도에 영향을 미치는 상황인지가치에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Chang-Gyu;Lee, Eui-Bang;Huang, Yunchu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.73-91
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    • 2013
  • Advertising market has been facing new challenges due to dramatic change in advertising channels and the advent of innovative media such as mobile devices. Recent research related to mobile devices is mainly focused on the fact that mobile devices could identify users'physical location in real-time, and this sheds light on how location-based technology is utilized to achieve competitive advantage in advertising market. With the introduction of smartphone, the functionality of smartphone has become much more diverse and context awareness is one of the areas that require further study. This work analyses the influence of context awareness value resulted from the transformation of advertising channel in mobile communication market, and our research result reflects recent trend in advertising market environment which is not considered in previous studies. Many constructs has intensively been studied in the context of advertising channel in traditional marketing environment, and entertainment, irritation and information are considered to be the most widely accepted variables that has positive relationship with advertising value. Also, in smartphone advertisement, four main dimensions of context awareness value are recognized: identification, activity, timing and location. In this study, we assume that these four constructs has positive relationship with context awareness value. Finally, we propose that advertising value and context awareness value positively influence smartphone advertising attitude. Partial Least Squares (PLS) structural model is used in our theoretical research model to test proposed hypotheses. A well designed survey is conducted for college students in Korea, and reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity of constructs and measurement indicators are carefully evaluated and the results show that reliability and validity are confirmed according to predefined statistical criteria. Goodness-of-fit of our research model is also supported. In summary, the results collectively suggest good measurement properties for the proposed research model. The research outcomes are as follows. First, information has positive impact on advertising value while entertainment and irritation have no significant impact. Information, entertainment and irritation together account for 38.8% of advertising value. Second, along with the change in advertising market due to the advent of smartphone, activity, timing and location have positive impact on context awareness value while identification has no significant impact. In addition, identification, activity, location and time together account for 46.3% of context awareness value. Third, advertising value and context awareness value both positively influence smartphone advertising attitude, and these two constructs explain 31.7% of the variability of smartphone advertising attitude. The theoretical implication of our research is as follows. First, the influence of entertainment and irritation is reduced which are known to be crucial factors according to previous studies related to advertising value, while the influence of information is increased. It indicates that smartphone users are not likely interested in entertaining effect of smartphone advertisement, and are insensitive to the inconvenience due to smartphone advertisement. Second, in today' ubiquitous computing environment, it is effective to provide differentiated advertising service by utilizing smartphone users'context awareness values such as identification, activity, timing and location in order to achieve competitive business advantage in advertising market. For practical implications, enterprises should provide valuable and useful information that might attract smartphone users by adopting differentiation strategy as smartphone users are sensitive to the information provided via smartphone. Also enterprises not only provide useful information but also recognize and utilize smarphone users' unique characteristics and behaviors by increasing context awareness values. In summary, our result implies that smartphone advertisement should be optimized by considering the needed information of smartphone users in order to maximize advertisement effect.

A Study on the Direction of Private Investigation System - Focus on the bill proposal in 2012·2013 (민간조사제도의 도입 방향에 관한 연구 - 제19대 국회 발의 법안을 중심으로(2012년·2013년))

  • Cho, Min-Sang;Oh, Youn-Sung
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.36
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    • pp.525-559
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    • 2013
  • Modern society has been exposed to various dangers and crimes in the process of globalization, informationization, decentralization etc. along with the development of material civilization under rapid changing societal environment. These factors are exerting a lot of effects in public security environments, as result there are gradual interest about crime and crime prevention. Realization of responsibility who take charge of social safety, from public security to private security, appears important topic at the moment. The positive point of view which private security industry is responsible to cope with security spheres instead of public security has been emerged from the reason that the public security has limitation to solve security problems for themselves. It is the time to make effort to compromise the public security and the private security industry to forecast social change and prevent dangers in the advance. In Korea, there has been close cooperation between public security and private security for decades. Strongly emerging and interesting sphere is "Private Investigation(Private Detective)" in Korea at present. There has been some proposed legislations of private investigation for decreasing burden of public security and social sympathy about possibility of private investigation system is increasing now. In this study, we focused on the introduction of private investigation system through the analysis of bill proposals for last 14 years, for instance historical aspects, contents, the differences among bill proposals. Among these, a comparison on bill proposals of the 19th National Assembly's during 2012 - 2013 were analysed mainly. We examined the importance point at issue items for introduction of private investigation system. Suggestions for introduction of private investigation system is as follows. The necessity of independent bill for developmental private investigation system is needed and the main body should be a juristic person instead of a individual for the public interest and responsibility. For the good service of private investigation and to prevent the unqualified person become a private investigator, the recruiting system and examination of private investigator should be prepared well and take into consideration anticipated problems. Also the necessity of definite jurisdiction department's appointment to divide responsibility in operation.

