• Title, Summary, Keyword: Schistosomiasis

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Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

  • Mwanga, Joseph R.;Kaatano, Godfrey M.;Siza, Julius E.;Chang, Su Young;Ko, Yunsuk;Kullaya, Cyril M.;Nsabo, Jackson;Eom, Keeseon S.;Yong, Tai-Soon;Chai, Jong-Yil;Min, Duk-Young;Rim, Han-Jong;Changalucha, John M.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.561-569
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    • 2015
  • Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ${\geq}15years$. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections.

Cerebellar Schistosomiasis: A Case Report with Clinical Analysis

  • Wan, Heng;Lei, Ding;Mao, Qing
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.53-56
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    • 2009
  • The authors report here a rare case of cerebellar schistosomiasis identified by pathological diagnosis, lacking extracranial involvement. The clinical symptoms included headache, dizziness, and nausea. Studies in blood were normal and no parasite eggs were detected in stool. Computed tomography of brains showed hypodense signal, and magnetic resonance imaging showed isointense signal on T1-weighted images, hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, and intensely enhancing nodules in the right cerebellum after intravenous administration of gadolinium. A high-grade glioma was suspected, and an operation was performed. The pathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed schistosomal granulomas scattered within the parenchyma of the cerebellum. The definitive diagnosis was cerebellar schistosomiasis japonica. A standard use of praziquantel and corticosteroid drugs was applied, and the prognosis was good. When the pattern of imaging examinations is present as mentioned above, a diagnosis of brain schistosomiasis should be considered.

Prognostic Analysis of Schistosomal Rectal Cancer

  • Wang, Meng;Zhang, Yuan-Chuan;Yang, Xu-Yang;Wang, Zi-Qiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9271-9275
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    • 2014
  • Background: Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease that affects more than 230 million people worldwide, according to conservative estimates. Some studies published from China and Japan reported that schistosomiasis is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in Asia where the infective species is S. japonicum. Hoqwever, there have been only few reports of prognosis of patients with schistosomal rectal cancer SRC. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze differences in prognosis between SRC and non-schistosomal rectal cancer(NSRC) with current treatments. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 30 patients with schistosomal rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic total mesorectal excision operation (TME) was performed. For each patient with schistosomal rectal cancer, a control group who underwent laparoscopic TME with non-schistosomal rectal cancer was matched for age, gender and tumor stage, resulting in 60 cases and controls. Results: Univariate analysis showed pathologic N stage (P=0.006) and pathologic TNM stage (P=0.047) statistically significantly correlated with disease-free survival (DFS). Pathologic N stage (P=0.014), pathologic TNM stage (P=0.002), and with/without schistosomiasis (P=0.026) were statistically significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). Schistosomiasis was the only independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The prognosis of patients with schistosomal rectal cancer is poorer than with non-schistosomal rectal cancer.

Epidemiological Survey on Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Helminthiasis among Village Residents of the Rural River Basin Area in White Nile State, Sudan

  • Lee, Young-Ha;Lee, Jin-Su;Jeoung, Hoo-Gn;Kwon, In-Sun;Mohamed, Abd Al Wahab Saed;Hong, Sung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 2019
  • There have been some reports on schistosomiasis of school children in Sudan's Nile River basin area; however, information about the infection status of Schistosoma species and intestinal helminths among village residents of this area is very limited. Urine and stool samples were collected from the 1,138 residents of the Al Hidaib and Khour Ajwal villages of White Nile State, Sudan in 2014. The prevalence of overall schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthiasis was 36.3% and 7.7%, respectively. Egg positive rates were 35.6% for Schistosoma haematobium, 2.6% for S. mansoni, and 1.4% were mixed. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher in men (45.6%) than in women (32.0%), in Khou Ajwal villagers (39.4%) than in Al Hidaib villagers (19.2%), and for age groups ${\leq}15$ years old (51.5%) than for age groups >15 years old (13.2%). The average number of eggs per 10 ml urine (EP10) of S. haematobium infections was 18.9, with 22.2 eggs in men vs 17.0 in women and 20.4 in Khou Ajwal villagers vs 8.1 in Al Hidaib villagers. In addition to S. mansoni eggs, 4 different species of intestinal helminths were found in the stool, including Hymenolepis nana (6.6%) and H. diminuta (1.0%). Collectively, urinary schistosomiasis is still prevalent among village residents in Sudan's White Nile River basin and was especially high in men, children ${\leq}15$ years, and in the village without a clean water system. H. nana was the most frequently detected intestinal helminths in the 2 villages.

