• Title, Summary, Keyword: Season of Breeding

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The structure of the ductuli efferentes in the Korean native pheasant(Phasianus colchicus korpowi) (한국산 꿩의 고환수출소관의 구조)

  • Paik, Young-ki;Yang, Hong-hyun;Kim, In-shik;Park, Young-seok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 1997
  • The morphology of the ductuli efferentes of the Korean native pheasants were observed in order to obtain a basic data for further studying reproductive physiology and other male genital organs. The mature (14-16 months after hatching) male pheasants were used in this study. The specimens from pheasants were collected on a monthly basis. The general morphological changes of the ductuli efferentes were observed with hematoxylineosin stain, and semithin section by light microscope. The ultrastructural changes of the ductuli efferentes were investigated with ultrathin section by transmission electron microscope. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. During the breeding season, the average height of ductuli efferentes epithelium was $23.45{\pm}2.34{\mu}m$ and was largely decreased by $17.85{\pm}2.01{\mu}m$ during the non-breeding season. The thickeness of interstitial tissue was comparatively increased during the non-breeding season. 2. During the breeding season, the epithelial cells of ductuli efferentes were well developed. During the non-breeding season, epithelial layer and lumen of ductuli efferentes, were markedley reduced compared with those of breeding season. 3. Morphological changes of the ductuli efferentes underwent periodic changes paralleling to the spermatogenic cycle. 4. At least two different cell types were identified in the epithelium of ductuli efferentes, namely non-ciliated and ciliated cells. 5. The ciliated cells possess many vesicles, slightly smaller than those of the non-ciliated cells. 6. The ciliated cells contained numerous mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosome, and oval nuclei. The non-ciliated cells had a irregular nuclei and a cytoplasm containing few organelles. 7. During the breeding season, a number of vesicles, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondria were distinctively showed in the epithelial cells but in the non-breeding season only a few observed.

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Morphological Measurement of the Spermatogenic Cells in the Korean Native Pheasant(Phasianus colchicus korpowi) with Image Analyser (영상분석기를 이용한 한국산 꿩의 정자발생세포들의 형태학적 계측)

  • 박영석;양홍현;김인식
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 1999
  • The image analyser was used for the measurement of the morphological changes of the spermatogenic cells and seminiferous tubules in the pheasant during the breeding and non breeding season. 1. The seminiferous tubules were enlarged 2.57 times during the breeding season than during the non breeding season. Only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules can be found during the non breeding season. 2. There is no significantly difference in the ratio of nucleus area against that of cell size in the spermatogonium between breeding and non breeding season. The ratio of area was 28.71% and 29.11%, respectively. However, the enlargement of spermatogonium was noticed during the non breeding season. 3. The highest value of the ratio of the nucleus area against that of cell size among the germ cells was measured 37.40% in the pachytene phase of the spermatocyte during the breeding season. 4. The ratio of nucleus area against that of cell size in the spermatid was 22.53%.

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Therapeutic effect of prostaglandin F2α on anestrus in Cheju pony mares (PGF2α처리(處理)에 의한 무발정(無發情) 제주마(濟州馬)의 치료효과(治療效果))

  • Chang, Deog-gi;Yang, Ki-chun;Kim, Jung-kye;Suh, Moon-hean
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 1990
  • The effects of $PGF2{\alpha}$ on the conception rate and the plasma levels of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ and progesterone of anestrus Cheju mares were investigated at the breeding and non-breeding seasons. The results obtained from this studies are as follows; 1. The durations of the estrus and diestrus after $PGF_2{\alpha}$ treatment persisted shorter than control cycle (p<0.05), but ovulation time was fast. 2. The levels of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ and progesteron before $PGF_2{\alpha}$ treatment showed 103.8pg/ml, 8.0ng/ml in breeding season and 72.8pg/ml, 4.7ng/ml in non-breeding season, respectively. 3. The levels of estradiol-$17{\beta}$ rose to 115.4~154.0pg/ml, and 90.8~27.0pg/ml from 2nd to 6th day after the treatment of $PGF_2{\alpha}$, in breeding and non-breeding seasons, respectively, while progesterone level dropped to 1ng/ml with the sign of estrus and at 8th day rose in breeding season (p<0.05). 4. Of thirty anestrus mares investigated for $PGF_2{\alpha}$ administration, 87.5% showed estrus on an average of 3.8 days after treatment and the conception rate was 62.5% in breeding season, but the estrus and conception rates dropped 40% and 20% in non-breeding season, respectively.