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The Evaluation of Usefulness of 99Mo-99mTc Generator Using(n,γ)99Mo Developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research ((n,γ)99Mo를 이용한 99Mo-99mTc발생기의 유용성 평가)

  • Seo, Han Kyung;Kim, Jeong Ho;Shim, Cheol Min;Kim, Byung Cheol;Choi, Do Cheol;Gwon, Yong Ju;Park, Yung Sun;Kim, Dong Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.48-52
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The Molybdenum which is the raw material of $^{99}Mo-^{99m}Tc$ generator is produced from the nuclear reactor. However, output has dwindled as the two nuclear reactors supplying the bulk of radioactive material-one in Chalk River, Ontario and the other in Petten, the Netherlands-have been closed for repairs or maintenance. This resulted in the enhancement of its price. So $^{99}Mo-^{99m}Tc$ generator using$(n,{\gamma})^{99}Mo$ is developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Medicinal availability of this generator is evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: The radioactivity of $^{99m}Tc$ eluted in generator 1, 2 and 3 unit developed by KAERI was measured. The quality control test of generator such as appearance test, pH test, LAL test, sterility test, chemical impurity (Al) test and radiochemical purity test were performed. Planar and SPECT/CT image sof SD rat (6 weeks, Female) at 2 hr after injection of $^{99m}Tc-HDP$ (hydroxymethylenediphosphonate) (TechneScan HDP, Malinckrodt Medical, Dutch) and $^{99m}Tc-DPD$ (diphosphono-1, 2-propanedicarboxylicacid) (TECEOS, CIS bio international, France) which were labeled with $^{99m}Tc$ eluted in KAERI and commercial generator (40.5 GBq, Malinckrodt Medical, Dutch) using SPECT/CT camera (Symbia, Siemense, Germany) were obtained respectively. Results: The mean radioactivity of $^{99m}Tc$ elution generator 1unit was 4.18 GBq (113 mCi), generator 2 unit was 4.73 GBq (128 mCi) and generator 3 unit was 3.33 GBq (90 mCi). All quality control tests were within normal limit except pyrogentest. Pyrogen test was positive. Planar and SPECT/CT images of rat injected $^{99m}Tc-HDP$ which was labeled with $^{99m}Tc$ eluted in commercial generator show increased uptake in bone, stomach and bowl. Planar images show increased uptake in liver and bone in case of $^{99m}Tc-DPD$. However, images of rat injected $^{99m}Tc-HDP$ and $^{99m}Tc-DPD$ which were labelled $^{99m}Tc$ eluted in KAERI generator show increased uptake in bone, liver and spleen. Conclusion: If shortcoming is removed such as pyrogen and liver appearance, domestic role as an alternative generator is thought to be able to fill and to secure the national medical service by supplying $^{99m}Tc$ when the supply of $^{99m}Tc$ be comes short.

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The assessment and political subject of Revised Security Industry Law (개정 경비업법의 평가와 정책과제)