Schistosomiasis Combined with Colorectal Carcinoma Diagnosed Based on Endoscopic Findings and Clinicopathological Characteristics: A Report on 32 Cases

  • Liu, Wei;Zeng, Hong-Ze;Wang, Qi-Ming;Yi, Hang;Mou, Yi;Wu, Chun-Cheng;Hu, Bing;Tang, Cheng-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4839-4842
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    • 2013
  • Aims and Background: To improve understanding of the relationship between schistosome-related enteropathy and colorectal carcinoma with particular focus on endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics of colonic schistosomiasis. Materials and Methods: All cases of intestinal schistosomiasis diagnosed at West China Hospital, Chengdu, China, between October 2006 and October 2012 were included in this study. A total of 179 cases of colonic schistosomiasis diagnosed through colonoscopy and pathological examinations were collected for analysis and the demographics, symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 179 colonic schistosomiasis patients, 32 combined with colorectal cancer (CRC) were found, between the ages of 44 and 85 years (24 males, 75%). These 32 lesions were classified as 12 endophytic/ulcerative (37.5%), 10 exophytic/fungating (31.2%), 4 annular (12.5%), 3 giant polypus (9.4%), and 3 IIc (superficial depressed type) (9.4%). The segments of rectum and sigmoid colon were involved in 19 patients (59.4%) and 6 patients (18.8%), respectively. The histopathologic types were classified as follows: 30 welldifferentiated adenocarcinomas, one mucinous adenocarcinoma and one poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings suggest colorectal malignancy with deposited schistosome ova. Conclusions: Chronic schistosomal infestation has a probable etiological role in promoting genesis of colorectal neoplasms.

Plasma D-dimer Can Effectively Predict the Prospective Occurrence of Ascites in Advanced Schistosomiasis Japonica Patients

  • Wu, Xiaoying;Ren, Jianwei;Gao, Zulu;Xu, Yun;Xie, Huiqun;Li, Tingfang;Cheng, Yanhua;Hu, Fei;Liu, Hongyun;Gong, Zhihong;Liang, Jinyi;Shen, Jia;Liu, Zhen;Wu, Feng;Sun, Xi;Niu, Zhongzheng;Ning, An
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2017
  • China still has more than 30,000 patients of advanced schistosomiasis while new cases being reported consistently. D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product. As ascites being the dominating symptom in advanced schistosomiasis, the present study aimed to explore a prediction model of ascites with D-dimer and other clinical easy-achievable indicators. A case-control study nested in a prospective cohort was conducted in schistosomiasis-endemic area of southern China. A total of 291 patients of advanced schistosomiasis were first investigated in 2013 and further followed in 2014. Information on clinical history, physical examination, and abdominal ultrasonography, including the symptom of ascites was repeatedly collected. Result showed 44 patients having ascites. Most of the patients' ascites were confined in the kidney area with median area of $20mm^2$. The level of plasma D-dimer and pertinent liver function indicators were measured at the initial investigation in 2013. Compared with those without ascites, cases with ascites had significantly higher levels of D-dimer ($0.71{\pm}2.44{\mu}g/L$ vs $0.48{\pm}2.12{\mu}g/L$, P=0.005), as well ALB (44.5 vs 46.2, g/L) and Type IV collagen (50.04 vs $44.50{\mu}g/L$). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated a moderate predictive value of D-dimer by its own area under curve (AUC) of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54-0.73) and the cutoff value as $0.81{\mu}g/L$. Dichotomized by the cutoff level, D-dimer along with other categorical variables generated a prediction model with AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89). Risks of patients with specific characteristics in the prediction model were summarized. Our study suggests that the plasma D-dimer level is a reliable predictor for incident ascites in advanced schistosomiasis japonica patients.

