• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sediment cell

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A Sensitivity Analysis of Cell Size on a Distributed Non-Point Source Pollution Model (분산형 비점오염원 모델에서 단위유역 크기의 민감도 분석)

  • Bae, In-Hee;Park, Jung-Eun;Park, Seok-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.952-957
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    • 2005
  • A sensitivity analysis study was performed to examine the effects of cell size on a distributed non-point source pollution model. The model, AnnAGNPS, whiff is a modified version of USDA's AGNPS, was applied to Eung stream watershed, a tributary of Cheongmi stream located in the South Branch of Han River System. The model components and results, such as channel length, slope, land use, and delivery ratio, were analyzed according to the various cell sizes from 10 to 200 ha. As cell sire increases, channel length decreases due to short-circuiting of meandering creek. The decreased channel length has more significant effects on the model results than any other geomorphological change. When the effects of land use and soil distribution are excluded, sediment delivery loads increase due to shorter time to reach the outlet of the watershed in larger tell size. When those effects are included, however, sediment delivery loads decrease in larger fell size because the variety of land use types can not be inputted. The predominant land use in the applied watershed is forest with very low soil erosion such that the predicted sediment delivery might be much lower than real system. The cell size of 30 ha was determined to produce the most appropriate resolution. Surface runoff and non-point source loads of TN, TP and BOD were predicted and the results agree well with the field measurements. From this study, it was shown that the model results would be very dependent on variations of topography, land use, and soil distribution, as a function of cell size, and the optimum cell size is very important for successful application of distributed non-point source pollution model.

The Relationship between Germination of Dinoflgellate Cysts and Vegetative Cells in Gamak Bay (가막만 와편모조류 시스트와 영양세포의 관련성)

  • Park, Jong Sick;Yoon, Yang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.501-514
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the relationship between dinoflagellate cysts and vegetative cells, to a certain extent, by conducting a germination experiment on dinoflagellate cysts collected from a sediment trap and surface sediment. The germination experiment showed that 56.8%, 25 of the 44 species of dinoflagellate cysts seen in the sediment trap, germinated, which confirmed the relationship between cysts and vegetative cells. The germination experiment also found that Votadinium carvum showed different forms of vegetative cells in all three forms of cysts, which required an accurate identification of the species through a genetic analysis. Furthermore, the species known to be the cyst of Cochlodinium polykrikoides was determined to be Cochlodinium sp., and the cysts of C. polykrikoides did not appear.

Electric power generation from sediment microbial fuel cells with graphite rod array anode

  • Wang, Zejie;Lim, Bongsu
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.238-242
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    • 2020
  • Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) illustrated great potential for powering environmental sensors and bioremediation of sediments. In the present study, array anodes for SMFCs were fabricated with graphite rods as anode material and stainless steel plate as electric current collector to make it inconvenient to in situ settle down and not feasible for large-scale application. The results demonstrated that maximum power of 89.4 ㎼ was obtained from three graphite rods, twice of 43.3 ㎼ for two graphite rods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that three graphite rods resulted in anodic resistance of 61.2 Ω, relative to 76.0 Ω of two graphite rods. It was probably caused by the parallel connection of the graphite rods, as well as more biomass which could reduce the charge transfer resistance of the biofilm anode. The presently designed array configuration possesses the advantages of easy to enlarge the surface area, decrease in anodic resistance because of the parallel connection of each graphite rod, and convenience to berry into sediment by gravity. Therefore, the as prepared array node would be an effective method to fabricate large-scale SMFC and make it easy to in situ applicate in natural sediments.

A Laboratory-Scale Study of the Applicability of a Halophilic Sediment Bioelectrochemical System for in situ Reclamation of Water and Sediment in Brackish Aquaculture Ponds: Establishment, Bacterial Community and Performance Evaluation

  • Pham, Hai The;Tran, Hien Thi;Vu, Linh Thuy;Dang, Hien The;Nguyen, Thuy Thu Thi;Dang, Thu Ha Thi;Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi;Nguyen, Huy Quang;Kim, Byung Hong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1104-1116
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigated the potential of using sediment bioelectrochemical systems (SBESs) for in situ treatment of the water and sediment in brackish aquaculture ponds polluted with uneaten feed. An SBES integrated into a laboratory-scale tank simulating a brackish aquaculture pond was established. This test tank and the control (not containing the SBES) were fed with shrimp feed in a scheme that mimics a situation where 50% of feed is uneaten. After the SBES was inoculated with microbial sources from actual shrimp pond sediments, electricity generation was well observed from the first experimental week, indicating successful enrichment of electrochemically active bacteria in the test tank sediment. The electricity generation became steady after 3 weeks of operation, with an average current density of $2.3mA/m^2$ anode surface and an average power density of $0.05mW/m^2$ anode surface. The SBES removed 20-30% more COD of the tank water, compared to the control. After 1 year, the SBES also reduced the amount of sediment in the tank by 40% and thus could remove approximately 40% more COD and approximately 52% more nitrogen from the sediment, compared to the control. Insignificant amounts of nitrite and nitrate were detected, suggesting complete removal of nitrogen by the system. PCR-DGGE-based analyses revealed the dominant presence of Methylophilus rhizosphaerae, Desulfatitalea tepidiphila and Thiothrix eikelboomii, which have not been found in bioelectrochemical systems before, in the bacterial community in the sediment of the SBES-containing tank. The results of this research demonstrate the potential application of SBESs in helping to reduce water pollution threats, fish and shrimp disease risks, and thus farmers' losses.