  • Lee, Sang-Hun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.36
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    • pp.349-386
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    • 2013
  • This research analyzes and evaluates The Korean Security Industry Law(TKSIL) putting the regulation of the present government about the private security industry. It nowadays becomes the important axis of the police services offered in the aspect of 'the national life safety' in connection with 'the materialization of society which is safe from the crime'. TKSIL is one of the national administration strategies which Park Gun-hye government aims on supervision policy. After seeking out the core values of the private security industrial policy which sets up in order to approach the national life safety which Park Gun-hye government aims, we make some assessments of this revised security industry law systematically. Particularly all keynote of policy about the private security of the police tried to be confirmed and the desirable direction of policy tries to be presented as to the security industry law application and real operation. In the site of organized civil complaint, the revised security industry law was revised as the direction which intensifies the administrative regulation as to the partial regulation such as it established the reason of the introduction of the arrangement license system. And grounds for disqualification of security instructor and guard, and rules of punishment is intensified order to intercept previously illegal and violent act of the security company etc. However it has the feature that it accomplishes 'the law principle(principle of statute)' the substantial portion through the effort of them changing a lot the content for the form of the law when being the clauses of the fundamental human rights limit, although it has been prescribed in "the security industry law enforcement ordinance" or "the security industry law enforced regulation". The security industry law revised this time brought from the change of the sharp policy through the revision of 17 clauses or new establishment. It can divide into 4 categorizes. (1) strictness of punishment in the site of organized civil complaint (2) Intensification of throwing out for the violation person in the private security business market time-limitedly (3) Intensification of the legal guide supervision power of police (4) upstream of the capital, name tag attachment under compulsion and the limit about other equipment use etc. Essentially "the security industry law" cannot help regulating the national interference of the private security and regulation with this content. However as to this interference and regulation, the limit has to be possible within reasonable range. As the history proved, excessive regulation by the country is not only due to bring the distortion of the security system of nation but also provoke national social cost. It can't be disregards ever that it premises the harmony which appropriate as well as reasonable in the socio-economic dimension for drawing the best combination that all things which get the compulsory education, it limits the person providing the private security service to the corporation, or it limits to the certificate of qualification holder are the ultimate for 'the safety of the national life'.

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Study on the State Leadership's Safety Measures Regarding the North Korean Threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction - Focuses on the Threat of North Korean Nuclear Weapons (북한 대량살상무기 위협에 대한 국가지도부 안전대책에 관한 연구 - 북한 핵무기 위협을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Kee-Nam
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.37
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    • pp.325-354
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    • 2013
  • The concept of national security and the fundamental system for crisis management have departed from traditional methods and the importance of a national critical infrastructure crisis management has been emphasized. A national critical infrastructure crisis means a situation where human resource, material and functional system that may have a material effect on the critical functions of the government, the vitality and integrity of society, national economy and the safety of the public becomes disabled due to causes such as terrorism or major disasters. Although North Korea had been subject to numerous rounds of negotiations and sanctions as it continually developed nuclear weapons since the 1960s, it has also showed off its nuclear armaments through successful nuclear testings and missile launches. As the development and threat of North Korea's weapons of mass destruction becomes more noticeable and the range of its risk expands, this study focuses on the potential for an absence of leadership for national crisis management where the country's leadership, which should serve the critical role and function of handling national crises, becomes completely destroyed by the unexpected initial attacks by North Korea. As a result, the purpose of this study is to propose safety measures for the country's leadership in preparation for North Korea's threat of nuclear weapons by examining the concept and degree of risk of weapons of mass destruction with a focus on nuclear weapons, analyzing the substance of the threat of North Korean nuclear weapons and evaluating such threat. In conclusion, first, to ensure the normal functioning of a national crisis management system in the event of a national crisis, we must seek safety measures that conform to the scope and succession order of the leadership of the national crisis management for an Enduring Constitutional Government (ECG) and the Continuity Of Operations (COOP). Second, in the event of a national ceremony, the gathering of the country's leadership all together in an open place should be avoided. In unavoidable circumstances, the next in rank that will act on behalf of the current leader should be designated and relevant safety measures should be taken. Third, during time of peace, in preparation for national crises, the scope of protection for the country's leadership should be prescribed and specific security and safety measures should be implemented. Fourth, the succession order for acting president in the case of the death of the president pursuant to Articles 71 and 26(1) of the National Government Organization Act should reconsidered to see whether it is a reasonable provision that takes into consideration a national crisis management that corresponds to the threat of North Korean nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction. Pursuant to the Basic Guidelines for National Crisis Management set out under Presidential Directive No. 229, the Korean government is currently operating a case-by-case "crisis management standard manual" and its sub-manuals and has also prepared the Presidential Security Service's security and safety measure regulations regarding the acting president. Therefore, the Korean government should actualize the above points in the case-by-case crisis management standard manual and security and safety measure regulations regarding the acting president to implement and legislate them.

