• Title, Summary, Keyword: Saponin

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Effect of t:inseng Extracts on the Activities of Fatty Acid Metabolism Enzymes. (지방산 대사효소활성에 미치는 인삼 추출물의 영향)

  • 이영옥;정노팔
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 1985
  • It has been known that the ginseng extracts activate the lipid metabolism in animal body. The experiments were undertaken to elucidate the effects of total, diol, and trial saponin of ginseng on the activities of acyl Co-A synthetase and hydroxyacyl Co-A dehydrogenase involved in fatty acid metabolism in normal albino rat liver. The acyl Co-A synthetase activity, in vitro, was increased by 20% with treatment of 2.5${\times}$10-3% total saponin, by 14% with 2.5${\times}$10-3% diol saponin, arid 30% with 2.5${\times}$10-4% triol saponin, respectively. And the enzyme activity was increased by 27% at 2 hours after intraperitoneal injection of total saponin. Hydroxyacyl Co-A dehydrogenase activity, in vitro, was increased by 77% with 10-4% total saponin, by 64% with 10-2% diol saponin, and by 72% with 10-3% triol saponin, respectively. Also, the enzyme activity, in vivo, was increased by 15.3% and 33% at 2 hours and 4 hours.

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The Effects of Ginseng Saponin on Aflatoxin Production and the Mutagenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus (Aspergillus parasiticus의 Aflatoxin 생성과 돌연변이 유발능에 미치는 인삼 Saponin의 영향)

  • 백형석;구재관;전홍기
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 1988
  • The effect of ginseng saponin on aflatoxin(AF) production by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL2999 and the mutagenicity of produced aflatoxin. The production of aflatoxin were decreased by the addition of ginseng saponin and the most effective concentration was 0.05%. The ratio of aflatoxin $B_{1}$ and aflatoxin $G_{1}$ were not changed by the addition of ginseng saponin. For the nutagenicity test, Ames method were adopted. Mutagenicity of mycelial aflatoxin was decreased by the addition of ginseng saponin on TA98, but not changed on TA100. Mutagenicity of excreted aflatoxin to broth was slightly increased by the saponin on TA98, but decreased on TA100.

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Effects of Ginseng Saponin on Morphine Physical Dependence (몰핀의 신체적 의존성에 미치는 인삼 Saponin의 효과)

  • 김학성;오기완
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 1992
  • The present experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the ginseng total saponin on the development of physical dependence on morphine via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) route. Morphine (10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/${mu}ell$/hr) was continuously infused via osmotic minipumps into lateral cerebral ventricle of male Sprague Dawley rats for 7 days. Concurrent ginseng total saponin (100, 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/10${mu}ell$/hr) was infused intraperitoneally (i.p) via osmotic pumps for 7 days. Treatment with ginseng total saponin (200$\mu\textrm{g}$/10${mu}ell$/hr) significantly diminished jumping, teeth chattering, hypothermia and weight loss precipitated by naloxone, compared with those animals received only morphine infusion. These results suggest that ginseng total saponin has central effect on the inhibition of physical dependence on morphine, as systemic ginseng total saponin inhibits the development of physical dependence in rats infused with morphine intracerebroventricularly.

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Triterpenoid Saponin Contents of the Leaf, Stem and Root of Codonopsis lanceolata (더덕 잎, 줄기, 뿌리 부위의 Triterpenoid 사포닌 함량)

  • Kim, Ji Ah;Moon, Heung Kyu;Choi, Yong Eui
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2014
  • Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) has been used in traditional medicines, as its roots contain several kinds of 3,28-bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponin with high medicinal values. In this study, we induced hairy root-derived transgenic plants of C. lanceolata and analyzed triterpenoid saponins from the leaf, stem and root. Transgenic plants were regenerated from the hairy roots via somatic embryogenesis. The saponins are lancemaside A, B and E, foetidissimoside A, and aster saponin Hb. Transgenic plants contained richer triterpenoids saponin than wild-type plants. Major saponin lancemaside A was the most abundant saponin in the stem from transgenic-plant, $4.76mg{\cdot}1^{-1}dry$ stem. These results suggest that transgenic plants of C. lanceolata could be used as medicinal materials for the production of triterpene saponins.

Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

  • Kim, Eun Jin;Oh, Hyun-A;Choi, Hyuck Jai;Park, Jeong Hill;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Nam Jae
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2013
  • To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin reduced serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased by adenine. Based on these findings, the ameliorating effect of SG on chronic renal failure may result from its saponin.

Saponins of Korean Ginseng Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Part III) -Saponins of ginseng by the cultivating locations, sampling seasons, plant parts, growing stages and the processings- (한국인삼(韓國人蔘)의 Saponin에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)제3보(第三報) -산지별(産地別), 부위별(部位別), 재배기간별(栽培期間別) 인삼(人蔘) 및 가공중(加工中) Saponin함량(含量)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Cho, Sung-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.188-204
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    • 1977
  • The studies on the saponins of Korean ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, were performed according to the cultivating locations, sampling seasons, plant parts, and growing stages. The changes in saponin content in the course of manufacturing Red ginseng and Ginseng extract were observed. In this paper, a new method for the determination of the total and the individual saponin glucosides was proposed and applied to the samples under study. The method employing Digital Densitorol DMU-33C (Toyo electric Co., Japan) followed the separation of the saponins by means of a preparative thin layer chromatography. The saponin contents and their fractional distribution were summarized as follows: 1. The average concentrations(% plant dry weight) of semi-purified saponins in the roots of Korean ginseng planted in the various locations were 5.0%(Keumsan), 6.0% (Kimpo), and 5.4% (Pocheon), respectively. 2. There were 3.3% saponins in White ginseng(Rhizome) and 12.7% saponins in Ginseng tail (Fibrous root). 3. Regarding the year of growth, the contents of saponins were 90.3mg (2-year-old ginseng), 254.4mg (3-year-old ginseng), 404.2mg (4-year-old ginseng). 999.6mg (5-year-old ginseng), and 1377.1mg (6-year-old ginseng) respectively, and the saponin factions containing panaxatriol as an aglycone increased. 4. Thin layer chromatography revealed that Red ginseng yielded many saponins which Shibata et al. designated as $ginsenoside-Rb_1$ (22.1%), $-Rb_2(15.4%)$, -Rc(12.6%), -Re (15.7%), and $-Rg_1$, (9.3%). 5. 29.9% of crude saponins were isolated from ethanolic extract of Panax ginseng fibrous root and their extraction yield was 94.2% of fibrous root saponin.

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Effect of crude ginseng saponin and raw ginseng juice on the growth of ginseng root rot organisms, Fusarium solani and Erwinia carotovora (인삼 조 Saponin과 조즙액이 인삼근부병균 Fusarium solani와 Erwinia carotovora의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Chang-Seuk;Ohh Seung-Hwan
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1981
  • Effect of crude saponin and raw ginseng juice on root rot pathogens such as Fusarium solani and Erwinia carotovora for there growth or spore germination was investigated. Macroconidial germination of F. solani was decreased as the incrasee of the crude saponin concentration. especially, percentage of the germination was remarkably reduced when the concentration was more than 500ppm. The spore production of F. solani was also reduced as the increase of the crude saponin concentration and this phenomenon was particularly profound on a solid medium. Mycelial growth was decreased when the crude saponin was added, while the effect of the concentration was not apparently significant. The higher concentration of raw ginseng juice is, the more the growth of F. solani. Growth of E. carotovora was enhanced by crude ginseng saponin and raw ginseng juice. The crude ginseng saponin stimulated the growth of E. carotovora as the increase of the concentration, while more growth of the bacteria obtained at $1\%$ raw ginseng juice added.