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The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

  • Sobczuk-Szul, Monika;Wronski, Marek;Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia;Mochol, Magdalena;Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz;Nogalski, Zenon;Pogorzelska-Przybylek, Paulina;Purwin, Cezary
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White${\times}$Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 ($p{\leq}0.01$) and conjugated linoleic acid ($p{\leq}0.05$). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 ($p{\leq}0.01$) and C20:5 ($p{\leq}0.05$). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties.

Morphometric Studies on the Testis Interstitium of Korean Ring-Necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus karpowi) during the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons (번식기와 비번식기의 한국산 꿩 고환간질조직의 형태계측학적 연구)

  • Kim, In-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.299-308
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this morphometric study was to obtain detailed quantitative information on all cell types in the testis interstitium of Korean ring-necked pheasants combined with data on changes in the steroidogenic function of the testis during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Animals collected during the breeding season, testis weights, sperm production, serum testosterone levels, leuteinizing hormone-stimulated testosterone secretion, and the length of the seminiferous tubules were significantly (p < 0.05) increased as compared to the nonbreeding season. Seminiferous tubules occupied 93.25% of testis volume in the breeding season. Leydig cells constituted 0.82% of the testicular volume. The mean volume of an Leydig cell was $1039{\mu}m^3$, and each testis contained about 24.53 million Leydig cells. Testes of the pheasants during the nonbreeding season displayed a 98% reduction in testis volume that was associated with a decrease in the absolute volume of seminiferous tubules (98% reduction), tubular lumen(100%), interstitium(90%), blood vessels(84%), lymphatic spaces(97%), Leydig cells(79%), mesenchymal cells(51%), and myoid cells(61%). The number of Leydig cells, mesenchymal cells, myoid cells per testis in the breeding season was higher (p < 0.05) than in the nonbreeding season. Although the average volume of a Leydig cell was 74% lower in the nonbreeding season, the average volume of a myoid and mesenchymal cell remained unchanged. These results demonstrate that there are a striking differences in the testicular structure of the Korean ring-necked pheasant in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Every structural parameter of the Leydig cell was pasitively correlated with both serum and LH-stimulated secretion concentrations of testosterone. Correlation of changes in hormonal status with morphometric alterations of all Leydig cell suggests that the Korean-ring necked pheasant may be used as a model to study structure-function relations in the avian testis.

Effect of Season and Age on the Ovarian Size and Activity of One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

  • Ali, Shujait;Ahmad, Nazir;Akhtar, Nafees;Rahman, Zia-ur;Sarwar, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1361-1366
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    • 2007
  • In this project, ovarian size and activity during the peak (November-April) and the low (May-October) breeding seasons in young and adult camels were studied. Ovaries of 92 camels (Camelus dromedarius), with clinically normal reproductive tracts, aged 3-15 years and slaughtered at Faisalabad or Lahore abattoirs over a period of 24 months, were collected. Jugular blood was collected from each animal before slaughter; the serum was separated and analyzed for oestradiol concentration. The size (length, width and thickness) and weight of each ovary were measured. Grossly observable Graafian follicles were counted and their diameter was measured using Vernier Calipers. The camels having ovaries presenting follicles more than 5 mm in diameter were taken as having active ovaries. The results showed that ovarian length, width and weight were significantly higher (p<0.05) during the peak than the low breeding season. The percentage of active ovaries was also significantly higher (p<0.01) during the peak than the low breeding season. However, the effect of season on ovarian thickness was non-significant. Similarly, the ovarian length, width, thickness, weight and activity did not vary significantly between young (3-7 years old) and adult (8-15 years old) animals. Serum oestradiol concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) during the peak ($67.70{\pm}1.36$ pg/ml) than the low breeding season ($15.25{\pm}1.54$ pg/ml). It was concluded that in Pakistani camels ovarian size and activity were higher during the peak than the low breeding season. However, age of the camel (from 3 to 15 years) had no effect on these parameters.