Integrated Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Control over Five Years on Kome Island, Tanzania

  • Kaatano, Godfrey M.;Siza, Julius E.;Mwanga, Joseph R.;Min, Duk-Yong;Yong, Tai-Soon;Chai, Jong-Yil;Ko, Yunsuk;Chang, Su Young;Kullaya, Cyril M.;Rim, Han-Jong;Changalucha, John M.;Eom, Keeseon S.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.535-543
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    • 2015
  • Integrated control strategies are important for sustainable control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, despite their challenges for their effective implementation. With the support of Good Neighbors International in collaboration with National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania, integrated control applying mass drug administration (MDA), health education using PHAST, and improved safe water supply has been implemented on Kome Island over 5 years for controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Baseline surveys for schistosomiasis and STHs was conducted before implementation of any integrated control strategies, followed by 4 cross-sectional follow-up surveys on randomly selected samples of schoolchildren and adults in 10 primary schools and 8 villages, respectively, on Kome islands. Those follow-up surveys were conducted for impact evaluation after introduction of control strategies interventions in the study area. Five rounds of MDA have been implemented from 2009 along with PHAST and improved water supply with pumped wells as other control strategies for complementing MDA. A remarkable steady decline of schistosomiasis and STHs was observed from 2009 to 2012 with significant trends in their prevalence decline, and thereafter infection rate has remained at a low sustainable control. By the third follow-up survey in 2012, Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was reduced by 90.5% and hookworm by 93.3% among schoolchildren while in adults the corresponding reduction was 83.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Integrated control strategies have successfully reduced S. mansoni and STH infection status to a lower level. This study further suggests that monitoring and evaluation is a crucial component of any large-scale STH and schistosomiasis intervention.

Activity of Some Hepatic Enzymes in Schistosomiasis and Concomitant Alteration of Arylsulfatase B

  • Balbaa, Mahmoud;El-Kersh, Mohamed;Mansour, Hamdy;Yacout, Galila;Ismail, Mohamed;Malky, Ahmed;Bassiouny, Khaled;Abdel-Monem, Nihad;Kandeel, Kamal
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2004
  • The levels of arylsulfatases A and B, $\alpha$-amylase, aspartate transcarbamylase, and $\gamma$-glutamyl transpeptidase were investigated during the infection of mice with schistosoma mansoni. This infection caused a significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of hepatic arylsulfatase B (ASB), aspartate transcarbamylases and $\gamma$-glutamyl transpeptidase. A non-significant difference occurred for $\alpha$-amylase (p<0.3) and arylsulfatase A (p>0.5) when compared to the control. The specific activity of hepatic ASB was progressively increased with the progression of the Schistosoma-infection. Moreover, the kinetic studies of hepatic ASB in Schistosoma-infection showed that a slight decrease in the value of $K_m$ and about a 40% increase in $V_{max}$ when compared to the control. In addition, the pH optimum of hepatic ASB was altered from 6 to 7 as a result of schistosomiasis. These observations suggest that there are schistosomiasis-associated changes of the catalytic and kinetic properties of hepatic ASB.

Mansonian schistosomiasis in rectum - Report of a case - (직장에 발생한 만손주혈흡충증 일례 보고)

  • 임소덕;서연림
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.383-386
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    • 1995
  • Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted trematodiasis acquired by immersion in water which contains the cercariae. In Korea, six imported cases of urinary schistosomiasis by Schistosomc haematobium and one case of imported cerebral schistosomiasis by S. mansoni were reported. Herein we report a case of S. monsoni infecting rectum of a 46 year-old Korean male, who had been to Saudi Arabia for two years. On colonoscopy for routine physical check up, a 0.4 cm polyp in the rectum was detected and biopsy was done. Microscopically, rectal mucosa showed several granulomas which were composed of macrophages, Iymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils. The center of each granuloma showed an ovoid egg often containing miracidium. The eggs measured 130 × 60 ㎛ in average size. They had yellowish-brown transparent shell loth the characteristic lateral spille. This is the 8th imported case of schistosomiasis in Korea and the second one infected by S. mansoni. Key words: Schistosomc mansoni, rectum, Korea, imported case.

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Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths among Schoolchildren in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

  • Siza, Julius E.;Kaatano, Godfrey M.;Chai, Jong-Yil;Eom, Keeseon S.;Rim, Han-Jong;Yong, Tai-Soon;Min, Duk-Young;Chang, Su Young;Ko, Yunsuk;Changalucha, John M.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.515-524
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    • 2015
  • The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities.