• Title, Summary, Keyword: Saudi Arabia

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Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking Usage among Adolescent Students in Northern Saudi Arabia

  • Algorinees, Rakan Mosa;Alreshidi, Ibrahim Ghazy Kiran;Alateeq, Mohammed Fahad Mohammed;Alghuraymi, Abdullah Abdulaziz Salem;Alfayez, Adel Ahmed Abdulrahman;Almuzaini, Fahad khaled Fahad;Alsaif, Mohammed Abdulaziz Brahim;Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3839-3843
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cigarette smoking is a major public health issue in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in recent years, particularly among adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking usage among adolescent students in the north of the country. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study investigated 305 adolescent students from the Northern KSA population, their ages ranging from 11 to 19 years old. Results: Of the 287 respondents, 56/287(19.5%) were found to be current smokers. Of the 56 current smokers, 14/52 (27%), 29/52 (55.8%), and 9/52 (17.2%) smoked 1-3, 4-10 and 11+cigarettes/day, respectively. For duration most had smoked for 26-36 months. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that cigarette smoking use is still an important risk behavior among adolescent students. The findings of this study found a significant association of cigarette smoking usage and adolescents various believes and attitude for initiation of smoking and perception toward knowledge of other factors that contribute to the burden of tobacco use.

A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

  • Wakid, Majed H.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 2008
  • Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia.

Oil Prices and Terms of Trade of Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Analysis

  • HAQUE, Mohammad Imdadul;IMRAN, Mohammad
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2020
  • Terms of trade is an important indicator of the welfare gains from international trade to the exporting country. Terms of trade of oil-exporting countries are hypothesized to depend primarily on oil prices. The study assesses the relation between oil prices and the terms of trade of Saudi Arabia. The study uses the Autoregressive Distributed Lag method to determine the cointegration between the country's terms of trade and oil prices for the period 2000-2018. The data for net barter terms of trade is taken from World Development Indicators and oil price is taken from Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. The results show that oil prices and terms of trade are cointegrated and any disequilibrium between the two variables is corrected by 35% in a year. The study also reports a positive relationship between the two items, both in the short run and long run. Diagnostic tests indicate the model to be fit. The results suggest that, for a primarily oil-producing country like Saudi Arabia, the terms of trade depend on oil prices. The study fills the gap in the literature on the study of terms of trade for Saudi Arabia for the last few years, where there has been a high volatility in oil prices.

Patterns of Childhood Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia (1999-2008)

  • Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.;Bawazir, Amen Ahmed;Jradi, Hoda;Al-Dhalaan, Zeyad Abdulaziz;Al-Shehri, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.431-435
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    • 2015
  • Background: Although childhood cancer is a rare disease, 100,000 children younger than 15 years of age die from cancer each year, the majority of them in developing countries. More data need to be gathered and published particularly in developing countries to better understand the scale of the problem. Aims: This study aimed to describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Saudi Arabia over a period of ten years (1999-2008). Materials and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from the Saudi Cancer Registry from 1999 to 2008. All Saudi cases (both genders), under the age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer during the study period, were included in this study. Results: Childhood cancer in Saudi Arabia, in the period between 1999 and 2008, accounted for about 8% of total cancer cases. The most common encountered cancers were leukemia (34.1%), followed by lymphoma (15.2%), brain (12.4%), and kidney cancers (5.3%). The overall incidence of childhood cancers increased from 8.8 per 100,000 in 1999 to 9.8 per 100,000 in 2008. The incidence rates of cancers per 100,000 in the years 1999 and 2008 were generally higher among males, (9.4 and 11.5 in males vs. 8.3 and 8.1 in females). The highest incidence rate in the surveyed years was apparent in the birth to age 4 years group. Conclusions: Cancer is an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia and a major ascending contributor to mortality and morbidity in children. More studies are required to describe the patterns of childhood cancers and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia.

Profile of Colorectal Polyps: a Retrospective Study from King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

  • Albasri, Abdulkader;Yosef, Hala;Hussainy, Akbar;Bukhari, Saud;Alhujaily, Ahmed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2669-2673
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    • 2014
  • Aim: To evaluate the predominant colorectal polyps in the Almadinah region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: In this iretrospective study, we analyzed pathology reports of colonoscopies performed in King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia during the period 2006 to 2013. Data based on patient age, gender, size, site and type of polyps and the degree of dysplasia were analyzed by software SPSS 17 and compared with other published studies from different geographic regions of the world. Results: During these years, 224 patients had colonic polyps, of whom 149 (66.5%) were men and 75 (33.5%) were women. The most common types of polyps were adenomatous (166), followed by hyperplastic polyps (24), juvenile (18), inflammatory (13), lipomatous (2) and one patient with Peutz-Jegher polyps. Tubulovillous adenoma was the commonest adenomatous polyp (102), followed by tubular (41) and villous (23) types. The sigmoid colon was the most commonly involved region (36.6%). Dysplasia was significantly associated with female patients who had large size tubulovillous polyps located in the left colon. Conclusions: The type and distribution of colorectal polyps in Saudi Arabia is very similar to Western countries. Patient gender, and size, histological type and location of polyps are closely related to dysplastic change in colonic polyps.

