• Title, Summary, Keyword: Saponin

Search Result 1,290, Processing Time 0.067 seconds

Chemical Components, DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Inhibitory Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in Allium hookeri Cultivated under Open Field and Greenhouse Conditions (노지 및 시설재배 삼채 뿌리 및 잎의 이화학 성분, DPPH 라디칼 소거능 및 Nitric Oxide 생성 억제효과)

  • Won, Jun-Yeon;Yoo, Young-Choon;Kang, Eun-Ju;Yang, Hye;Kim, Gwan-Hou;Seong, Bong-Jae;Kim, Sun-Ick;Han, Seung-Ho;Lee, Sox-Su;Lee, Ka-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.42 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1351-1356
    • /
    • 2013
  • To enhance the utilization of Allium hookeri (AH) as a food, characteristics of AH roots and leaves cultivated under open field and greenhouse conditions were investigated. The moisture content of the roots and leaves were 81.05 to 84.18% and 88.85 to 90.12%, respectively. The moisture content of AH cultivated in the open field was 2 to 3% lower than the moisture content of AH cultivated in the greenhouse for both roots and leaves. The content of nitrogen-free extract, carbohydrates, was 13.49 to 16.20% in the roots and 7.08 to 7.79% in the leaves. The main mineral generated from both open field and greenhouse cultivation was potassium, at 503.98 to 512.08 mg% in leaves. The free sugar content of roots cultivated in the open field was four times higher than the content in the leaves, and roots cultivated in the greenhouse contained three times lower free sugar than the leaves. In particular, the fructose content of roots cultivated in the open field was about 12 times higher than roots cultivated in the greenhouse. The crude saponin and total polyphenol content was higher in leaves than roots, and was higher in the open field than the greenhouse. The $IC_{50}$ for DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest, 2.74 mg/mL, in 70% MeOH extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the greenhouse. Water and 70% MeOH extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the greenhouse showed no cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells. Water extracts of AH leaves cultivated in the open field markedly inhibited the production of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. These results suggest that AH may be used as the material of health functional food.

Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Burdock (Arctium lappa) During Repeated Steaming and Drying Procedures (증건 횟수에 따른 우엉의 이화학적 변화 및 관능적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, GeumYang;Son, YangJu;Jeon, YuHo;Kang, HeeJin;Hwang, InKyeoung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.47 no.3
    • /
    • pp.336-344
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate changes in the physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensory properties of burdock during 9 repeated rounds of steaming ($90^{\circ}C$, 3 h) and drying ($60^{\circ}C$, 20 h) procedures. The moisture content decreased from 81.95% to 7.64% as the process was repeated. Fresh burdock showed the highest total sugar content, with 518.35 mg/g of soluble sugar, 86% being inulin. The reducing sugar content was the greatest (377.00 mg/g) in burdock that had been processed 3 times. The brown color continuously intensified, reaching its peak at 7 rounds of processing, and then weakened. Crude saponin content was the highest (6.17%) after the 5th processing. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) were the highest at the 3rd and 5th procedures, respectively. Repeated processing weakened the grass and root odors and the bitter, astringent, and metallic tastes, whereas it strengthened the sweet and savory odors, caramel flavor, and richness.

Pro-apoptotic Effects of Platycodin D Isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum in Human Leukemia Cells (도라지 유래 사포닌 platycodin D에 의한 인체 백혈병세포의 apoptosis 유도)

  • Park, Sang Eun;Lee, Su Young;Shin, Dong Yeok;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Jin, Myung Ho;Park, Seon Young;Chung, Yoon Ho;Hwang, Hye Jin;Hong, Sang Hoon;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.389-398
    • /
    • 2013
  • Platycodin D is a major constituent of triterpene saponins, which is found in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, Platycodi Radix, which is widely used in traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Several pharmacological effects of this compound have been reported recently, such as anti-inflammation, immunogenicity, anti-adipogenesis, lowered cholesterol, and anti-cancer activity. However, the mechanism by which this action occurs is poorly understood. In this study, we found that platycodin D greatly increased the potential of the anti-proliferative effect in various cancer cell lines. Our data revealed that platycodin D treatment resulted in a time- and concentration-response growth inhibition of U937 cells by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and the accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. Apoptosis induction of U937 cells by platycodin D correlated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caused the down-regulation of IAP family members. In addition, platycodin D treatment resulted in proteolytic activation of caspase-3, the concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, and the collapse of the mitochondria membrane potential (${\Delta}{\Psi}_m$). However, the cytotoxic effects induced by platycodin D treatment were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrated the important role that caspase-3 played in the observed cytotoxic effect. These findings suggest that platycodin D may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of human leukemia U937 cells. These findings also provided important new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of platycodin D.

