• Title, Summary, Keyword: Satellite cell activity

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Factors Influencing Satellite Cell Activity during Skeletal Muscle Development in Avian and Mammalian Species

  • Nierobisz, Lidia S;Mozdziak, Paul E
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.456-464
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    • 2008
  • Avian and mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit a remarkable ability to adjust to physiological stressors induced by growth, exercise, injury and disease. The process of muscle recovery following injury and myonuclear accretion during growth is attributed to a small population of satellite cells located beneath the basal lamina of the myofiber. Several metabolic factors contribute to the activation of satellite cells in response to stress mediated by illness, injury or aging. This review will describe the regenerative properties of satellite cells, the processes of satellite cell activation and highlight the potential role of satellite cells in skeletal muscle growth, tissue engineering and meat production.

Influence of co-culturing muscle satellite cells with preadipocytes on the differentiation of adipocytes and muscle cells isolated from Korean native cattle

  • Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.715-723
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    • 2018
  • The present study was done to investigate the effect of co-culturing muscle satellite cells (MSCs) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPs) on the differentiation of adipocytes and muscle cells isolated from Korean native cattle. MSCs and IPs were single-cultured in 10% fetal bovine serum/Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (FBS/DMEM) for 48 h followed by culturing in 5% FBS/DMEM as the growth media. Then, the growth media was replaced by differentiation media composed of 2% FBS/DMEM without any additives for the single- or co-culture of muscle cells and intramuscular adipocytes to induce the differentiation of both cell types. Cell differentiation was measured by morphological investigation and cytosolic enzyme analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) for the adipocytes and creatine kinase (CK) for the muscle cells. In the morphological test, the presence of muscle cells did not stimulate adipocyte differentiation showing more differentiation of the adipocytes in the single-culture compared to the co-culture condition. However, the differentiation of muscle cells was promoted by adipocytes in the co-culture. The results of the enzymatic analysis were highly associated with the morphological results with a statistically higher GPDH activity (p < 0.05) appearing in the single-culture than in the co-culture, whereas the opposite was true for the CK activity of the muscle cells (p < 0.05). By manipulating in vivo the milieu using a co-culture, we could detect the difference in the rate of cell differentiation and suggest that a co-culture system is a more reliable and precise technique compared to a single-culture. Further studies on various co-culture trials including supplementation of differentiating substances, gene expression analysis, etc. should be done to obtain practical and fundamental data.

Construction of Korean Space Weather Prediction Center: Space radiation effect

  • Lee, Jae-Jin;Cho, Kyung-Suk;Hwang, Jung-A;Kwak, Young-Sil;Kim, Khan-Hyuk;Bong, Su-Chan;Kim, Yeon-Han;Park, Young-Deuk;Choi, Seong-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.33.3-34
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    • 2008
  • As an activity of building Korean Space Weather Prediction Center (KSWPC), we has studied of radiation effect on the spacecraft components. High energy charged particles trapped by geomagnetic field in the region named Van Allen Belt can move to low altitude along magnetic field and threaten even low altitude spacecraft. Space Radiation can cause equipment failures and on occasions can even destroy operations of satellites in orbit. Sun sensors aboard Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT-1) was designed to detect sun light with silicon solar cells which performance was degraded during satellite operation. In this study, we try to identify which particle contribute to the solar cell degradation with ground based radiation facilities. We measured the short circuit current after bombarding electrons and protons on the solar cells same as STSAT-1 sun sensors. Also we estimated particle flux on the STSAT-1 orbit with analyzing NOAA POES particle data. Our result clearly shows STSAT-1 solar cell degradation was caused by energetic protons which energy is about 700 keV to 1.5 MeV. Our result can be applied to estimate solar cell conditions of other satellites.

