University timetabling depending on the educational environments of universities is an NP-hard problem that the amount of computation required to find solutions increases exponentially with the problem size. For many years, there have been lots of studies on university timetabling from the necessity of automatic timetable generation for students' convenience and effective lesson, and for the effective allocation of subjects, lecturers, and classrooms. Timetables are classified into a course timetable and an examination timetable. This study focuses on the former. In general, a course timetable for liberal arts is scheduled by the office of academic affairs and a course timetable for major subjects is scheduled by each department of a university. We found several problems from the analysis of current course timetabling in departments. First, it is time-consuming and inefficient for each department to do the routine and repetitive timetabling work manually. Second, many classes are concentrated into several time slots in a timetable. This tendency decreases the effectiveness of students' classes. Third, several major subjects might overlap some required subjects in liberal arts at the same time slots in the timetable. In this case, it is required that students should choose only one from the overlapped subjects. Fourth, many subjects are lectured by same lecturers every year and most of lecturers prefer the same time slots for the subjects compared with last year. This means that it will be helpful if departments reuse the previous timetables. To solve such problems and support the effective course timetabling in each department, this study proposes a university timetabling support system based on two phases. In the first phase, each department generates a timetable template from the most similar timetable case, which is based on case-based reasoning. In the second phase, the department schedules a timetable with the help of interactive user interface under the timetabling criteria, which is based on rule-based approach. This study provides the illustrations of Hanshin University. We classified timetabling criteria into intrinsic and extrinsic criteria. In intrinsic criteria, there are three criteria related to lecturer, class, and classroom which are all hard constraints. In extrinsic criteria, there are four criteria related to 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, 'prohibition of lecture allocation to specific day-hours' for committee members, 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour,' and 'the use of common classrooms.' In 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, there are three kinds of criteria : 'minimum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per day.' Extrinsic criteria are also all hard constraints except for 'minimum number of lesson hours per week' considered as a soft constraint. In addition, we proposed two indices for measuring similarities between subjects of current semester and subjects of the previous timetables, and for evaluating distribution degrees of a scheduled timetable. Similarity is measured by comparison of two attributes-subject name and its lecturer-between current semester and a previous semester. The index of distribution degree, based on information entropy, indicates a distribution of subjects in the timetable. To show this study's viability, we implemented a prototype system and performed experiments with the real data of Hanshin University. Average similarity from the most similar cases of all departments was estimated as 41.72%. It means that a timetable template generated from the most similar case will be helpful. Through sensitivity analysis, the result shows that distribution degree will increase if we set 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour' to more than 90%.
KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
In this study, the optimal configuration of arch structure has been tested by a decomposition technique. The object of this study is to provide the method of optimizing the shapes of both two hinged and fixed arches. The problem of optimal configuration of arch structures includes the interaction formulas, the working stress, and the buckling stress constraints on the assumption that arch ribs can be approximated by a finite number of straight members. On the first level, buckling loads are calculated from the relation of the stiffness matrix and the geometric stiffness matrix by using Rayleigh-Ritz method, and the number of the structural analyses can be decreased by approximating member forces through sensitivity analysis using the design space approach. The objective function is formulated as the total weight of the structures, and the constraints are derived by including the working stress, the buckling stress, and the side limit. On the second level, the nodal point coordinates of the arch structures are used as design variables and the objective function has been taken as the weight function. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variable, the problem of optimization can be reduced to unconstrained optimal design problem which is easy to solve. Numerical comparisons with results which are obtained from numerical tests for several arch structures with various shapes and constraints show that convergence rate is very fast regardless of constraint types and configuration of arch structures. And the optimal configuration or the arch structures obtained in this study is almost the identical one from other results. The total weight could be decreased by 17.7%-91.7% when an optimal configuration is accomplished.
The joints in the jointed concrete pavement provide a control against transverse or longitudinal cracking at slab, which may be caused by temperature or moisture variation during or after hydration. Without control of cracking, random cracks cause more serious distresses and result in structural or functional failure of pavement system. However, joints nay cause distresses due to its inherent weakness in structural integrity. Thus, the evaluation at joint is very important. and the joint-related distresses should be evaluated reasonably for economic rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper was to develop an evaluation system at joints of jointed concrete pavement using finite element analysis program, ILLI-SLAB, and nondestructive testing device. FWD. To develop an evaluation system for JCP, a sensitivity analysis was performed using ILLI-SLAB program with a selected variables which might affect fairly to on the performance of transverse joints. The most significant variables were selected from precise analysis. An evaluation charts were made for jointed concrete pavement by adopting the field FWD data. It was concluded that the variables which most significantly affect to pavement deflections are the modulus of subgrade reaction(K) and the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G), and limiting criteria on the performance of joints at JCP are 300pci. 500,000 lb/in. respectively. Using these variables and FWD test, a charts of load transfer ratio versus surface deflection at joints were made in order to evaluate the performance of JCP. Practically, Chungbu highway was evaluated by these evaluation charts and FWD field data for jointed concrete pavement. For Chungbu highway, only one joint showed smaller value than limiting criterion of the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G). The rest joints showed larger values than limiting criteria of the modulus of subgrade reaction(K) and the modulus of dowel/concrete interaction(G).