Comparative Study on Immuno-Enhancing Effects of Red Ginseng Fractions (홍삼의 분획에 따른 면역활성 비교)

  • Hyun, Sun Hee;Kim, Eun Sun;Lee, Sang Min;Kyung, Jong Soo;Lee, Sang Myung;Lee, Jong Won;Kim, Mee Ree;Hong, Jin Tae;Kim, Young Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.43 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1665-1673
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to compare the compositions and immuno-enhancing effects of 6-year-old red ginseng powder (RGP) with those of its fractions. RGP was subjected to extraction with 100% ethanol to obtain an ethanol fraction (E) and residue 1 (R1). Then, R1 was subjected to extraction with distilled water to obtain water fraction (W) and residue 2 (R2). Chemical compositions were as follows: 4.94% acidic polysaccharides and 1.56% ginsenosides (amounts of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rd, and Rg3) in RGP, 0.11% acidic polysaccharides and 6.99% ginsenosides in E, 4.93% acidic polysaccharides and 0.40% ginsenosides in R1, 0.50% acidic polysaccharides and 0.30% ginsenosides in R2, and 7.46% acidic polysaccharides and 0.61% ginsenosides in W. Immuno-enhancing effects of fractions from RGP were examined based on suppression of immune responses by cyclophosphamide. In the first fraction test, the antibody response to SRBCs increased significantly in the R1-treated group, but not the E-treated group. In the second fraction test, W showed higher immuno-enhancing effect than R1 and R2. W, which contained the highest amount of acidic polysaccharides, restored numbers of T and B cells, macrophages, as well as $CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ T cells in the spleen suppressed by cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that acidic polysaccharides from red ginseng may be more effective than saponin in enhancing immune functions and reducing immunotoxicity of cyclophosphamide.

Functional component analysis and physical property of Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) powder (천년초 분말의 기능성분 분석과 물리적 특성 연구)

  • Shin, Dong-Sun;Han, Gwi-Jung;Oh, Se-Gwan;Park, Hye-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
    • /
    • v.22 no.6
    • /
    • pp.838-844
    • /
    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to perform a functional components analysis and investigate the physical properties of powders made from the stems or fruit of freeze-dried Cheonnyuncho cactus (Opuntia humifusa). The functional components analysis showed that the stem and fruit powders han vitamin C levels of 42.14 mg and 105.21 mg, respectively. The stems powder contained more lutein than the fruit powder. The fruit powder contained more vitamin C than the stem powder. The SDF (soluble dietary fiber) and IDF (insoluble dietary fiber) in the stem powder were 45.24% and 22.15%, respectively, which were higher then the values for the fruit powder. The stem and fruit powders contained 19.30 mg/g and 25.10 mg/g of crude saponin, respectively. The pH of the stem and fruit powders was 5.34 and 5.07, respectively, both indicating low acidity. The L, a and b values of the stem powder color were 78.28, -3.71, and 19.19, respectively. The L, a and b values of the fruit powder color were 55.56, 24.84, and -3.18, respectively. The stems powder had a higher bulk density, water holding capacity, and swelling power than those of the fruit powder, but water-retaining capacity of the stem powder was lower than that of the fruit powder. In addition, the stems powder had a higher viscous material content and water uptake compared to the fruit powder. Based on the above results, we determined that Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) powder had potentially useful functional components and physical properties.

Effect of Fermented Platycodon grandiflorum Extract on Cell Proliferation and Migration in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells (혈관내피세포의 성장 및 세포 이동에 영향을 미치는 발효도라지추출물의 효과)

  • Choi, Woosoung;Song, Jina;Park, Mi-Hyeon;Yu, Heui Jong;Park, Heonyong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-67
    • /
    • 2016
  • Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle (Korean name, ‘Doraji’) is a perennial plant containing various triterpenoid saponins. The roots of this plant have traditionally been used as a food material in Korea. Here, we prepared a fermented P. grandiflorum extract (PG). Although it was previously reported that P. grandiflorum A. extract has a variety of physiological functionalities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, little is known about its vascular functions. In this study, we executed a series of experiments to identify the effect of PG on endothelial cells. PG at a high concentration (100 μg/ml) was found to induce cell detachment, whereas PG at a low concentration (0.1 μg/ml) appeared to promote cell proliferation and migration in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The cell detachment induced by the high concentration was not associated with cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. In addition, we found that PG at the high concentration formed a small vesicular structure called an endothelial microparticle (EMP). The EMP was prepared by centrifugal fractionation and determined with flow cytometry and a microscope. Interestingly, PG-induced cell detachment was found to be mediated by EMP. We furthermore determined that PG at the low concentration activated Akt, a crucial cell-signaling molecule, and then controlled cell proliferation and migration. Overall, our findings suggest that PG at low doses maintains vascular stability by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, and enhances the efficacy of wound healing by cell proliferation and migration activity.