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Effects of crude Saponin on growth and Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus (Saponin이 Aspergillus parasiticus의 발육과 Aflatoxin생합성에 미치는 효과)

  • 박재림;임광식;이종근
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.259-264
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    • 1985
  • The research was carried out for the purpose of finding effects of gerbal saponins on aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasitics NRRL 2999. A. parasiticus with $10^6$ conidia were grown at $30^{\circ}C$ for 9 days on the enriched medium that is optimum for the frowth and aflatoxins production by the mold. The inhibitory effect on the growth and aflatoxins produced by the mold occurred in the presence of 0.36% of crude red-ginseng saponin showing both the growth and aflatoxins production come to 62.3% (growth), 38.7% (aflatoxin $B_1$) and 22.9% (aflatoxin $G_1$) of the control. Thd next effective saponin to inhibit the growth and aflatoxins production was from burdock seeds. However, saponin extracted from honeysuckle flowers had no inhibitory effect. The mold caused no changes in the pH of the medium when it contained red-ginseng saponin. Red-ginseng saponin was more effective than the white-ginseng in inhibiting both the growth and aflatoxin production.

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High Yield Saponin Production by Mass Cultures of Ginseng Transformed Tissue I. Induction, Culture of Transformed Tissue and Selection of High-Saponin-Producing Clones in Ginseng (인삼 형질전환 조직의 다량배양에 의한 Saponin 고 생산 I. 인삼에서 형질전환 조직의 유도, 배양과 Saponin 고 생산능주 선발)

  • 이정석;고경민
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 1994
  • Hairy root clones of Panax ginseng were established by selection of some hairy roots formed on the leaf, stem and root segments transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain $A_4$. The transformed roots grew well in MS medium under the dark condition. To confirm the transformation with Ri-T-DNA, dot blot hybridization and opine analysis were Performed. Among four hairy roots induced from different part of ginseng, the HB3 hairy roots were examined for selection of high-saponin-producing clones. Four clones isolated from HB3 hairy root cultures displayed various phenotypes characterized by growth and total saponin content. Maximum growth was obtained for cultures of HB3-10 clone and the content of total saponin was 0.55 wt%. However, higher amount of total saponin was obtained with HB3-2 clone cultures(0.74 wt%) in spite of lower growth. Dot blot hybridization confirmed the introduction of Ri-T-DNA in the plant genome. In the opine test, agropine and mannopine were detected from all hairy root clones.

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Anti-lipid Peroxdation Effect of Ginsenoside Rd and Its Metabolite Compound K (진세노사이드 Rd와 사포닌 대사물인 compound K의 항지질과산화 효과)

  • Kim, Kyeng-Hyen;Seong, Geum-Su;Mun, Yeun-Ja;Park, Si-Jun;Shin, Mee-Ran;Chang, Che-Ghul
    • The Journal of Traditional Korean Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2006
  • To study on antioxidant effects in the liver of 40-week-old mouse, the sample were orally pretreated 5mg/kg/day for 5 days with red ginseng saponin components(total saponin, protopanaxadiol saponin, protopanaxatriol saponin, ginsenoside-Rd, ginsenoside-Re, compound-K) for 5 days. The ability of saponin to protect the mouse liver from oxidative damage was examined by determining the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GPx) and the contents of glutathione, the level of malondialdehyde, The only protopanaxadiol among the ginseng saponin fractions was significantly increased the hepatic SOD activity(p<0.01). The red ginseng saponin induced a slight increase of GPx activity, especially ginsenoside Rd, compound K and protopanaxatriol treatments significantly increased its activity. The content of glutathione was significantly increased by total saponin, protopanaxadiol and ginsenoside Rd(p<0.01), but the oxidized glutathione level was lowered in all the red ginseng saponin. Finally, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased by ginsenoside Rd and protopanaxadiol. In conclusion, protopanaxadiol and ginsenoside Rd among the saponin fraction were especially increased in the activity of hepatic antioxidative enzyme and decreased the lipid peroxidation that was expressed in term of MDA formation. This comprehensive antioxidant effects of red ginseng saponin seems to be by a certain action of saponin other than a direct antioxidant action.

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