• Title, Summary, Keyword: Saponin

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Tumor-Suppressing Effects of Saponin-SOD in Nude Mice (Saponin-SOD가 SNUC-4 Cell에 의해 유발편 대장암 Nude Mice의 암 성장 억제 효과)

  • 박수진;강명화
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.338-342
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to measure the antioxidant effects of red ginseng extracts which antioxidation had been promoted through enzyme hydrolysis. In order to observe their tumor-suppressing effects, an anti-cancer medicine and Saponin-SOD, which was a highly antioxidant beverage made from red ginseng saponin adding SOD-like rice (with embryo buds) extracts, were administered to nude mice with large intestine cancer induced. There was a significant increase in the content of phenolic compounds as the enzyme was added. The red ginseng extracts showed a high electron-donating ability with the passage of time. The electron-donating ability was particularly high in the enzyme-treated red ginseng extract, and also observed as high in Saponin-SOD. The lipid-peroxide generation was inhibited depending on the concentration of Saponin-SOD added; the addition of 0.625% Saponin-SOD served to decrease the inhibition level up to 65% compared with the case of no addition (100%). As a result, it could be assumed that Saponin-SOD would strongly inhibit the oxidation of ghost membrane. After the cancer was induced in nude mice through the injection of SNUC-4 cell, there was a significant inhibition in the growth of tumors in nude mice into which Saponin-SOD were injected; the growth of tumors was gradually decreasing with the passage of time after the cancer induction. In particular, when Saponin-SOD was administered together with an anti-cancer medicine, the synergic effect was observed. In conclusion, Saponin-SOD, when used with an anti-cancer medicine, is expected to reduce the amount of free radical and lipid peroxide, which are known to cause harmful effects occurring from the internal application of medicine.

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Effects of Ginseng Saponin and Its Related Materials on Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 in Synthetic Medium (합성 배지에서 Aspergillus parasiticus의 Aflatoxin 생성에 미치는 인삼 saponin과 그 관련물질의 영향)

  • 전홍기;조영배;박건영
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.352-356
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    • 1986
  • A study was carried out to determine the effect of ginseng saponin an its related materials on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 in glucose-salts(GS) medium. Maximal growth of the mold and AF froduction in the medium occurred after 5 and 9 days at $28^{\circ}C$, respectively. When various concentrations of saponin added to the medium aflatoxin synthesis were significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control after 9 days at $28^{\circ}C$. 0.05% of saponin inhibited aflatoxin production most effectively in the low concerntrations of saponin (0.01-0.2%) and the toxin synthesis reduced with an increasing concentrations of saponin in the high concentrations (0.03-5.0%). Various concentrations (0.01-1.0%) of saponin diol and triol in the media also caused to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by the mold (p<0.05). All saponin fractions were found to decrease aflatoxin production significantly. Saponin fraction numbers of 1,2,4 and 6 were shown to reduce aflatoxin production effectively, and the number 1 was the most effective. Addition of 0.05% of nucleic acid related materials to the medium reduced aflatoxin production (p<0.05). Aflatoxins could not be found in broth at all, but in mycelia when 0.05% of caffeine was added to the medium. Aflatoxin synthesis was well correlated with total lipid synthesis, growth and glucose uptake. When aflatoxin synthesis inhibited (5.0% of saponin) both total lipid synthesis and growth were stimulated and the efficiency of glucose utilization was reduced.

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Effect of Saponin and Non-saponin of Panax Ginseng on the Blood Pressure in the Renovascular Hypertensive Rats (신성고혈압백서에서 혈압에 미치는 고려홍삼사포닌과 비사포닌의 효과)

  • Jeon Byeong Hwa;Kim Hoe Suk;Chang Seok Jong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1999
  • The effect of saponin and non-saponin of Panax Red Ginseng on the blood pressure and nitric oxide production were investigated in the conscious free moving one-kidney, one-clip Goldbaltt hypertensive (lK, 1C-GBH) rats. Mean blood pressure in the control and lK, 1C-GBH rats was decreased by the administration of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive effect induced by ginseng saponin was reached maximum at 2-4 minutes and was slowly recovered to the initial level of blood pressure. Also ginseng saponin induced reflex tachycardia in the conscious both rats. Contrast to the response induced by ginseng saponin, hypotensive effect induced by non-saponin of panax ginseng is minimal. Plasma nitric oxide concentration was increased by the treatment of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.p for 5 days) in both rats. It has been shown by western blotting that the expression level of the protein for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by the treatment of ginseng saponin (100 mg/kg, i.p). However, eNOS activity in aortic homogenates of both rats were increased by the treatment of ginseng saponins. From the above results, the hypotensive effect of saponin was greater than that of non-saponin of Panax Red Ginseng. The lowering effect of blood pressure by ginseng saponin may be due to the increase of plasma nitric oxide concentration via the increase of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the renovascular hypertensive and control rats.