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Development of Algorithm in Analysis of Single Trait Animal Model for Genetic Evaluation of Hanwoo (단형질 개체모형을 이용한 한우 육종가 추정프로그램 개발)

  • Koo, Yangmo;Kim, Jungil;Song, Chieun;Lee, Kihwan;Shin, Jaeyoung;Jang, Hyungi;Choi, Taejeong;Kim, Sidong;Park, Byoungho;Cho, Kwanghyun;Lee, Seungsoo;Choy, Yunho;Kim, Byeongwoo;Lee, Junggyu;Song, Hoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2013
  • Estimate breeding value can be used as single trait animal model was developed directly using the Fortran language program. The program is based on data computed by using the indirect method repeatedly. The program develops a common algorithm and imprves efficiency. Algorithm efficiency was compared between the two programs. Estimated using the solution is easy to farm and brand the service, pedigree data base was associated with the development of an improved system. The existing program that uses the single trait animal model and the comparative analysis of efficiency is weak because the estimation of the solution and the conventional algorithm programmed through regular formulation involve many repetition; therefore, the newly developed algorithm was conducted to improve speed by reducing the repetition. Single trait animal model was used to analyze Gauss-Seidel iteration method, and the aforesaid two algorithms were compared thorough the mixed model equation which is used the most commonly in estimating the current breeding value by applying the procedures such as the preparation of information necessary for modelling, removal of duplicative data, verifying the parent information of based population in the pedigree data, and assigning sequential numbers, etc. The existing conventional algorithm is the method for reading and recording the data by utilizing the successive repetitive sentences, while new algorithm is the method for directly generating the left hand side for estimation based on effect. Two programs were developed to ensure the accurate evaluation. BLUPF90 and MTDFREML were compared using the estimated solution. In relation to the pearson and spearman correlation, the estimated breeding value correlation coefficients were highest among all traits over 99.5%. Depending on the breeding value of the high correlation in Model I and Model II, accurate evaluation can be found. The number of iteration to convergence was 2,568 in Model I and 1,038 in Model II. The speed of solving was 256.008 seconds in Model I and 235.729 seconds in Model II. Model II had a speed of approximately 10% more than Model I. Therefore, it is considered to be much more effective to analyze large data through the improved algorithm than the existing method. If the corresponding program is systemized and utilized for the consulting of farm and industrial services, it would make contribution to the early selection of individual, shorten the generation, and cultivation of superior groups, and help develop the Hanwoo industry further through the improvement of breeding value based enhancement, ultimately paving the way for the country to evolve into an advanced livestock country.

An Analysis of the Characteristics of the Civil Complaints Occurred to the Landscape Architecture Project in Apartment Complex (아파트 단지 조경사업에서 발생하는 민원 특성 분석 - 민원의 공공성과 조치용이성 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Se-Hwan;Lee, Myeong-Hun;Jo, Hyun-Kil;Kim, In-Ho;An, Seung-Hong;Oh, Jeong-Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.78-90
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the types and characteristics of public complaints caused by the landscape architecture projects in the case of apartment complex. Furthermore, its purpose was also to propose as the basis data for the minimization of complaints in the course of future landscape architecture projects. To analyze and categorize the apartment complex civil complaints, we collected basic and case study data from LH Corporation, SH Corporation and GICO from 2009 to 2012. We also categorized 672 landscape complaints to 73 categories and conducted a survey from residents and landscape architecture. This Survey is to use IPA can collect character(public-private), handling of civil affair(easy-hard) and analyze typical characters and difference of civil complaint awareness between landscape architecture and residents. First, we were categorized 73 civil complaints by type in 5 categories such as park, green space and street trees, pedestrian road, facilities, and others. Second, the most common landscape complaints appear in green spaces, street trees, facilities, pedestrian roads and park orders. Third, results of the analysis conducted for each item which are publicity and measures the ease. 'Facilities', 'landscape and greenery', 'pedestrian road' and others were commonly appears from residents and professional awareness of the complaints. However, complaints of park appear different awareness between landscape architecture and residents. Fourth, 35 from 73 civil complaints(47.9%) are having high publicity and easy to measure, 25 civil complaints(34.2%) has analyzed to individual and difficult to measure so about the these complaints need to check from the design step so that it is necessary to minimize the problem of additional expense by civil complaints burden and decrease the confidence of residence problem were considered.

