• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sediment cell

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Geotechnical Engineering Characteristics of Ulleung Basin Sediment, East Sea (동해, 울릉 분지 심해토의 지반공학특성)

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Yun, Tae-Sup;J.C., Santamarina;Bahk, Jang-Jun;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2009
  • There has been an increase in the investigation of deep sea sediments with a consequent increase in the amount of energy required to undertake these investigations. The geotechnical characteristics of Ulleung Basin sediment are explored by using depressurized specimens following methane production tests carried out on pressured core samples obtained at 2,100 m water depth and 110 m below sea floor. Geotechnical index tests, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope are conducted to identify the geotechnical index parameters, clay mineralogy, chemical composition, and microstructure of the sediments. Compressibility, and elastic and electromagnetic wave parameters are investigated for two samples by using a multi sensing instrumented oedometer cell. The strength chatracteristics are obtained by the direct shear tests. The dominant clay minerals are mostly kaolinite, illite, chlorite, and calcite. The SEM shows a well-developed flocculated structure of the microfossil. Void ratio, electrical resistivity, real permittivity, conductivity, and shear wave velocity show bi-linear behavior with the effective vertical stress: as the vertical effective stress increases. The friction angle obtained by the direct shear test is about $21^{\circ}$, which is similar to the value observed in the Ulleung Basin sediments. This study shows that the understanding of the behavior acting on the diatomaceous marine sediment is important because it often maintains the useful energy resources such as gas hydrate and so will be the new engineering field in the next generation.

Analysis of Microbial Communities in Aquatic Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells Injected with Glucose (포도당을 주입한 수중퇴적물을 이용한 연료전지시스템에 있어서 미생물군집 분석)

  • Kim, Min;Ekpeghere, Kalu I.;Kim, Soo-Hyeon;Chang, Jae-Soo;Koh, Sung-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this research was to optimize electric current production of sediment microbial fuel cells by injecting glucose and to investigate its impact on microbial communities involved. It was shown that injection of proper concentration of glucose could increase electric current generated from sediment microbial fuel cells. When 1,000 mg/L of glucose, as opposed to higher concentrations, was injected, electric current increased up to 3 times. This increase is mainly attributed to the mutual relationship between fermenting bacteria and exoelectrogenic bacteria. Here the organic acids generated by fermenting bacteria could be utilized by exoelectrogenic bacteria, removing feedback inhibition caused by the organic acids. When glucose was injected, the population of Clostridium increased as to ferment injected glucose. Glucose fermentation can have either a positive or negative effect on electric current generation. When exoelectrogenic bacteria may readily utilize the end-product, electric current could increase. However, when the end-product was not readily removed, then detrimental chemical reactions (pH decrease, methane generation, organic acids accumulation) occurred: exoelctrogenic bacteria population declined and non-microbial fuel cell related microorganisms prospered. By injecting a proper concentration of glucose, a mutual relationship between fermenting bacteria, such as Clostridium, and exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter, should be fulfilled in order to increase electricity production in mixed cultures of microorganisms collected from the aquatic sediments.

Impacts of wave and tidal forcing on 3D nearshore processes on natural beaches. Part I: Flow and turbulence fields

  • Bakhtyar, R.;Dastgheib, A.;Roelvink, D.;Barry, D.A.
    • Ocean Systems Engineering
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.23-60
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    • 2016
  • The major objective of this study was to develop further understanding of 3D nearshore hydrodynamics under a variety of wave and tidal forcing conditions. The main tool used was a comprehensive 3D numerical model - combining the flow module of Delft3D with the WAVE solver of XBeach - of nearshore hydro- and morphodynamics that can simulate flow, sediment transport, and morphological evolution. Surf-swash zone hydrodynamics were modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations, combined with various turbulence models (${\kappa}-{\varepsilon}$, ${\kappa}-L$, ATM and H-LES). Sediment transport and resulting foreshore profile changes were approximated using different sediment transport relations that consider both bed- and suspended-load transport of non-cohesive sediments. The numerical set-up was tested against field data, with good agreement found. Different numerical experiments under a range of bed characteristics and incident wave and tidal conditions were run to test the model's capability to reproduce 3D flow, wave propagation, sediment transport and morphodynamics in the nearshore at the field scale. The results were interpreted according to existing understanding of surf and swash zone processes. Our numerical experiments confirm that the angle between the crest line of the approaching wave and the shoreline defines the direction and strength of the longshore current, while the longshore current velocity varies across the nearshore zone. The model simulates the undertow, hydraulic cell and rip-current patterns generated by radiation stresses and longshore variability in wave heights. Numerical results show that a non-uniform seabed is crucial for generation of rip currents in the nearshore (when bed slope is uniform, rips are not generated). Increasing the wave height increases the peaks of eddy viscosity and TKE (turbulent kinetic energy), while increasing the tidal amplitude reduces these peaks. Wave and tide interaction has most striking effects on the foreshore profile with the formation of the intertidal bar. High values of eddy viscosity, TKE and wave set-up are spread offshore for coarser grain sizes. Beach profile steepness modifies the nearshore circulation pattern, significantly enhancing the vertical component of the flow. The local recirculation within the longshore current in the inshore region causes a transient offshore shift and strengthening of the longshore current. Overall, the analysis shows that, with reasonable hypotheses, it is possible to simulate the nearshore hydrodynamics subjected to oceanic forcing, consistent with existing understanding of this area. Part II of this work presents 3D nearshore morphodynamics induced by the tides and waves.