Head and Neck Cancer in Saudi Arabia: a Systematic Review

  • Alhazzazi, Turki Y;Alghamdi, Faisal T
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4043-4048
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    • 2016
  • Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide, and has a poor 5-year survival rate averaging 50%, which has not changed for decades. A high prevalence of HNC has been reported in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, as compared to other areas of the country. However, data in regards to HNC are scattered and not well documented. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to gather all available and updated important information regarding HNC in Saudi Arabia, and highlight the gaps of knowledge in our country with regard to this disease. In addition, suggestions of solutions to overcome the current status and improve our future standard of care to fight HNC are also highlighted. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar using English-language literature were used for this systematic review, using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and keywords. The search was performed in April 2016 and updated in June 2016. Results: Our search revealed twenty-one studies that fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria and that were conducted in Saudi Arabia. These studies investigated different aspects of HNC, including prevalence, risk factors, biomarkers, and assessed knowledge and awareness of both public and practitioners with regard to HNC. Conclusions: This review uncovered a big gap in our epidemiological data in cancer information in general, and head and neck cancer in particular. In addition, a lack of knowledge and awareness of both the public and health care practitioners hinders the early diagnosis of disease and negatively impact the prognosis, treatment and outcome. The Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia should develop a more systematic way and adapt policies to gather cancer information in general, and head and neck cancer in particular, from all governmental and private sectors from all over the kingdom, and develop educational programs to raise the knowledge and awareness of HNC in the country.

Patterns of Use, Cessation Behavior and Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Smoking in Saudi Arabia: a Cross-Sectional Multi-Step Study

  • Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibarhim;El-Setohy, Maged;Alsharqi, Abdalla;Elsanosy, Rashad;Mohammed, Umar Yagoub
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.655-660
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    • 2016
  • Smoking is accountable for the fatality of a substantial number of persons and increases the likelihood of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Although data have shown high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia, relatively little is known about the broader scope. The objectives of this study were to investigate socio-demographic factors, patterns of use and cessation behavior associated with smoking in Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study utilized a cross-sectional, multi-step design of sampling. Residents (N=1,497; aged 15 years and older) were recruited from seven administrative areas in Southwest Saudi Arabia. A pretested questionnaire was utilized to obtain data on participant cigarette smoking, including their daily use, age, education, income, marital status and employment status. The current study is the first of its kind to gather data cessation behavior of Saudi subjects. With the exception of 1.5% females, all the respondents were male. The majority of the respondents were married, had a university level of education, were employed, and were younger than 34 years old. The same trends were also observed among smokers' samples. The current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 49.2% and 65.7% of smokers had smoking at less than 18 years of age. The mean daily use amongst smokers was 7.98 cigarettes (SD=4.587). More than 50% of the study sample had tried at least once to quit smoking. However, 42% of the smokers participating had never. On the other hand, about 25% of the respondents were willing to consider quitting smoking in the future. Modeling of cigarette smoking suggested that the most significant independent predictors of smoking behavior were geographic area, gender, marital status, education, job and age. Considerable variation in smoking prevalence was noted related with participant sociodemographics. Findings recommend the necessity for control and intervention programs in Saudi community.

Breast Cancer Awareness among Saudi Females in Jeddah

  • Radi, Sahar Mahmoud
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4307-4312
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    • 2013
  • Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.

Capital Structure and Financial Performance: A Case of Saudi Petrochemical Industry

  • ALI, Anis;FAISAL, Shaha
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.105-112
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    • 2020
  • The study investigates and measures the impact of capital structure, profitability and financial performance on the success of the business organization. Capital structure of the business organization refers to the proportion of external funds and internal funds, i.e., debt and equity. In Saudi Arabia, petrochemicals companies are working on equity, but financial performance reflects negative trend for the period 2004 to 2016. The research is based upon secondary data available on the websites of petrochemicals companies of Saudi Arabia. Financial Ratio variability analysis and Trend Indices of financial ratios (TICBI) measure and compare the financial variability and sensitivity of financial ratios of the business organization. Correlation between Trend Indices (TICBI) of independent variable and dependent variables are to be calculated to know the impact of changes in debt equity on other dependent variables. The results reveal the unexpected performance of petrochemicals companies due to under-utilization of the resources caused by low demand and lower prices of the products governed by some internal and external factors. The study finds that size, demand, cost of production, profitable streams of products, and low cost capital in external funds are the factors responsible for overall growth development of the petrochemicals industry of Saudi Arabia.