Entering and Exiting Routes of Hynobius leechii to a Breeding Site and Staying Time within the Site

  • Sung, Ha-Cheol;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Park, Dae-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2005
  • To study entering and exiting routes of male and female Hynobius leechii to a breeding site and staying time of them within the breeding site, we monitored a breeding population located in the research forests of Kangwon National University. The breeding site was surrounded by a drift fence associated with nine pitfall traps. The breeding season of this population was about one month, from 16 March to 13 April, 2005. Breeding males arrived earlier at the breeding pond than females did. The operational sex ratio (OSR), defined as the ratio of males to females which are ready to mate, over a breeding season was female-biased as 0.67 male vs 1 female (57 males vs 87 females), but daily OSRs, OSR in a particular day, within the breeding pond were male-biased with $1.36\sim7.5$ male vs f female in six days out of seven investigated days. While breeding males stayed in the breeding pond for about 11 days, breeding females left the pond as soon as they completed oviposition. However, the females stayed at terrestrial areas near the pond for about seven days before completely leaving the breeding site. Entering and exiting routes to the breeding site were different between males and females, and between ovulated and oviposited females. Both males and females arrived earlier at the breeding site stayed longer within the site. Males stayed longer within the breeding site lost more body weight.

Seasonal Grouping in Year-Season Animal Model Evaluation of Sahiwal Cattle

  • Khan, M.S.;Ali, A.;Ali, S.;Saleem, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 1997
  • Season is very important as it defines the contemporaries for sire and cow evaluation. An attempt is made for defining season for animal model evaluation of Sahiwal animals, using 1,227 records from 730 cows. Cows were required to have a lactation length of 305-days. Ten different combinations of months for two, four, five or other seasons were tried. The other fixed effect in the model was age defined within parity. The random effects were permanent environment and animal's breeeding value along with the residual effects. A single trait animal model was used where all known relationships of an animal were incorporated in a relationship matrix. The error variance from the fitted model decreased as the number of year-season combinations increased, indicating a month-year model to be more appropriate. This, on the other hand, decreased the number of contemporaries for certain subclasses to a minimum of one, making the bull comparisons invalid. Use of a two season scenario, with winter (November through February) and summer (March through October) was better than the other combinations in terms of error variance of the fitted model and the number of lactations represented in any year-season subclass.

Home-range of the Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in the Suburban Area of Busan

  • Kang, Seung-Gu;Hur, Wee-Haeng;Lee, In-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.162-173
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    • 2015
  • The current study analyzed the home range size of the Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by observation using the natural markings in the suburban area of Busan from December 2009 to May 2010. In all, 26 individual kestrels were observed in the study area, of which 14 individual kestrels were frequently observed (more than five times) and 12 were observed less frequently (less than five times). Mean home range sizes of the 14 frequently observed kestrels were estimated using two different methods (minimum convex polygon (MCP) method and fixed kernel (FK) method): 34.49 ha(2.74-163.96 ha) by 100% MCP, 41.35 ha(3.54-99.02 ha) by the 95% FK, 14.33 ha(0.20-31.57 ha) by the 75% FK and 5.75 ha(0.52-14.74 ha) by the 50% FK. The mean home range size was larger for males than for females estimated at 51.50 ha(15.04-163.96 ha) and 11.80ha(2.74-24.48 ha), respectively, by the 100 % MCP method and 8.02 ha(2.38-14.74 ha) and 2.72 ha (0.52-4.28 ha), respectively, by the 50 % Fixed Kernel method. The home range sizes by sexes in breeding pairs differed during the wintering and breeding seasons; the sizes decreased among females but increased among males during the breeding season. Such differences of home range sizes between sexes could be attributed to parental role division during the breeding season. Females stay in the nest or next to it during laying, incubating, and feeding activities, and males go far away from their nest sites to forage areas for their fledglings for most of the breeding period.

Genetic and Non-genetic Causes of Variation in Gestation Length, Litter Size and Litter Weight in Goats

  • Hoque, M.A.;Amin, M.R.;Baik, D.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.772-776
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    • 2002
  • This study was made with 631 does of 3 genetic groups and 1,112 of their kids allocated into 3 different locations to examine gestation length, litter size and litter weight in goats. Attributes studied were genetic group, parity, age of dam at kidding, weight of dam at breeding, season and location. Genetic group of dam affected significantly (p<0.01) size of litter but not gestation length and weight of litter. Selected Black Bengal (SBB) genetic group performed better in litter size and litter weight than random bred Black Bengal (RBB) and its crossbreds with Jamunapari ♂ (JBB). Litter size and weight were significantly affected by age of dam at kidding (p<0.01), weight of dam at service (p<0.001) and parity (p<0001). Size and weight of litter were found highest in SBB does, or does having 35-40 months of age at kidding, or does with 19-20 kg live weight at service, or at 4th parity. Season, location and parity also affected significantly (p<0.05) gestation length. Shortest gestation length was found in 5th parity or in summer season, whereas the longest was in 2nd parity or in winter season.