Lee Jeong-Sang;Bae Seong-Ho;Yu Yeong-Il;Oh Joung-Bae;Lee Du-Hwa;Park Joon-Young
Tunnel and Underground Space
Rocks undergo weathering processes influenced by changing in pressure-temperature condition, atmosphere, underground water, and rainfall. The weathering processes change physical and chemical characteristics of the rocks. Once the rocks are weathered, the characteristics of them are changed and, because of the changing, several disadvantages such as rock slope failures and underground water spouts are can occur. Before we cut a large rock slope, therefore, we must analyze current weathering conditions of rocks and predict weathering processes in the future. Through the results of such analyses, we can judge reinforcement works. In order to comply with such requests, chemical weathering sensitivity analysis which was analyzed from chemical weathering velocities and other characteristics of rocks has been applied in several prior construction works in Korea. But, It is defective to use directly in engineering fields because it was developed for soils(not rocks), it has too mny factors must be considered and the relationships between the factors are not clear, and it is hard to explain the weathering processes in engineering time range. Besides above, because it has been used for isotropic rocks, this method is hard to apply to anisotropic rocks such as sedimentary rocks. Acceding to studies from morphologists (e.g. Oguchi et al., 1994; Sunamura, 1996; Norwick and Dexter, 2002), time dependent strength reduction influenced by weathering shows a negative exponential function form. Appling this relation, one can synthesize the factors which influence the weathering processes to the strength reduction, and get meaningful estimates in engineering viewpoint. We suggest this weathering sensitivity characterization method as a technique that can explain time dependent weathering sensitivity characteristics through strength changes and can directly applied the rock slope design.
In this study we have attempted to evaluate the technical feasibility of "BB-HY", which is depleted gas reservoir as a gas storage field, using the commercial compositional simulator "ECLIPSE 300". The "BB-HY" reservoir has an initial gas in place of 143 BCF which is relatively small, and its porosity and permeability are 19.5% and 50 md, respectively. For "BB-HY" gas reservoir, we have performed a feasibility analysis by investigating the cushion gas (or working gas), converting time to gas storage field, operation cycle, number of wells and the possible application of horizontal borehole as well. From the simulation results, it was found that the amount of cushion gas in "BB-HY" reservoir is required at least 50% of IGIP in order to operate stably as gas storage field. When one produces gas for longer time and hence the remaining gas in reservoir is less than optimal cushion gas, no technical problem was occurred as long as additional cushion gas is injected up to the optimal cushion gas. In the case of changing the operation cycle into producing gas for three months during winter season from producing five months, the result shows that either the cushion gas should be greater than 60% or the more number of wells should be drilled. Meanwhile, from the results of sensitivity analysis for the number of wells, in cases of operating six or eight vertical wells, the stable reproduction of the injected gas can not be possible in "BB-HY" gas reservoir since the remaining gas in reservoir is increased. Therefore, in "BB-HY" reservoir, at least ten vertical wells should be drilled for the stable operation of gas. This time, when three horizontal wells are additionally drilled including the existing two vertical wells, it was found that the operation of injection and reproduction of gas is relatively stable in "BB-HY" gas reservoir.
KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
In this research, a Three Level Decomposition technique has been developed for configuration design optimization of truss structures. In the first level, as design variables, behavior variables are used and the strain energy has been treated as the cost function to be maximized so that the truss structure can absorb maximum energy. For design constraint of the optimal design problem, allowable stress, buckling stress, and displacement under multi-loading conditions are considered. In the second level, design problem is formulated using the cross-sectional area as the design variable and the weight of the truss structure as the cost function. As for the design constraint, the equilibrium equation with the optimal displacement obtained in the first level is used. In the third level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the weight has been taken as the cost function. An advantage of the Three Level Decomposition technique is that the first and second level design problems are simple because they are linear programming problems. Moreover, the method is efficient because it is not necessary to carry out time consuming structural analysis and techniques for sensitivity analysis during the design optimization process. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variables, the third level becomes unconstrained optimal design problems which is easier to solve. Moreover, by using different convergence criteria at each level of design problem, improved convergence can be obtained. The proposed technique has been tested using four different truss structures to yield almost identical optimum designs in the literature with efficient convergence rate regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures.
