• Title, Summary, Keyword: Seawater Quality Criteria

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A survey on the regional criteria required desalination (해수담수화 후보지역 조사)

  • 최병습
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 1998
  • Seawater desalination is the production of the water, suitable for human consumption, from seawater. Since the water supply produced by desalination is at least as good, in quality than that provided by traditional catchment, the decision as to whether or not desalination plant is to be installed should be made on technical, social, economic grounds. By analysis of these criteria, we selected some regions required seawater desalination.

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Water quality management of Jeiu Harbor using material cycle model(II) - Characteristics of water quality in Jeiu harbor and the estimation of pollutant loadings - (물질순환모델을 이용한 제주항의 수질관리(II) - 제주항의 수질 특성과 오염부하량 산정 -)

  • 조은일;강기봉
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of water quality in Jeju harbor and to estimate pollutant loadings discharged into Jeju Harbor. To know characteristics of water quality in Jeju harbor, and pollutant loadings of Sanzi river, we have investigated from August, 2000 to May, 2001. The results showed that the concentrations of COD, DIN and DIP were in the range of 1.00∼4.85 mg/L (mean 2.15 mg/L), 2.14∼74.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/L(mean 12.20 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/L) and 0.52∼4.00 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/L(mean 1.18 $\mu\textrm{g}$-at/L), respectively. These values were under III class of seawater quality criteria. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus was lower than 16 except for Station 1 in Jeju harbor. Therefore, nitrogen was playing an important role in phytoplankton growth as limiting factor in Jeju harbor. The mean values of eutrophication index were exceeding 1, which was the eutrophication criteria. The results of estimating pollutant loadings at Sanzi river are 0.30 ton/day for COD, 300 kg/day for DIN and 18.0 kg/day for DIP, respectively.

The Bacteriological Quality of Seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea (가막만해역 해수의 세균학적 수질 평가)

  • Kwon, Ji Young;Park, Kunbawui;Song, Ki Cheol;Oh, Eun Gyoung;Lee, Hee Jung;Jo, Mi-Ra;Kim, Ji Hoe;Son, Kwang Tae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.460-464
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    • 2012
  • From 1998 to 2008, the bacteriological quality of seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea, was monitored. The total and fecal coliforms in seawater were monitored as bacterial indicators, and the level of fecal coliform contamination was used to evaluate seawater quality. In the southern shellfish growing area of Kamak Bay, the observed fecal coliform geometric mean (GM) and estimated 90th percentile did not exceed the quality standards for fecal coliforms in seawater in Korea and th USA (GM<14 MPN/100 mL, 90th percentile<43 MPN/100 mL). The GM and estimated 90th percentile of the fecal coliform levels in the adjacent northern area of Kamak Bay were higher than in the southern area. Stations near wastewater discharge sites and urban areas in the north had the lowest quality and did not meet the bacteriological seawater quality criteria. The high fecal coliform levels in the Seonso coastal region near wastewater discharges and northern urban areas declined significantly following dredging and operation of a sewage treatment plant.

Assessment of the Bacteriological Safety of Seawater and Oysters Crassostrea gigas in Yongnam-Gwangdo Area, Korea 2014-2016 (2014-2016년 경남 용남·광도해역 해수 및 굴(Crassostrea gigas)의 세균학적 위생평가)

  • Yoon, Hyun Jin;Kwon, Ji Young;Lee, Ka Jeong;Kwon, Soon Jae;Mok, Jong Soo;Kim, Poong Ho;Jung, Yeoun Joong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.535-541
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    • 2018
  • This study evaluated the sanitary state of seawater and shellfish in Yongnam-Gwangdo area from January 2014 to December 2016. The sampling stations for sanitary survey in Yongnam-Gwangdo area were composed of 41 seawater stations and 5 oyster Crassostrea gigas stations. The samples were collected monthly at each station. Shellfish-borne disease is associated with bacteria and viruses in the presence of fecal coliforms. Bacteriological pollution levels of shellfish increase with seawater quality. Therefore, fecal coliforms are very important criteria for evaluating the safety of fisheries in coastal areas. The geometric mean and the estimated 90th percentile ranges of total and fecal coliforms for seawater were 1.8-11.7, 2.8-233.6, <1.8-6.7 and 1.8-100.2 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The range of E. coli levels for oysters was <20-1,300 MPN/100 g. Based on various standards, the sanitary condition in Yongnam-Gwangdo area was evaluated as follows: clean area (Korean criteria), conditionally approved area (US criteria) and class B (EU criteria).