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Effects of Ginseng Saponin on the Metabolites and Enzymes of Normal and Alloxan-intoxicated Rats (인삼사포닌이 정상및 Alloxan투여 흰쥐에서 수종의 대사물질및 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dong-Gwon;Im, Chang-Jin;Hong, Sun-Geun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 1981
  • In order to evaluate the mode of action of ginseng saponin. metabolic changes in the plasma of normal and aloxan-intoxicated rats were compared Normal groups were administered only ginseng saponin 0, 5, 50mg/kg for 16 days, but alloxan-intoxicated groups were administered alloxan 25mg/kg for 3 days in addition to ginseng saponin. (1) No significant change in the concentration of glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) was observed in normal rats but great inhibitory effect, except elevation of TG, was observed in alloxan-intoxicated rats. However, blood urea nitrogen was elevated in both normal and alloxan- intoxicated rats by administration of ginseng saponin 50mg/kg, and it was considered to be due to the impaired kidney function caused by overdose toxicity. (2) In normal rats, COT and ALP actIn,its were not changed by administration of ginseng saponin but GPT activity was decreased significantly. In alloxan-intoxicated rats, ginseng saponin exerted inhibitory action on the elevation of COT, CPT and ALP activity. But administration of ginseng saponin Smghg was much more effective than administration of 50mg/kg. (3) There fore, we concluded that ginseng saponin has the adaptogenic activity showing little effect on normal metabolism but great preventive action on alloxan-intoxicated rats.

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Effect of Ginseng Saponin on the Integrity of Lysosomes (인삼사포닌이 Lysosome의 안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • 원광애;정노팔
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.119-127
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    • 1985
  • The effect of ginseng saponin on acid phosphatase (AP) activity in liver Iysosomes was investigated and the mechanism by which ginseng saponin may function on the integrity of Iysosomes was discussed. The experimental results obtained are summarized as follows; 1, A very marked increase in the AP activity was observed in the supernatant of hypotonic medium, as compared with that of isotonic medium, indicating that the hypoosmotic shock per so results in activation through osmotic Iysis of particles. 2. Ginseng saponin had no effect on the activity of AP if once released from Iysosomes when Iysed in the hypotonic medium, suggesting that ginseng saponin has no effect on the enzyme molecules per se. 3. The AP activity in isotonic medium suspensions was decreased at the concentrations of 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4% of ginseng saponin, but increased at 10-2 and 10-1%. It's suggested that ginseng saponin enhances the integrity of Iysosomes at 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4%, but decreases it at 10-2 and 10-1%. 4. Suspending particles in distilled water resulted in no correlation of AP activity with treatment with ginseng saponin. 5, The AP activity was decreased in the presence of ATP, showing the possible significance of ATP as a Iysosomal stabilizer and the possibility that ginseng saponin may affect a membrane bound ATPase system by which Iysosomal AP release may be controlled.

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The Interaction of Ginseng Saponin with Secre Tagogues, Inhibitors and Its Relative Agents on Pepsiogen Secretion in Isolates Rabbit Gastric Glands (Pepsinogen 분비에 대한 분비촉진제 억제제 및 인삼 Saponin의 상호작용)

  • Kim, Se-Chang;Jin, Seung-Ha;Jeong, No-Pal
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.123-132
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    • 1986
  • The pepsinogen secretion was stimulated by the cholecystokinin, caerulein, isoproterenol, and carbachol, respectively. But it was increased slightly and returned to control level by the combiantions of total saponin with each above the agents. Even though the atropine had the inhibition effect, the pepsinogen secretion was recovered to normal level from depressed condition by the combination of the atropine with total saponin. Propranolol showed the same pattern as atropine, too. On the other hand, the pepsinogen secretion was stimulated by the DBcAMP alone, but decreased to control level by the combination with the total saponin. In the case of DBcGMP, the pepsinogen secretion was decreased by itself, but stimulated the above control level by the combination with total saponin. Histamine alone had little effect on the pepsinogen secretion, but when combinated with total saponin, the pepsinogen secretion was increased. Serotonin alone and with total saponin, had no effect respectively, From the above results, the total saponin may have the normalization action stimulating or decreasing the pepsinogen secretion to the control level.

