• Title, Summary, Keyword: Scale Development

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Scale Effects of Warhead on Concrete Penetration (탄두의 콘크리트 관통 시 스케일 영향)

  • Kim, Seokbong;Lee, Changsoo;Yoo, Yohan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 2017
  • This paper deals with the scale effects of warhead on concrete penetration. We investigated the scale effects using finite element analysis and Young's penetration equation. As the scale of penetration test decreases, the strain rate effects of target increases, and then strength of concrete target increases. This means the residual velocity and penetration depth of warhead decreases as the test model size decreases. Young's penetration equations are transformed with various penetrator mass and scale cases as a function of scale ratio. Penetration distance and residual velocity are not simply changed by the geometric scaling law.

The First Stage of Developing the Adolescent Friendship Social Capital Scale

  • Xu, Leilei
    • Child Studies in Asia-Pacific Contexts
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.29-43
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study was to generate the candidate items for the Adolescent Friendship Social Capital Scale. Both inductive and deductive approaches were used to generate the scale items. Halpern's conceptual map of social capital served as the theoretical basis of this scale, and guided the development of items. Semi-structured interviews with adolescents in Sydney, Melbourne and Beijing generated the initial pool of scale items. Twenty-six items were generated for the Adolescent Friendship Social Capital Scale. The items are organised in four theoretical constructs: Bonding Networks, Bridging Norms, Bridging Sanctions, and Linking Networks. Each item is a short statement followed by a five-point Likert scale anchored by 1= "Strongly disagree" and 5= "Strongly agree". The scale has several advantages over previous measures of adolescent friendship networks and friendship social capital. The scale has a strong and clear theoretical structure, the scale items demonstrate initial construct and content validity, and the format of the scale enables the collection of continuous data. However, in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the scale, another two stages of research need to be conducted in the future: scale development and scale evaluation.

Development of a Korean Home Environment Scale for Middle Childhood Children (아동용 가정환경 척도 개발 연구: 초등학교 저학년 아동을 대상으로)

  • Jung, Hyun-Sim;Kim, Jung-Min;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Yi, Soon-Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.299-310
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to assess a Korean home environment for middle childhood children. The subjects were 283 mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children in Korea. The method for data analysis included Mean, SD, $x^2$, Cramer's V, factor analysis, Pearson correlations, and Cronbach's $\alpha$. As a result, 45 items of the scale were found to be satisfactory in terms of item distribution and item discrimination(Cramer's discriminant coefficients ranged from .256-.615). Four factors with 21 items were extracted from the factor analysis. Subscales were 'academic stimulation(9)', 'acceptance(4)', 'child-centered environment(4)', 'basic care for daily routine(4)'. Analysis of the relation of this scale to SES, MC-HOME, and children's developmental functioning(cognitive, language, and social) showed acceptable concurrent validity. Internal consistency of this scale was high, including internal reliability of subscales. These results confirm this scale as a valid and reliable measure of the Korean home environment for middle childhood children.

The Development and Validation of a Parenting Behavior Scale for Parents of Early School-Age Children (학령 초기 자녀의 부모용 양육행동 척도 개발 및 타당화)

  • Rhee, Sun-Hee;Doh, Hyun-Sim
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.111-133
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted in order to develop a parenting behavior scale for parents of school-age children and to analyze the scale in terms of both reliability and validity. Data were collected from a sample of mothers of $1^{st}$ to 3rd grade students in four elementary schools located in Seoul. 778 mothers were administered a parenting behavior scale with 123 items, and 779 mothers were asked to verify the validity of the developed scale in which 45 items remained after a series of analyses. Data were analyzed by means of exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation analysis. The results of factor analysis identified five factors, Warmth, Reasoning, Intrusiveness, Coercion, and Neglect. The Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ of each factor demonstrated results of .82~.86, suggesting that the scale had adequate internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by using correlations between mothers' parenting behaviors and children's social competence. Moreover, cross-validation was also verified for the five factors. Considering the reliability and validity of this scale, it can clearly serve as a useful tool for assessing parenting behavior which is closely related to child development.

A Proposal of Urban Housing Models and a Feasibility Study for the Application of Small-scale Development in Residential Blocks (일반주거지역에서의 소규모 집합주택 개발가능성 검토 및 모델 제안)

  • 홍민규;양우현
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 2002
  • The intent of this study is to investigate the feasibility of small-scale developments in residential blocks in the city, and to propose development strategies and models. This research is done on the premises that large housing developments ignore the urban structure of its own quality, whitens on-lot-based multi-unit housing developments fail to maintain amenity and livability in residential blocks. For solving these shortcomings, this research proposes the possibility of small-scale housing development models as an alternative development system. And some residential blocks were selected as case sites and analyzed into typical block types, to support the proposal of pertinent development types. Each type was investigated and discussed in terms of development feasibility and proper development strategies. Finally, three development schemes are proposed as prototypical models for the best application in residential blocks.

