• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sekino Tadashi

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On Sekino Tadashi's Viewpoints of Korean Architecture in the 'Research Report on the Korean Architecture' ("한국건축조사보고(韓國建築調査報告)"에 보이는 관야(關野) 정(貞)의 한국건축관(韓國建築觀))

  • Nakanishi, Akira
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.21-33
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    • 2004
  • The 'Research report on the Korean architecture(韓國建築調査報告)' is the first investigation and research of the Korean architecture by Japanese researcher. This paper is about Sekino Tadashi's viewpoints of Korean architecture in the 'Research report on Korean architecture'. And the findings are as follows. The investigation of the Korean architecture by Sekino Tadashi was carried out in the concern about the relation between Japanese architecture and Asian architecture, shortly after the research of the history of Japanese architecture started. And following investigation and research about Korean architecture by Sekino Tadashi was mainly focusing on the ancient architecture which he estimated highly in the 'Research report on the Korean architecture'. When he observed each architecture himself, he estimated highly the ancient Korean architecture, of course. And also he estimated highly many architecture of the Koryo and the Chosun period. However, when he estimated Korean architecture as a whole, he had been strongly influenced in the prejudice about Korea in Japan of those days. But this is not originate in his individuality. History research reflects the historical situation that the researcher was placed. The viewpoints of Korean architecture in the 'Research report on the Korean architecture' was produced by the Korean recognition in Japan of those days.

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Sekino Tadashi and Architectural Conservation in Korea - focused on the relationship of his methodology of studying architectural history and architectural conservation in Korea - (관야정(關野貞)과 건축문화재 보존 - 한국건축문화재 보존과의 연관관계를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Hyun
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.41-55
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    • 2005
  • Most of researches in Korea by far on Sekino Tadashi were mainly focused on his historical view only. The main observations of this study, instead, are that; (1) his methodology of studying architectural history was closely related to his previous experiences with the conservation of the architectural heritages in Japan, and (2) his earlier activities in Korea made a significant Influence on the conservation of the architectural heritages in Korea. Sekino started his carrier after the graduation from the university by participating in the restoration sites of the architectural heritages in Japan, and his experiences at that time had founded the basis of his methodology of studying architectural history. Later, his on-site experiences were also adapted into the conservation of the architectural heritages in Korea when Korea was about to be colonized by Japan. In other words, Sekino's study on the Korean traditional architectures started from 1902 had a meaning of not only the starting point of the study on the Korean architectural history but also the starting point of the conservation of the Korean architectural heritages. Especially, Sekino's study during 1909 1912 prioritized the conservation of the architectural heritages as the main purpose of the study, and the influences of the study spanned over the entire colonial period by Japan. The influences were that; (1) Sekino's studies in 1909 1912 had outlined the colonial government's policy of the conservation of the architectural heritages, and (2) many restorations were made based on those studies.

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Study on the Formulation of the Cultural Property Policy during the Japanese Colonial Period -with the Focus on the Composition of the Committee and Changes in the Listing of Cultural Properties- (일제강점기 문화재 정책 형성과정 연구 -위원회 구성과 목록 변화를 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Chun-Young
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.100-125
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    • 2018
  • The Japanese colonial authority investigated and institutionalized Korea's cultural properties for the purpose of governance. This process was conducted by Japanese officials and scholars, and systematized after making some changes. The Reservation Rule (1916) and the cultural properties designated in 1934 were actually the starting point for Korea's current cultural property policy. In the view of lineup of 'committee' that consider all of cultural property and changing of 'cultural property list', this study discusses the cultural property policy implemented by Joseon's Government-General, which can be summarized as follows. First, Joseon's Government-General formed a committee (Preservation Society) to formulate the cultural property policy, and had the policy implemented by appointing Governor officials who accounted for more than half the total number of officials of the institution. Although some Koreans were concerned about this, they had no influence on the matter. Second, the cultural properties listed by Joseon's Government-General are divided into three periods according to the lists. The compilation of the first list was led by Sekino Tadashi, who represented the grading system (1909~1916); while that of the second list (1917~1933) was led by Guroita Gatsumi, who represented listing (1917~1933). Guroita Gatsumi tried to erase Sekino Tadashi's list by formulating the cultural property policy and the list - a situation that was revealed in the system and the actual contents of the list. The third list was made as a list of designated cultural properties in 1934. This list also reflected the results of Sekino Tadashi investigation of the important cultural properties at existing temples that had been excluded from the previous regulations (1934~1945). In this way, a basic framework for the listing of Korean cultural properties was established in 1934.