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The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Saponins on the Recombinant Serotonin Type 3 Receptor Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes (Xenopus oocytes에서 발현된 유전자재조합 세로토닌 제3형 수용체에 대한 한국산 홍삼 사포닌의 효과)

  • 구본녀;강정완;배선준;김미경;고성룡;민경태
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2001
  • The effect of Korean Ginseng saponins (total saponin, PD saponin and PT saponin) on the serotonin type 3 receptor, which is known to be involved in nausea and vomiting following anticancer chemotherapy or the general anesthesia, was investigated. after in vitro transcribed recombinant serotonin type 3 receptor in the Xenopus laevis oocyte, classic two electrodes voltage clamp technique was used. All of ginseng saponins inhibited the response of the agonist, serotonin, on the serotonin type 3 receptor in a dose-dependent manner. PT saponin showed to have the inhibitory effect more than 2 times as potent as PD saponin. Total saponin shifted the serotonin dose response plot to the right (EC$\_$50/, 0.70$\pm$0.17 $\mu$M into 3.57$\pm$1.42 $\mu$M, and Hill coefficient, 2.14$\pm$0.60 into 1.52$\pm$1.00). Ginseng saponin did not change the reversal potential (∼0 mV) of serotonin type 3 receptor. These results suggest that Korean ginseng saponin may have the inhibitory effect on serotonin type 3 receptor.

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The Effect of Ginseng Saponin on The Growth of Bacillus cereus (인삼 Saponin이 Bacillus cereus의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hae-Sook;Lee, Ho-Yong;Lee, Young-Mee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.449-453
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    • 1990
  • This study was designed to illuciate the effect of ginseng saponin on the growth of Bacillus cereus 425. The bacteria was cultured in the broth medium treated with ginseng saponin. The result is as follows : The binding experiment was tried to see relationship between the growth stimulation and increased nutrient absorption. The result showed that stimulation of glucose binding especially, increased cell growth. The ginseng saponin stimulated the cell growth showed a significant increase of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities.

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Saponin and Ginsenoside Content in Korean Red Ginseng Products (고려홍삼 제품류의 사포닌 및 진세노사이드 함량)

  • 최강주;고성룡
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.178-182
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    • 1989
  • Red ginseng products manufactured by the Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Corporation were analyzed to determine the crude saponin , total saponin and ginsenoside contentents by gravimetry, spertrometry and HPLC, respectively, to see if effective quality control of the components in the products can be achieved. Medicinal powders, powders, tablets and capsules which were made from ginseng powder showed similarity in saponin content, the ratio of PD to PT saponin, and the ginsenoside content and composition, while extract powder, extract, extract tea, extract pills and tea, which were made of ginseng extract, showed difference in saponin content, ratio of PD to PT saponin, and the content and composition of ginsengside. It is, accordingly, believed that ginseng products which are uniform in contents and saponin composition can be produced by carrying out strict quality control throughout the processes of making raw red ginseng into final products.

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Effect of Ginseng Saponin Fractions on Phagocytosis and Chemotaxis of Murine Macrophages (대식세포의 식세포활동과 화학주성에 대한 인삼분획물의 영향)

  • Shin, Eun-Kyoung;Kim, Sei-Chang
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1996
  • The phagocytosis and chemotaxis of murine macrophages after treated with saponin fractions are investigated. Phagocytic appearance against yeast was photographed by dying with Wright-Giemsa. Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage was invreased in diol saponin treatment by 48% and was decreased in total saponin treatment by 35%. The ingestion of alveolar macrophage was increased by 50% maximally. Peritoneal chemotactic activity was shown in 17% increases and only diol saponin had effect in alveolar macrophage by 16%. According to SDS-PAGE method the contents of actin did not show any alterations.

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