The Development and Validation of a Scale for the Mental Health Screening of Toddlers (걸음마기 아동의 정신건강 위험요인 선별척도의 개발 및 타당화)

  • Lee, Jung Hwa;Lee, So Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.195-213
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    • 2006
  • Development of the 3 scales comprising the present research was based on review of literature, existing screening scales, and empirical research pertaining to (Scale I) the development of social and emotional problems of children, (Scale II) parent-child relations, and (Scale III) assessment of children's environment. Professionals in each area approved a draft of the new screening scale. The clinical group was classified into normal and at-risk groups based on the Denver II scale and the Child Behavior Check List(ages 1.5-5). The clinical groups were administered the newly developed screening scale to see whether the same classification pertained. Results proved the cross-validity of the new scale.

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Development and Validation of Place Attachment to Childhood Home Scale (아동기 집에 대한 장소애착 척도 개발과 타당화 연구)

  • Lee, Jin-Suk;Choi, Byung-Sook;Han, Ji-Hyeon;Han, Young-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.549-566
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    • 2009
  • This study developed the Place Attachment to Childhood Home Scale and evaluated its validity and reliability. Samples consisted of 418 college students of four universities. Data were collected by questionnaire based on retrospective questions about the childhood home. Factor analysis resulted in 5 dimensions of place attachment : affection, place identity, place rootedness, playfulness, and place dependence. Especially, playfulness was a unique finding. The result of confirmatory factor analysis supported the five-factor structure. There were also significant correlations among sub-factors. The reliability of the scale appeared high (Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ = .948). Criterion-related validity was confirmed by significant correlations of the present scale with Attachment Scale to Place (Hess, 1997) and the Inventory of Parent Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987).

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Relationship between Temperature Distributions and Outbreaks of Harmful Algal Blooms in Korean Waters

  • Han, In-Seong;Jang, Lee-Hyun;Sub, Young-Sang;Seong, Ki-Tack
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.50-60
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    • 2008
  • Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cochlodinium polykrikoides frequently occur around the South Sea of Korea, causing. economic losses in coastal breeding grounds. HAB outbreak scale usually changes each year depending on physical, biological and environmental conditions. Relatively large-scale HABs occurred in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003 with respect to spatial scale, duration and maximum density. Considering HAB scale and temperature distributions around the South Sea, we found that low coastal temperatures in August correspond to enormous HAB outbreaks. Cold waters created by coastal upwellings around the southeastern coast of Korea also corresponded to these outbreaks. Serial oceanographic investigations in August in the South Sea revealed that sea surface temperature anomalies had distinctively negative values when large-scale HAB outbreaks appeared. With regard to temperature differences between the surface and the 30-m layer, there was a tendency for large-scale outbreaks when temperature gradients around the seasonal thermocline weakened.

A Study on Evaluation of Culture and Leisure Resources of Rural Areas (농촌의 문화여가자원 평가를 위한 척도 개발 연구)

  • Hwang, Jeong-Im;Choi, Yoon-Ji;Youn, Min-Hye
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a culture and leisure resources scale and examine the validity of the scale. The culture and Leisure resources scale was developed and identified its validity by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and correlation analysis. The culture and leisure resources scale consisted of four factors, which were 'personal resources', 'support staff resources', 'facility resources', and 'program resources'. Those four factors indicated the reasonable fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, this scale showed convergent validity with the satisfaction of cultural and leisure environment and the satisfaction of one's cultural and leisure life. The result of scale score comparison between rural and urban areas showed that culture and leisure resources in rural areas were less abundant than those in urban areas. Furthermore, while the variables which affected the satisfaction of urban residents' were mainly 'personal resources', the variables in case of rural residents' were mainly 'program resources' and 'facility Resources'. The culture and leisure resources scale can be used for policymakers practicably to evaluate regional level of culture and leisure resources, to compare between regions and to find policy priorities for improving the quality of leisure, especially for disadvantaged areas with less resources.

The Child Psychological Well-being Scale : Development and Validity (아동의 심리적 복지척도 개발과 타당화 연구)

  • Choi, Jin Won;Lee, So Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.227-248
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study aimed at establishing the validity and reliability regarding the instrument of assessing child psychological well-being. The child psychological well-being rating scale contained 3 dimensions (sense of competency, sense of relation, sense of improvement) 8 variables (sense of control, sense of achievement, sense of confidence, sense of acceptance, sense of intimacy, sense of balance, sense of morale, sense of hope) and 4 rating scale of 80 items. After the scale development, the estimates of reliability for the scale were high. Cornbach ${\alpha}$ was .962 and generalizability was .875. And concurrent validity, criteria related validity, and discriminant validity appeared to be evident sufficiently to the validity of child psychological well-being instrument. The significance of the present study was intended to apply scale validity procedure by using generalizability.

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