The Determination of Resolution for Quantification of Soil Loss in GIS Environment (GIS 기반에서 토양침식의 정량화를 위한 해상도 결정에 관한 연구)

  • 장영률;이근상;조기성
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.301-316
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    • 2002
  • Soil Loss by outflow of water or rainfall has caused many environmental problems as declining agricultural productivity, damaging pasture and preventing flow of water. Also, validity pondage of reservoir or dam is decreased by rivers inflow of eroded soil. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(RUSLE) is mainly used to presume soil loss amount of basin using GIS. But, because comparison with survey data is difficult, it is no large meaning that estimate calculated soil loss amount as quantitative. This research used unit sediment deposit survey data of Bo-seong basin for quantitative conclusion of soil loss amount that calculate on RUSLE. Through comparison examination with unit sediment yield that calculate on RUSLE and unit sediment deposit survey data, we can estimate resolution far RUSLE Model. As a result, cell size of 150m was estimated by thing which is most suitable.

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Histological Response of Digestive Gland of Gomphina veneriformis with TBTCl Accumulation in Sediment and Soft Tissue (TBTCl의 저질 및 체내 축적에 따른 대복 Gomphina veneriformis 소화선의 조직학적 반응)

  • Park, Jung-Jun;Park, Jeong-Chae;Kim, Seong-Soo;Cho, Hyeon-Seo;Lee, Yeon-Gyu;Lee, Jung-Sick
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2009
  • This study involves a relationship between butyltins concentrations and histopathological changes of the digestive gland in the equilateral venus, Gomphina veneriformis exposed to TBTCl of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 ${\mu}g/L$ for 36 weeks. In the sediment, total butyltin (${\sum}BT$) concentration was detected ND~7.54 (0.4 ${\mu}g/L$), ND~9.76 (0.6 ${\mu}g/L$), 1.22~13.13 ${\mu}g/L$ (0.8 ${\mu}g/L$), respectively. Especially, TBT level in 0.8 ${\mu}g/L$ group was the highest for 36 weeks. In the soft tissue, total butyltin (${\sum}BT$) concentration of the exposure group was 10.14~12.75 (control), 479.29~1,286.56 (0.4 ${\mu}g/L$), 563.32~2,154.82 (0.6 ${\mu}g/L$) and 1,317.70~2,132.60 ${\mu}g/L$ (0.8 ${\mu}g/L$), respectively. Ratio of TBT to ${\sum}BT$ of the tissue of 0.8 ${\mu}g/L$ kept the lowest level for 36 weeks. The ${\sum}BT$ concentrations of sediment were correlated with ${\sum}BT$ concentrations in the tissue. In the exposure groups, necrosis and atrophy of columnar epithelial cell and collapse of epithelial layer in the digestive tubule. And there was a reduction in stain affinity of basophilic cell. Such histological degenerations was more severe in digestive tubule of 0.8 ${\mu}g/L$ group.

Feasibility Study of Producing an Organic Fertilizer using Sediments from Coastal Farming Areas (연안 양식장 퇴적물을 이용한 비료화 가능성 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Bae;Lee, Pil-Yong;Kim, Chang-Sook;Son, Kwang-Tae;Kim, Hyung-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2001
  • In an attempt to evaluate the possibility of producing an organic fertilizer using sediments from coastal farming areas, the chemical composition, bacteriological quality and heavy metals in the sediments alkalized by conditions : a 1:4 mixture of dry sediment to food wastes and the addition of 30% quicklime to the mixture. According to the classification standard for compost constituent by Higgins, all composts had a low or intermediate grade in T-N and $K_2O$ content, a low grade in $P_2O_5$ and a high grade in CaO and MgO content. Stabilization by quicklime and magnesium hydroxide is likely to inhibit th bacterial decomposition of organic matter and the actigity of pathogenic organic. Raising the pH of stabilized sediment to 12 for 2 hours(PSRP criteria of EPA) allowed 99.99% of the coliform group, fecal group and viable cell count to be reduced. the results suggested that the crude fertilizer produced by alkaline stabilization method was innoxious and thereby the sediments from coastal farming areas could be used as organic fertilizer.