Evaluation of the Bacteriological Quality of a Shellfish-growing Area in Kamak Bay, Korea

  • Kwon, Ji-Young;Park, Kun-Ba-Wui;Song, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Hee-Jung;Park, Jeong-Heum;Kim, Jin-Do;Son, Kwang-Tae
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2008
  • The sanitary quality of a shellfish-growing area in Kamak Bay, Korea, was assessed through a bacteriological examination of seawater and oysters from January 2004 to December 2006. From seawater samples collected at 28 stations, the range of geometric mean (GM) and the estimated 90th percentile for most-probable-number (MPN) values of fecal coliforms were <1.8-2.4 MPN/100 mL and 1.8-6.0 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The observed fecal coliform GM and the estimated 90th percentile did not exceed the fecal coliform water quality standards of 14 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL. Therefore, the bacteriological quality of seawater at this shellfish-growing area met the Korean Shellfish Sanitation Program (KSSP) criteria for a growing area used for export. The range of the fecal coliform GM and the estimated 90th percentile MPN values of oyster samples were 19.2-160 MPN/100 g and 20.2-166.9 MPN/100 g, respectively, and the range of the viable cell count was 30-1900 CFU/g. Thus, the fecal coliform value for the oysters and the viable cell count were less than the current shellfish quality standards of 230 MPN/100 g and 50,000 CFU/g, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the oysters complied with the criteria for domestic use and export of shellfish.

A Study on Seawater Quality Criteria and Assessment of Thermal Discharge from Nuclear Power Plant (원자력발전 온배수 영향에 대한 해수질 환경조사 지침 연구)

  • Park, Yong-Chul;Kim, Sung-Jun;Kim, Eun-Soo;Lee, Hee-Jun;Lee, Hyo-Jin;Kim, Dong-Hwa
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2007
  • Impact of thermal discharge of nuclear power plant on marine environment is naturally reflected in biogeochemical changes of seawater. Until now, many investigation activities and reports of impact analysis of marine environment were occasionally inadequate to provide sufficient justification in resolving controversial conflict of interests related with thermal discharge of nuclear power plant. From the scrutinized examination of recent 17 reports published in Korea between 2002 and 2004, the most apparent issue was inadequacy of sampling design and absence of significance of many measured parameters. In many cases, lack of statistical interpretation of raw data incurred subjective or ambiguous assessment results, which failed in deducing mutual concurrence between the parties of interest. In overall all, the main reasons for impairing integrity of previous reports seem to be inconsistency of environmental investigation procedures between research institutions, inadequate sampling design at the discretion of institutions and lack of objectivity of impact assessment based on statistical interpretation. Therefore, the primary goal of this study is to (1) discuss the blown issues on previous routine practice of seawater quality assessment procedures, and to (2) provide improved investigation procedures and rational standard criteria strictly based on statistical analysis for the better seawater quality assessment, which could be supported by scientific community, public agency, investigation institution and the other parties of interest.

Characteristics of Pollutant Loads and Water Quality in Kwangyang Bay, Korea

  • Lee Dae-In;Park Chung-Kil;Cho Hyeon-Seo
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2003
  • The characteristics of pollutant loads from the various sources and seawater quality in Kwangyang Bay were evaluated. Total flow rate was estimated to be $10,868,066.8 m^3/day$ with a flow rate of R2l (the Seomjin River) as the highest one. Total COD, TN and TP loads of the input rivers and the ditches were about 27,591.8, 25,029.6 and 586.4 kg/day, respectively. Wastewater discharging loads was the greatest contributors to pollutant loads in the inner part of Kwangyang Bay. COD values in the inner part of the bay was over 3.0 mg/L, which exceeded the seawater quality criteria III of Korea. The average values of DIN and DIP were 8.62 ${\mu}gN/L\;and\;1.26\;{\mu}gP/L$, respectively. The limiting factor for algal growth was DIN. In he total discharging loads of the watershed from unit loading estimations, BOD, TN and TP were 9,132.3, 2,727.2 and 304.2 kg/day, respectively. In addition, municipal sewage by the population as pollution sources and the city of Kwangyang as administrative district had the highest loads. For a appropriate water quality recovery of Kwangyang Bay, it is suggested that it is essential to estimate reduction rate of total pollutant loads by water quality modeling.