In this chapter, we summarize the results on the optimal location selection and present limitation and direction of research. In order to reach the objective, this study selected and tested the interaction model which obtains the value of co-ordinates on location selection through the optimization technique. This study used the original variables in the model, but the results indicated that there is difference in reality. In order to overcome this difference, this study peformed market survey and found the new variables (first data such as price, quality and assortment of goods, and the second data such as aggregate area, and area of shop, and the number of cars in the parking lot). Then this study determined an optimal variable by empirical analysis which compares an actual value of market share in 1988 with the market share yielded in the model. However, this study found the market share in each variables does not reflect a reality due to an assumption of λ-value in the model. In order to improve this, this study performed a sensitivity analysis which adds the λ value from 1.0 to 2.9 marginally. The analyzed result indicated the highest significance with the market share ratio in 1998 at λ of 1.0. Applying the weighted value to a variable from each of the first data and second data yielded the results that more variables from the first data coincided with the realistic rank on sales. Although this study have some limits and improvements, if a marketer uses this extended model, more significant results will be produced.
Kim, Young-Il;Rho, Jeong-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Ho;Park, Jun-Tae
International Journal of Highway Engineering
Current analysis method drives an irrationality a road, signal operation and cause confusion of road such as weaving, bottleneck being not including main traffic flow in analysis subject. Therefore, this research develops analysis method of simple grade facilities to grasp target equipment relationship effect as virtue process to grasp effect of simple grade facilities in city and there is the purpose to apply optimum space of analysis intersection. In this paper, get at effect of simple grade facilities in urban area, as well as, develop new analysis method of simple grade facilities and adapt optimal interval of intersection point. New method of this paper reasonably estimated to optimal interval of the traffic flow(diverge area, merge area). As research result, analysis method to present in this research could clarify vague part of existing analysis method and presume reasonable result. Optimal interval of diverge and merge area with facilities was appeared more then 65m from the main line and more then 45m from the frontage road. Meaning of this paper as follow. First, the effect of simple grade facilities estimate. as consider optimal interval of simple grade facilities in urban can plan efficiently operation planning of road and signal in connection with nearby intersection. Second, new method then previous methods. planner of transportation easily access due to run parallel with existing method. Third, new method is contained through traffic volumes. the existing method did not reflect one. and this new method reduce error to the minimum. when analysis of intersection and link. Fourth, using the new method propose improvement plan with road operation and signal operation.
Kim, Kwang Myung;Park, Hyoung June;Goo, Tae Hun;Kim, Hyung Chan
The Journal of Engineering Geology
Problems arising during pile design works for plant construction, civil and architecture work are mostly come from uncertainty of geotechnical characteristics. In particular, obtaining the N-value measured through the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most important data. However, it is difficult to obtain N-value by drilling investigation throughout the all target area. There are many constraints such as licensing, time, cost, equipment access and residential complaints etc. it is impossible to obtain geotechnical characteristics through drilling investigation within a short bidding period in overseas. The geotechnical characteristics at non-drilling investigation points are usually determined by the engineer's empirical judgment, which can leads to errors in pile design and quantity calculation causing construction delay and cost increase. It would be possible to overcome this problem if N-value could be predicted at the non-drilling investigation points using limited minimum drilling investigation data. This study was conducted to predicted the N-value using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which one of the Artificial intelligence (AI) method. An Artificial Neural Network treats a limited amount of geotechnical characteristics as a biological logic process, providing more reliable results for input variables. The purpose of this study is to predict N-value at the non-drilling investigation points through patterns which is studied by multi-layer perceptron and error back-propagation algorithms using the minimum geotechnical data. It has been reviewed the reliability of the values that predicted by AI method compared to the measured values, and we were able to confirm the high reliability as a result. To solving geotechnical uncertainty, we will perform sensitivity analysis of input variables to increase learning effect in next steps and it may need some technical update of program. We hope that our study will be helpful to design works in the future.
Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
The application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impact of rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow after harvesting rice was investigated and compared with barley cultivation in crop rotation system. Data for input materials were collected and analyzed by 1 ton rapeseed and barley as functional unit. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) the Eco-indicator 95 method has been chosen because this is well documented and regularly applied impact method. From the comparison of impact categories such as greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, and energy resources for 1 ton of final product, emission potential from rapeseed was higher than that from barley. The range from 65 to 96% of these potential came from chemical fertilizer. On the other hand, eutrophication potential from barley was higher than that from rapeseed, mainly came from utilizing the chemical fertilizer. During the cultivation of barley and rape, environmental burden by heavy metals was evaluated by 0.5 Pt, larger than points from other impact categories. The sum of points from all impact categories in barley and rapeseed was calculated to be 0.78 Pt and 0.82 Pt, respectively. From the sensitivity analysis for barley and rapeseed, scenario 1 (crop responses to fertilization level) showed the environmental burden was continuously increased with the amount of fertilization in barley cultivation, while it was not increased only at the optimum crop responses to fertilization in rapeseed (R3). With these results, rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow paddy contributed to the amounts of environmental burden much more than barley cultivation. It is, however, highly determined that environmental weighted point resulted from evaluating both cultivation was not significantly different.
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