A Study on Changes of the Central Part of Beomeosa Temple - Based on Photographs and Drawings - (범어사(梵魚寺) 가람배치(伽藍配置)의 중단영역(中壇領域) 변화(變化)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 사진(寫眞)과 도판(圖版)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Youn, Suk-Hwan;Han, Sam-Geon
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.41-58
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    • 2005
  • This study was started under the judgement that reviewing $\ulcorner$A Survey Report of Korean Architecture$\lrcorner$, which contains photographs and drawings by Sekino Tadashi and which was also made under the order of the Japanese government(1902), would make it possible to consider in detail the status of Korean buildings in the period of the Korean Empire. The focus of the study. was put on three main parts of the temple, especially the central parts. The photographs and drawings as mentioned above showed that changes in the layout of buildings in the central part of the temple were made between the period of the Korean Empire and that of Japanese occupation. Thus the purpose of the study is to investigate when changes in building layout in the central part of the temple were made and what made such changes to be caused, obtaining information necessary for future changes in the precincts of the temple. Results of the study can be summarized as follows. First, 'Seonchal Daebonsan Beomeosa feonkeongdo' and 'Gyeongsangnamdo Dongraegun Beomeosa Geonmul Jeondo' were made in a same period. While, 'Chosun Gojeok Dobo', published by the government-general of Chosun, was a collection of photographs taken by Sekino Tadashi for about 30 years from 1902 to 1933 under the order of the Japanese government. But there were few changes in the building layout of the temple shown in the three materials. Second, one of the photographs and drawings made since 1933, not contained in 'Chosun Gojeok Dobo', and discovered by this researcher was 'Seonchal Daebonsan Beomeosa Annae' which was published by the temple itself after national independence from the period of Japanese occupation, indicating the main reason of changes in building layout as mentioned above. In conclusion, the layout of buildings of the temple began to be changed on a large scale, with so-called 'Cheyongseol' ignored, when Buddhist monk Cha Woon Ho established a 7-storied sarira tower to the left of the main building in the center of the upper part in 1936. In addition, the axis line connecting between Hwaeomjong and Seonjong was also changed at that time.

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A Study on the Restoration Plan of Beomeosa Temple in the Late Period of Chosun (구한말(舊韓末) 범어사(梵魚寺)의 복원도(復元圖) 작성(作成)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Youn, Suk-Hwan;Han, Sam-Geon
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.137-155
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    • 2005
  • This study was started with its consideration as materials showing original shapes of temple buildings in the late period of Chosun the photographs and drawings which contained in $\ulcorner$A Survey Report of Korean Architecture$\lrcorner$ made by Sekino Tadashi through his survey for 62 days(July 5${sim}$Sep. 4, 1902). Results of the study can be summarized as follows. During the period of Japanese occupation, Beomesa temple experienced frequent changes in building layout including the transfer and removal of buildings. Such frequent change began in spring, 1936 when a Buddhist monk of Beomeosa temple, Cha Woon Ho moved Gwaneumjeon, originally located to the light of the main building, to the left of the building and, on its original site, built up a 7-storied sarira tower. Though it is difficult to say that the study provides everything about Beomeosa temple, the researcher expects that the study would be the very basis on which changes in the building layout of the temple since the late period of Chosun can be researched. In conclusion, the researcher hopes that the above mentioned restoration plan would help originally restore or enlarge temples, further transmitting such restored or enlarged establishments as valuable cultural remains from generation to generation. In this respect, the researcher expects such restoration plan to be made in continuous and more detailed ways.

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A Review on Changes in Spatial Formation of the Sangrojun Area in Tongdo Temple (통도사 상로전 영역의 공간구성 변화 고찰)

  • Hong, Jae-Dong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.45-60
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    • 2001
  • The Tongdo temple have been transformed continuously since its first establishment about 1300 years ago. Nevertheless three critical elements specified by 'Jajangyulsa', founder of the temple have not varied over the times but rather strengthened and strongly combined. All elements and doctrines of the religion coexist and form a harmony within the whole of the temple. This researcher examined what changes, or combinations, in spatial formation were sought for such unique structures of the Tongue temple by focusing mainly on the Sangrojun area of the temple to obtain the following findings. First. unlike a work by a Japanese researcher 'Sekino Tadashi', the east yard of the main building was found located on the section line which corresponded to the separation line of Yungkuncheokdo(營建尺度=measure running) from the edge of the Keumkangkyedan(金剛戒壇 =Buddhist platform) embankment to the corner column of the Kamrodang. This was confirmed as a result of the review of photos shown in [Chosun Kojukdobo]. Second, the number of stairs used for the Keumkangkyedan was thought to become three when the temple was firstly restored in 1379 as a result that this researcher reviewed Chinese literature 'DoSun' and [Kyedandokyung(戒壇圖經)], records by 'Lee saek' and 'Jung Shihan', studies of Yungkun measure and actual changes in the temple. Then the temple was forth restored in 1705 when the second of the stairs was changed in area and height and at the same time grounded hard for a space for a Buddhist service. Third, the roof of the main building was probably changed in shape during the Koryo period when the plane structure, furnish arrangement, emphasized front, stone lanterns of the building and political factors of that time were all considered. Fourth, the main building was Initially designed to provide a Buddhist sermon service which was assumedly followed by a similar service at a Keumkangkyedan. Thus the main building had a small window on the northern side which might be opened up to look out or otherwise go outside like a door. However, the window was probably locked up like a surrounding wall since the main building was entirely repaired after the end of Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592.