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Use of comet assay as a bioassay in marine organisms exposed to genotoxicants (유전독성물질로 오염된 해양생물의 생물검정법으로서 comet assay 이용)

  • Kim Gi-Beum;An Joon-Gun;Kim Jae-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1071-1079
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    • 2005
  • Using single cell gel electrophoresis, DNA single strand breaks were determined in various marine organisms. DNA damage on fish blood cells was detected to know whether there was a difference between Incheon, Pohang, Masan, and Tongyeong as a control site. Tongyeong showed the lowest DNA damage among the study areas. Mussels, transplanted to Masan Bay for one month, revealed high DNA damage at sites with high economical activity. In two weeks exposure of polychaete to Incheon sediments, higher DNA damage was detected in the sediment adjacent to Incheon harbor than open sea. These results suggested that the marine organism from the polluted area revealed a relatively high DNA damage. In addition, these areas might be contaminated with genotoxic compounds and comet assay was useful as a bioassay to detect DNA damage in marine organisms.

Potential Meso-scale Coupling of Benthic-Pelagic Production in the Northeast Equatorial Pacific (북동 적도 태평양에서 수층 기초 생산력과 심해저 퇴적물내 미생물 생산력과의 상관성)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Hong;Son, Ju-Won;Son, Seung-Kyu;Chi, Sang-Bum;Hyun, Jung-Ho
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.21-34
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    • 2011
  • We determined potential meso-scale benthic-pelagic ecosystem coupling in the north equatorial Pacific by comparing surface chl-a concentration with sediment bacterial abundance and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration (indication of active biomass). Water and sediment samples were latitudinally collected between 5 and $11^{\circ}N$ along $131.5^{\circ}W$. Physical water properties of this area are characterized with three major currents: North Equatorial Current (NEC), North Equatorial Count Current (NECC), and South Equatorial Current (SEC). The divergence and convergence of the surface water occur at the boundaries where these currents anti-flow. This low latitude area ($5{\sim}7^{\circ}N$) appears to show high pelagic productivity (mean phytoplankton biomass=$1266.0\;mgC\;m^{-2}$) due to the supplement of high nutrients from nutrient-enriched deep-water via vertical mixing. But the high latitude area ($9{\sim}11^{\circ}N$) with the strong stratification exhibits low surface productivity (mean phytoplankton biomass=$603.1\;mgC\;m^{-2}$). Bacterial cell number (BCN) and ATP appeared to be the highest at the superficial layer and reduced with depth of sediment. Latitudinally, sediment BCN from low latitude ($5{\sim}7^{\circ}N$) was $9.8{\times}10^8\;cells\;cm^{-2}$, which appeared to be 3-times higher than that from high latitude ($9{\sim}11^{\circ}N$; $2.9{\times}10^8\;cells\;cm^{-2}$). Furthermore, sedimentary ATP at the low latitude ($56.2\;ng\;cm^{-2}$) appeared to be much higher than that of the high latitude ($3.3\;ng\;cm^{-2}$). According to regression analysis of these data, more than 85% of the spatial variation of benthic microbial biomass was significantly explained by the phytoplankton biomass in surface water. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that benthic productivity in this area is strongly coupled with pelagic productivity.

Effects of Sediment Removal on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Communities and Benthic Macroinvertebrate (퇴적물 제거가 수질과 식물플랑크톤, 저서성 대형무척추동물에 미치는 영향)

  • Youn, Seok Jea;Kim, Hun Nyun;Kim, Yong Jin;Lee, Eun Jeong;Byeon, Myeong-Seop;Lee, Byoung-cheun;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the effects of sediment removal on water quality and phytoplankton development by setting up mesocosms at Uiam Lake, South Korea, and analyzing the environmental parameters and phytoplankton communities between June and October 2015. The comparison between testbed without sediment removal (TB-1) and testbed after sediment removal (TB-2) gave similar values for water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and electrical conductivity. Nevertheless, the average electrical conductivities of the two testbeds were $139{\mu}S/cm$ and $135{\mu}S/cm$, which were lower than the value obtained from the external control point (TB-con; $154{\mu}S/cm$). The small difference in total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations between the two testbeds implied that sediment removal did not greatly reduce nutrients; however, the phytoplankton cell count had decreased by approximately 37 % in TB-2 (average 1,663 cells/mL) compared to TB-1 (average 2,625 cells/mL). Compared to TB-con, the phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations of the two testbeds had decreased by 39 % and 30 %, respectively, whereas the phytoplankton abundance had decreased by up to 73 %, perhaps because of the blocked inflow of nutrients and the stabilized body of water caused by the installation of the mesocosm. The concentration of geosmin was lower in testbeds than in the external point, because installation of the structures had reduced the cyanobacteria biomass.