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Effect of stocker management program on beef cattle skeletal muscle growth characteristics, satellite cell activity, and paracrine signaling impact on preadipocyte differentiation

  • Vaughn, Mathew A.;Lancaster, Phillip A.;Roden, Kelly C.;Sharman, Evin D.;Krehbiel, Clinton R.;Horn, Gerald W.;Starkey, Jessica D.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.5
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    • pp.260-271
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different stocker management programs on skeletal muscle development and growth characteristics, satellite cell (SC) activity in growing-finishing beef cattle as well as the effects of SC-conditioned media on preadipocyte gene expression and differentiation. Fall-weaned Angus steers (n = 76; $258{\pm}28kg$) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 stocker production systems: 1) grazing dormant native range (NR) supplemented with a 40% CP cottonseed meal-based supplement ($1.02kg{\cdot}steer^{-1}{\cdot}d^{-1}$) followed by long-season summer grazing (CON, 0.46 kg/d); 2) grazing dormant NR supplemented with a ground corn and soybean meal-based supplement fed at 1% of BW followed by short-season summer grazing (CORN, 0.61 kg/d); 3) grazing winter wheat pasture (WP) at high stocking density (3.21 steers/ha) to achieve a moderate rate of gain (LGWP, 0.83 kg/d); and 4) grazing winter WP at low stocking density (0.99 steers/ha) to achieve a high rate of gain (HGWP, 1.29 kg/d). At the end of the stocker (intermediate harvest, IH) and finishing (final harvest, FH) phases, 4 steers / treatment were harvested and longissimus muscles (LM) sampled for cryohistological immunofluorescence analysis and SC culture assays. At IH, WP steers had greater LM fiber cross-sectional area than NR steers; however, at FH, the opposite was observed (p < 0.0001). At IH, CORN steers had the lowest Myf-5+:Pax7+ SC density (p = 0.020), while LGWP steers had the most Pax7+ SC (p = 0.043). At FH, CON steers had the highest LM capillary density (p = 0.003) and their cultured SC differentiated more readily than all other treatments (p = 0.017). At FH, Pax7 mRNA was more abundant in 14 d-old SC cultures from HGWP cattle (p = 0.03). Preadipocytes exposed to culture media from proliferating SC cultures from WP cattle isolated at FH had more $PPAR{\gamma}$ (p = 0.037) and less FABP4 (p = 0.030) mRNA expression compared with NR cattle. These data suggest that different stocker management strategies can impact skeletal muscle growth, SC function, and potentially impact marbling development in growing-finishing beef cattle.

Characteristics of Infrared and Water Vapor Imagery for the Heavy Rainfall Occurred in the Korean Peninsula (한반도에서 발생하였던 집중호우 시 적외 및 수증기 영상의 특성)

  • Seong, Min-Gyu;Suh, Myoung-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.465-480
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we analyzed the spatio-temporal variations of satellite imagery for the two heavy rainfall cases (21 September, 2010, 9 August, 2011) occurred in the Korean Peninsula. In general, the possibility of strong convection can be increased when the region with plenty of moisture at the lower layer overlapped with the boundary between dark and bright area in the water vapor imagery. And the merging of convective cells caused by the difference in the moving velocities of two cells resulted in the intensification of convective activity and rainfall intensity. The rainfall intensity is more closely linked with the minimum cloud top temperature than the mean cloud top temperature. Also the spatio-temporal variations of rainfall intensity are impacted by the existence of merging processes. The merging can be predicted by the animation of satellite imagery but earlier detection of convective cells is almost impossible by using the infrared and water vapor imagery.