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An Study on Cognition and Investigation of Silla Tumuli in the Japanese Imperialistic Rule (일제강점기의 신라고분조사연구에 대한 검토)

  • Cha, Soon Chul
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.39
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    • pp.95-130
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    • 2006
  • Japanese government college researchers, including Sekino Tadashi(關野貞), have conducted research studies and collected data, on overall Korean cultural relics as well as Silla tumuli(新羅古墳) in the early modern times under the Japanese imperialistic rule. They were supported by the Meichi government in the early stage of research, by the Chosun government-general, and by their related organizations after Korea was coIonialized to carry out investigations on Korean antiquities, fine arts, architecture, anthropology, folklore, and so on. The objective for which they prosecuted inquiries into Korean cultural relics, including Silla tumuli, may be attributed to the purport to find out such data as needed for the theoretical foundation to justify their colonialization of Korea. Such a reason often showed locally biased or distorted views. Investigations and surveys had been incessantly carried out by those Japanese scholars who took a keen interest in Korean tumuli and excavated relics since 1886. 'Korea Architecture Survey Reports' conducted in 1904 by Sekino in Korea gives a brief introduction of the contents of Korean tumuli, including the Five Royal Mausoleums(五陵). And in 1906 Imanishi Ryu(今西龍) launched for the first time an excavation survey on Buksan Tumulus(北山古墳) in Sogeumgangsan(小金剛山) and on 'Namchong(南塚)' in Hwangnam-dong, which greatly contributed to the foundation of a basic understanding of Wooden chamber tombs with stone mound(積石木槨墳) and stone chambers with tunnel entrance(橫穴式石室墳). The ground plan and cross section of stone chambers made in 1909 at his excavation survey of seokchimchong(石枕塚) by Yazui Seiyichi(谷井第一) who majored in architecture made a drawing in excavation surveys for the first time in Korea, in which numerical expressions are sharply distinguished from the previous sketched ones. And even in the following excavation surveys this kind of drawing continued. Imanishi and Yazui elucidated that wooden chambers with stone mound chronologically differs from the stone chambers with tunnel entrance on the basis of the results of surveys of the locational characteristics of Silla tumuli, the forms and size of tomb entrance, excavated relics, and so forth. The government-general put in force 'the Historic Spots and Relics Preservation Rules' and 'the Historic Spots Survey Council Regulations' in 1916, establishing 'Historic Spots Survey Council and Museum Conference. When museums initiated their activities, they exhibited those relics excavated from tumuli and conducted surveys of relics with the permission of the Chosun government-general. A gold crown tomb(金冠塚) was excavated and surveyed in 1921 and a seobong tomb(瑞鳳塚) in 1927. Concomitantly with this large size wooden chamber tombs with stone mound attracted strong public attention. Furthermore, a variety of surveys of spots throughout the country were carried out but publication of tumuli had not yet been realized. Recently some researchers's endeavors led to publish unpublished reports. However, the reason why reports of such significant tumuli as seobong tomb had not yet been published may be ascribed to the critical point in those days. The Gyeongju Tumuli Distribution Chart made by Nomori Ken(野守健) on the basis of the land register in the late 1920s seems of much significance in that it specifies the size and locations of 155 tumuli and shows the overall shape of tumuli groups within the city, as used in today's distribution chart. In the 1930s Arimitsu Kyoichi(有光敎一) and Saito Tadashi(齋藤忠) identified through excavation surveys of many wooden chamber tombs with stone mound and stone chambers with tunnel entrance, that there were several forms of tombs in a tomb system. In particular, his excavation survey experience of those wooden chamber tombs with stone mound which were exposed in complicated and overlapped forms show features more developed than that of preceding excavation surveys and reports publication, and so on. The result of having reviewed the contents of many historic spots surveyed at that time. Therefore this reexamination is considered to be a significant project in arranging the history of archaeology in Korea.