Constant Rate of Strain Consolidation Test with Rowe Cell on the Clay with Sand Seam (샌드심이 존재하는 점토에 Rowe Cell를 이용한 일정변형률 압밀시험)

  • Kim, Jae-Hong;Kim, Chan-Kee;Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2017
  • The sand layer deposited in clay is called a sand seam, which is formed by inflow of sands due to river flooding or slope failure in the middle of sinking and sediment of clay. When the sand seam exists in clay layer, the drainage direction changes from one way to both ways, and the time of consolidation may be reduced. However, it is not clearly proved due to lack of studies of sand seam and currently is not reflected in the design of soft soil improvement. As a fundamental study about sand seam, the oedometer tests and constant rate of strain tests with Rowe cell were conducted on clay specimens with sand seam. For tests, a frozen method was specially designed for making the sand seam. It was concluded that the test results showed the sand seam affects the coefficient of consolidation of clay. If the thickness of sand seam exceeds 0.05 times of specimen height, the sand seam works as drainage layer of pore water horizontally as well as vertically, and consequently the consolidation is accelerated.

Bioassays of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in ZR-75-1 Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Min, Kyung-N.;Sheen, Yhun-Y.
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2003
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are frequently detected in food, water, soil, and sediment and are widespread environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, woods and other organic matter. PAHs are considered to be probable human carcinogens. The mechanism of action of PAHs has been studied extensively, however it is not clear how PAHs turn on CYP1A1 in human breast cancer. Our laboratory have been studied the effect of PAHs in the human breast cancer cell MCF7. In this study, we examined the ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells as a new system to evaluate bioactivity of PAHs. ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell line responses to estrogen and progesteron. We have been able to estbilish long term culture system of this cells then used for the study to observe the effect of PAHs. We demonstrate that PAHs induced the CYP1A1 promoter and 7-ethoxyresolufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in a concentration-dependant manner. RT-PCR analysis indicated that PAHs significantly up-regulate the level of CYP1A1 mRNA. Some of PAHs showed stronger stimulatory effect on CYP1 gene expression than TCDD. Apparently, ZR-75-1 cells have Aryl hydrocarbon receptors, therefore it would be good experimental tool to study the cross-talk between PAHs and steroid actions.

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Comparison of Serum CRP and Procalcitonin in Patients after Spine Surgery

  • Chung, Yeon-Gu;Yu, Sam-Won;Kwon, Young-Joon;Shin, Hyun-Chul;Choi, Chun-Sik;Yeom, Joon-Sup
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2011
  • Objective: Classical markers of infection cannot differentiate reliably between inflammation and infection after neurosurgery. This study investigated the dynamics of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in patients who had elective spine surgeries without complications. Methods: Participants were 103 patients (47 women, 56 men) who underwent elective spinal surgery. Clinical variables relevant to the study included age, sex, medical history, body mass index (BMI), site and type of surgery, and surgery duration. Clinical and laboratory data were body temperature, white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and PCT, all measured preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 3, and 5. Results: PCT concentrations remained at <0.25 ng/mL during the postoperative course except in 2 patients. PCT concentrations did not correlate with age, sex, DM, hypertension, BMI, operation time, operation site, or use of instrumentation. In contrast, CRP concentrations were significantly higher with older age, male, DM, hypertension, longer operation time, cervical operation, and use of instrumentation. Conclusion: PCT may be useful in the diagnosing neurosurgical patients with postoperative fever of unknown origin.

Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 from Mangrove Sediments: Isolation, Chemical Structure Determination and Bioactivity

  • Mangamuri, Usha Kiranmayi;Vijayalakshmi, Muvva;Poda, Sudhakar;Manavathi, Bramanandam;Bhujangarao, Ch.;Venkateswarlu, Y.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.629-636
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    • 2015
  • Chemical investigation of the actinobacterial isolate Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 has led to the segregation of two known bioactive compounds, namely 4-(2-acetamidoethyl) phenyl acetate and 4-((1, 4-dioxooctahydropyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazin-3-yl) methyl) phenyl acetate. The strain was isolated from a sediment sample of the Nizampatnam mangrove ecosystem, south coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. The chemical structure of the active compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies, FTIR, and EIMS. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the bioactive compounds produced by the strain were tested against opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi and on MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. The compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi and also showed potent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. This is the first example for this class of bioactive compounds isolated from Pseudonocardia of mangrove origin.

Basic Study on Conditions and Analytical Methods of Biofilm Formation for the Bioassessment of Artificial Groundwater Recharge System (지하수 인공함양시스템의 생물학적 평가를 위한 생물막 형성 조건 및 형성도 분석 방법에 관한 기초연구)

  • Kong, In Chul;Lee, So Ra;Ha, Kyoochul;Ko, Kyung-Seok
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.22-30
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    • 2015
  • For the preliminary investigations of the bioclogging on groundwater artificial recharge system, studies for conditions and analytical methods of biofilm formation on sediments were performed. Based on the tested results, following conditions were determined for biofilm formation on batch process: optimum period for biofilm formation (30 days), the proper inoculating water (pond water), medium (minimum salt medium with 0.1% yeast extract). Procedures for the measurement of ATP and DHA were also determined. Biomass extract was used for ATP measurement, while sediment itself for DHA. Effects of metals on the biofilm formation were investigated under the determined conditions. Different sensitivities and orders were found depending on tested metals and measurement methods. In general, biomass measurement by ATP and viable cell count showed higher sensitivity than that of DHA. Following toxicity orders were also appeared for ATP and viable cell: Cu ≈ Cd > As(III).

Development of a real-time PCR method for detection and quantification of the parasitic protozoan Perkinsus olseni

  • Gajamange, Dinesh;Yoon, Jong-Man;Park, Kyung-Il
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.387-393
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a real-time PCR method for the rapid detection and quantification of the protozoan pathogen Perkinsus olseni using a TaqMan probe. For the standard, genomic DNA was extracted from $10^5$ in vitro-cultured P. olseni trophozoites, and then 10-fold serial dilutions to the level of a single cell were prepared. To test the reliability of the technique, triplicates of genomic DNA were extracted from $5{\times}10^4$ cells and 10-fold serial dilutions to the level of 5 cells were prepared. The standards and samples were analyzed in duplicate using an $Exicycler^{TM}$ 96 real-time quantitative thermal block. For quantification, the threshold cycle ($C_T$) values of samples were compared with those obtained from standard dilutions. There was a strong linear relationship between the $C_T$ value and the log concentration of cells in the standard ($r^2$ = 0.996). Detection of DNA at a concentration as low as the equivalent of a single cell showed that the assay was sensitive enough to detect a single cell of P. olseni. The estimated number of P. olseni cells was similar to the original cell concentrations, indicating the reliability of P. olseni quantification by real-time PCR. Accordingly, the designed primers and probe may be used for the rapid detection and quantification of P. olseni from clam tissue, environmental water, and sediment samples.

Isolation and Structure Determination of Streptochlorin, an Antiproliferative Agent from a Marine-derived Streptomyces sp. 04DH110

  • Shin, Hee-Jae;Jeong, Hyun-Sun;Lee, Hyi-Seung;Park, Song-Kyu;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kwon, Ho-Jeong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1403-1406
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    • 2007
  • An antiproliferative agent, streptochlorin, was isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete isolated from marine sediment. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Bioactivity guided fractionation of the culture extract by solvent partitioning, ODS open flash chromatography, and reversed-phase HPLC gave a pure compound, streptochlorin. Its structure was elucidated by extensive 2D NMR and mass spectral analyses. Streptochlorin exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against human cultured cell lines.