The Inhibitory Effect of TGF-β1 and OP-1 onto the Myogenic Differentiation (근육세포 분화에 대한 TGF-β1과 OP-1의 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Byung-Gook;Jung, Sung-Su
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.39-50
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    • 2001
  • In order to investigate the effect of Transforming growth factor ${\beta}1$(below TGF-${\beta}1$) and osteogenic protein-1(below Op-1) onto the myogenic differentiation, C2C12 satellite myoblastic cell line was cultured and treated with both growth factors. At first morphological changes with microscopical examination were examined, and isolated total RNA to analyse mRNA expression of bone marker proteins, muscle regulatory proteins, TGF-${\beta}$ receptor and their ligands by Northern blot analysis. And cellular proliferative inducibility of both growth factors was also tested to C2C12 cells. Incubating the cell with $5ng/m{\ell}$ of TGF-${\beta}1$ until 4 days almost inhibited multinucleated myotube formation expressing muscular regulatory proteins, and induced decreasing Id proteins. However, no osteoblastic phenotypes was induced by TGF-${\beta}1$ in C2C12 cells. The mRNA expression of TGF-${\beta}$ receptors with TGF-${\beta}1$ was conversed after 48 hours cultured. Type I TGF-${\beta}$ receptor was seemed to play a role in negative signalling for inhibition of myogenic differentiation. OP-1 dose dependently induced ALP activity, osteopontine production and bone sialoprotein production at concentrations above $100ng/m{\ell}$ and osteocalcin production at concentrations above $300ng/m{\ell}$. The concentration of OP-1 required to induce these osteoblastic phenotypes was the same as that required to almost completely inhibit myotube formation. Incubation with above $100ng/m{\ell}$ OP-1 suppressed the expression of mRNA for muscular egulatory proteins from 2 days after incubation. Expression of Id-1, 2, 3 mRNA were stimulated by OP-1 at concentration above $300ng/m{\ell}$. When C2C12 cells were treated with both growth factors, TGF-${\beta}1$ potentiated the inhibitory effect of OP-1 on myotube formation and expression of mRNA for myogenin at 12 days. And TGF-${\beta}1$ reduced osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein production induced by OP-1 at 12 days in C2C12 cells. Both growth factor had no mitogenic effect. These results indicate that OP-1 converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts into that of osteoblastic lineage cells and it's not heritable, but TGF-${\beta}1$ does not and has reversible inhibitory activity on the myogenic differentiation. TGF-${\beta}1$ and OP-1 play a role in myogenic differentiation via different mechanism between them.

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Effects of Carnosic Acid on Muscle Growth in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) (제브라피쉬 근육성장에서의 carnosic acid의 효과)

  • Kim, Jeong Hwan;Jin, Deuk-Hee;Kim, Young-Dae;Jin, Hyung-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2014
  • Myogenesis is the formation process of multinucleated myofiber with a contractile capacity from muscle satellite cell (MSCs) during life. This process is tightly controlled by several transcription factors such as Pax3 and Pax7 (paired box protein 3 and 7), MEF2C (myocyte enhancer factor 2) and MRFs (myogenic regulatory factors) etc. On the contrary, myostatin (MSTN) is a transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ superfamily, which functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Carnosic acid (CA) is a major phenolic component in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and have been reported various biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and therapeutic agents for amnesia, dementia, alzheimer's disease. This study was confirmed to effects of CA on muscle cell line and muscle tissue alteration of zebrafish by intramuscular injection or feeding methods. $10{\mu}M$ CA showed a non-cytotoxic on myoblast and a complete inhibition effect against myostatin activity on luciferase assay. In intramuscular injection experiment, the total protein and triglyceride amount of $10{\mu}M/kg$ of CA injected group increased by 11% and decreased by 13% compared to these of the no injected group. In histology analysis of muscle tissues by hematoxylin/eosin staining, the number of muscle fiber of $10{\mu}M/kg$ of CA injected group decreased by 29% and fiber area increased 40% compared to these of no injected group. In feeding experiment, the total protein and triglyceride amount no significance difference compared to these of the normal feeding group. In histology analysis, the number of muscle fiber of 1% CA fed group decreased by 35% and fiber area increased 56% compared to these of normal fed group. We identified that CA have an effect on hypertrophy of muscle fiber in adult zebrafish and the results of this study are considered as the basic data that can reveal the mechanisms of muscle formation via gene and protein level analysis.