A Study on Characteristics of Reinterpretation and Tourism on Historic Sites of Buyeo Region during Japanese Colonial Era (일제강점기 부여고적의 재해석과 고적관광의 성격)

  • Kim, Jong soo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.84-97
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    • 2016
  • One of the assimilation policies of Japanese imperialism for the permanent domination in the colonial Joseon is the theory of integration of Japan and Joseon. The theory of integration of Japan and Joseon is a logic that Joseon (Korea) and Japan (Wae) were connected to the same ancestor on the basis of ancient myths. Also it is the assimilation ideology to justify the Colonial rule of those days through the objectification of historical identity or affinity of political and cultural relations of ancient Korean peninsula and Japan (Wae). Japan reorganized our history to meet the colonial point of view, as part of the assimilation policies based on the theory of integration of Japan and Joseon. On the other hand Japan attempted to objectify them through archaeological research and the reinterpretation of the historical remains. The survey, reinterpretation and tourist of the historic sites in historic cities such as Gyeongju and Buyeo were promoted in this context. In particular, the Buyeo, a capital of Baekje, was emphasized upon the close relevance and affinity between Sabi, Baekje and ancient Asuka (飛鳥) in Japan through research and reinterpretation on the Historic Sites. Based on them, Historic Sites Tourism was conducted by reconstructed historic sites toward the colonial Korean. In addition, after the Sino-Japanese war in 1937, Japan tried to realize the politics of space by upgrading and idealizing Buyeo as homeland or Shinto (神都) related to Japanese ancient mythology of the Asuka culture. This paper investigated in what context research, reinterpret and tourist of the historic sites progressed on Buyeo area and how it had soaked through the general public in the Japanese colonial era. First, it is on historic sites. Historic sites research on Buyeo area made an attempt by Sekino Tadashi in 1909 for the first time and the re-excavation of the old burial mounds and temple sites during the Japanese colonial period. Sekino set up a cultural relationship and influences between the ancient China (梁), Korea (百濟) and Japan (倭). Also, he emphasized that Sabi, Baekje largely received influence of Chinese culture and Baekje and Japan Asuka culture had closely relations and affinity. These views had been consistent during the Japanese colonial period. Second, it is the reinterpretation on Historic sites. Buyeo Historic Sites Preservation Society (Buyeo Gojeok Bojonhoe) was established in 1915 and Osaka Kintaro, curator of Baekje exhibition hall redefined the relationship between ancient Japan and Baekje as perspective of the assimilation ideology through the post contextual interpretation. In particular, they emphasized on the close relevance between Baekje's Historic sites and Japan, through the reinterpretation of Nakhwaam, Goransa and Cheongmasanseong. Third, it is the tourist on Historic sites. Buyeo Historic Sites Preservation Society played a leading role in Tourist on Historic sites at the Buyeo region. The main tourist destinations and course were restructured through a reinterpretation on the historic sites. Japan would like to show Buyeo as ideology area, homeland of ancient Japanese culture, toward the Koreans under Japanese colonial era. Thus, research, reinterpretation, and tourism on Historic sites were promoted while they were closely related to each other. The promoting body was Joseon Chongdokbu and pro-Japanese interest group. It's point was 'made' and 'shown' by the eyes of others and a rediscovery of Buyeo as representational space of colony.

A Study on the Change of Landscape in Bulguksa Temple through a Iconographic Materials in the Period of Japanese Occupation (일제강점기 도상자료를 통한 불국사의 경관변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyu-Won;Ahn, Gye-Bog;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2015
  • Bulguksa Temple, a typical temple of Silla was lost during Japanese Invasion of Korea and there are records of reconstructing in its record, Bulguksa Sajeok. There is no record after that. And reconstructing was stopped due to lack of money and repair works were conducted for two times in Japanese colonial era. First repair work was from 1989 to 1919 and second repair work was conducted from 1922 to 1925. After Liberation, Bulguksa Temple Restoration Committee was established in 1969 and the construction has started since 1970 after excavation investigation to complete in 1973. The shape of south arcade without walls in the main temple of Bulguksa was found in a blue print of Bulguksa in Japanese colonial era in National Archives of Korea now and a picture of Bulguksa in 1902 taken by Sekino Tadashi. It verified the correlation between Gupumyeonji which was discovered in restoration work in 1970s and a legend of Muyoungtap. And a stair from the hall of Paradise to the main temple was introduced as a stair including Pure Land Buddhism doctrine in many literature materials, but a blue print of Bulguksa in Japanese colonial era and reports of excavation investigation in 1970s verified that it was a temporary stair built by Japan and its meaning was given later. This research checked the scenery of Bulguksa Temple before Japanese colonial era and it is intended for basic data to conduct restoration or reconstruction project in the future.