A Numerical Study for Effective Operation of MSW Incinerator for Waste of High Heating Value by the Addition of Moisture Air (함습공기를 이용한 고발열량 도시폐기물 소각로의 효율적 운전을 위한 수치 해석적 연구)

  • Shin, Mi-Soo;Shin, Na-Ra;Jang, Dong-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.115-123
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    • 2013
  • Stoker type incinerator is one of the most popular one used as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration because, in general, it is quite suitable for large capacity and need no preprocessing facility. Nowadays, however, since the combustible portion of incoming MSW increases together with the decrease of the moisture content due to prohibition of directly burying food waste in landfill, the heating value of waste is remarkably increasing in comparison with the early stage of incinerator installation. Consequently, the increased heating value in incinerator operation causes a number of serious problems such as reduction of waste amount to be burned due to the boiler heat capacity together with the significant NO generation in high temperature environment. Therefore, in this study, a series of numerical simulation have been made as parameters of waste amount and the fraction of moisture in air stream in order to investigate optimal operating condition for the resolution of the problems associated with the high heating value of waste mentioned above. In specific, a detailed turbulent reaction flow field calculation with NO model was made for the full scale incinerator of D city. To this end, the injection method of moisturized air as oxidizer was intensively reviewed by the addition of moisture water amount from 10% and 20%. The calculation result, in general, showed that the reduction of maximum flame temperature appears consistently due to the combined effects of the increased specific heat of combustion air and vaporization heat by the addition of water moisture. As a consequence, the generation of NOx concentration was substantially reduced. Further, for the case of 20% moisture amount stream, the afterburner region is quite appropriate in temperature range for the operation of SNCR. This suggests the SNCR facility can be considered for reoperation. which is not in service at all due to the increased heating value of MSW.

Community Distribution on Forest Vegetation of the Hyangjeokbong in the Deogyusan National Park (덕유산 국립공원 향적봉 일대 삼림식생의 군락분포에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Young-Eun;Oh, Jang-Geun;Kim, Chang-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.289-300
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    • 2013
  • Forest vegetation of Hyangjeokbong (1,614 m) in Deogyusan National Park is classified into mountain forest vegetation and flatland forest vegetation. Mountain forest vegetation is subdivided into deciduous broad-leaved forest, valley forest, coniferous forest, subalpine coniferous forest, shrub forest, grassland forest, afforestation and etc., while riparian forest was found under the category of flatland forest vegetation. Including 122 communities of mountain forest vegetation and 2 communities of riparian forest, the total of 124 communities were researched; the distributed colonies classified by physiognomy classification are 42 communities deciduous broad-leaved forest, 37 communities of valley forest, 8 communities of coniferous forests, 6 communities of subalpine coniferous forest, 3 communities of shrub forest, 1 communities of grassland forest, 21 afforestation and 4 other communities. As for the distribution rate for surveyed main communities, Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis communities account for 47.02 percent of deciduous broad-leaved forest, Fraxinus mandshurica community takes up 57.48 percent of mountain valley forest, Pinus densiflora community holds 77.53 percent of mountain coniferous forest holds, and Taxus cuspidate-Abies koreana community takes up about 50 percent of subalpine coniferous forest. Mountain shrub forest and mountain grassland forest vegetation are concentrated mainly on the top of Hyangjeokbong and the ridge connecting the top and Jungbong. Meanwhile, riparian forest vegetation comprises 0.024% of the whole vegetation area in a study area. In conclusion, minority species consisting of Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Cornus controversa, Pinus densiflora, Abies koreana and Taxus cuspidata are distributed as dominant species of the uppermost part in a forest vegetation region in Deogyusan National Park. In addition, because of vegetation succession and climate factors, numerous colonies formed by the two species are expected to be replaced by Quercus mongolica, Carpinus laxiflora and Fraxinus mandshurica which are climax species in the area. However, in respect of subalpine coniferous forest, the distribution rate of deciduous broad-leaved forest seems to increase gradually due to global warming and artificial disturbance.