The Influence of the Surrounding Groundwater by Groundwater Discharge from the Subway Tunnel at Suyeong District, Busan City (부산 수영구 지하철 터널에서의 지하수 유출이 주변 지하수에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Sang-Yong;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Park, Nam-Sik
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2012
  • This study carried out several kinds of investigations such as geology, hydrogeology, groundwater level and quality, surface-water quality, and the quantity and quality of groundwater discharge from the subway to identify the causes of groundwater contamination around the subway tunnel at Suyeong District in Busan City. Geostatistical analyses were also conducted to understand the characteristics of groundwater level and quality distributions. There are Kwanganri Beach and Suyeong River in the study area, which are basically influenced by seawater. The total quantities of groundwater utilization and groundwater discharge from the subway tunnel in Suyeong District are 2,282,000 $m^3$/year, which is 2.4 times larger than the sustainable development yield of groundwater. The lowest groundwater level around the subway tunnel is about 32 m below the mean sea-level. The large drawdown of groundwater led to the inflow of seawater and salinized river water toward the subway tunnel, and therefore the quality of groundwater didn't satisfy the criteria of potable, domestic, agricultural and industrial uses. Distribution maps of groundwater level and qualities produced by kriging were very useful for determining the causes of groundwater contamination in the study area. The distribution maps of electrical conductivity, chloride and sulfate showed the extent of seawater intrusion and the forceful infiltration of the salinized Suyeong River. This study revealed that seawater and salinized river water infiltrated into the inland groundwater and contaminated the groundwater around the subway tunnel, because the groundwater level was seriously drawdowned by groundwater discharge from the subway tunnel. The countermeasure for the minimization of groundwater discharge from the subway tunnel is necessary to prevent the groundwater obstacles such as groundwater depletion, groundwater-quality deterioration, and land subsidence.

Sanitary Evaluation for Seawater and Laver Pyropia sp. in the Major Laver Growing Areas, Korea (우리나라 주요 김 생산해역의 해수 및 물김에 대한 위생학적 평가)

  • Jeong, Sang Hyeon;Shin, Soon Bum;Oh, Eun Gyoung;Jo, Mi-Ra;Yoon, Min Chul;Lee, Hee Jung;Son, Kwang-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.343-351
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    • 2017
  • Sanitary evaluation of seawater and Pyropia sp. laver collected from the five major laver growing areas in Korea was performed four times over the course of a year. The seawater quality in four of these five areas was regarded as the clean area according to Korean criteria, but the seawater at one investigation site in Seoheon area was found to exceed the standard for fecal coliform. In the bacteriological safety analysis of laver (raw source), the percentages of samples not conforming to Chinese criteria at the five sites were 55.6% (Seocheon), 70.0% (Shinan), 81.8% [Jindo (Haenam)], 63.6% (Wando), and 28.6% [Goheung (Jangheung)]. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected in all laver samples. The food safety of laver (raw source) based on heavy metal concentration was confirmed using Korean criteria; the concentrations of heavy metals in laver samples collected from the major laver growing areas were 0.008-0.632 mg/kg wet weight (ww) lead, 0.024-0.137 mg/kg ww cadmium, 0.908-2.892 mg/kg ww total arsenic, and 0.003-0.013 mg/kg ww total mercury. Therefore, pollution source management and periodic monitoring of heavy metals may be required to improve the food safety of laver produced in these laver growing areas.

Water quality management of Jeiu Harbor using material cycle model(III) - Quantitative Management of Pollutant Loadings - (물질순환모델을 이용한 제주항의 수질관리(III) - 오염부하의 정량적 관리 -)

  • 조은일;강기봉
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.307-317
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the material cycle model was applied to suggest alternative management of water quality for Jeju Harbor. The distribution of COD, DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus) concentrations was reasonably reproduced by simulations on the model area of the Jeju Harbor using a material cycle model. The simulations of COD, DIN and DIP concentrations were performed under the conditions of 20∼100% pollution loadings reductions from pollution sources. In case of the 100% reduction of the input loads from Sanzi river, concentrations of COD, DM and DIP were reduced to 39%, 78% and 52%, respectively at Jeju harbor. In contrast, in case of the pollutant loadings reductions from sediment, the effect of DIN and DIP reduction relatively seemed to increase around the center of study area. The 95% reduction of the pollutant loadings from river and sediment is required to meet the COD and nutrients concentration of second grade of ocean water quality criteria.