Inhibitory Effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglial Cells through Regulation of Neuroinflammatory Mediators, the MAP Kinase Pathway, and the Cell Cycle (Lipopolysaccharide로 자극된 BV-2 미세교세포에서 신경염증 매개체, MAP kinase경로, 세포주기의 조절에 의한 천문동(Asparagus cochinchinensis)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Hyun Ah;Kim, Ji Eun;Choi, Jun Young;Sung, Ji Eun;Youn, Woo Bin;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Hee Seob;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.331-342
    • /
    • 2020
  • The suppression of neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells can be considered a key target for improving the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Asparagus cochinchinensis has traditionally been used as a medicine to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory diseases, and brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of an aqueous extract from A. cochinchinensis root (AEAC), particularly its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with four different concentrations of AEAC. No significant toxicity was detected in BV-2 cells treated with AEAC. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels were 21% lower in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. Lower proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) levels were also detected in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group, albeit at varying rates. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group compared to the Vehicle+LPS group, enhancement of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group, while cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase caused by LPS treatment was less severe in the AEAC+LPS group. The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by LPS treatment was also lower in the AEAC-pretreated group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. This is the first study to show that AEAC exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity against LPS stimulation by regulating the MAPK signaling pathway, the cell cycle, and ROS production.

Analysis of Biological Activities and Functional Components in Different Parts of Asparagus (아스파라거스 부위별 유효성분 및 생리활성 분석)

  • Kwon, Soon-Bae;Kwon, Hye-Jeong;Jeon, Shin-Jae;Seo, Hyun-Taek;Kim, Hee-Yeon;Lim, Jae-Gil;Park, Ji-Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.1
    • /
    • pp.67-74
    • /
    • 2020
  • In this study, various constituents and biological activities of different parts of asparagus were analyzed and compared. The Ca content was high in the leaves, K was significantly high in the top 25 cm of the spear, and Fe and Na were significantly high in the roots. The ascorbic acid, rutin, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid contents were high in the leaves, and the asparagine and glutathione contents were significantly high in the top 25 cm of the spear and roots, respectively. The bottom 5 cm of the spear had the highest saponin content compared with all other parts. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were the highest in the leaves. The bottom 5 cm of the spear had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, whereas the stem showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the usually inedible parts of asparagus may be highly valuable as high-quality functional components owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.

Clinical Applications and Efficacy of Korean Ginseng (고려인삼의 주요 효능과 그 임상적 응용)

  • Nam, Ki-Yeul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.111-131
    • /
    • 2002
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) received a great deal of attention from the Orient and West as a tonic agent, health food and/or alternative herbal therapeutic agent. However, controversy with respect to scientific evidence on pharmacological effects especially, evaluation of clinical efficacy and the methodological approach still remains to be solved. Author reviewed those articles published since 1980 when pharmacodynamic studies on ginseng have intensively started. Special concern was paid on metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, circulatory disorders, malignant tumor, sexual dysfunction, and physical and mental performance to give clear information to those who are interested in pharmacological study of ginseng and to promote its clinical use. With respect to chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, malignant disorders, and sexual disorders, it seems that ginseng plays preventive and restorative role rather than therapeutics. Particularly, ginseng plays a significant role in ameliorating subjective symptoms and preventing quality of life from deteriorating by long term exposure of chemical therapeutic agents. Also it seems that the potency of ginseng is mild, therefore it could be more effective when used concomitantly with conventional therapy. Clinical studies on the tonic effect of ginseng on work performance demonstrated that physical and mental dysfunction induced by various stresses are improved by increasing adaptability of physical condition. However, the results obtained from clinical studies cannot be mentioned in the indication, which are variable upon the scientist who performed those studies. In this respect, standardized ginseng product and providing planning of the systematic clinical research in double-blind randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the real efficacy for proposing ginseng indication. Pharmacological mode of action of ginseng has not yet been fully elucidated. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic researches reveal that the role of ginseng not seem to be confined to a given single organ. It has been known that ginseng plays a beneficial role in such general organs as central nervous, endocrine, metabolic, immune systems, which means ginseng improves general physical and mental conditons. Such multivalent effect of ginseng can be attributed to the main active component of ginseng,ginsenosides or non-saponin compounds which are also recently suggested to be another active ingredients. As is generally the similar case with other herbal medicines, effects of ginseng cannot be attributed as a given single compound or group of components. Diversified ingredients play synergistic or antagonistic role each other and act in harmonized manner. A few cases of adverse effect in clinical uses are reported, however, it is not observed when standardized ginseng products are used and recommended dose was administered. Unfavorable interaction with other drugs has also been suggested, which the information on the products and administered dosage are not available. However, efficacy, safety, interaction or contraindication with other medicines has to be more intensively investigated in order to promote clinical application of ginseng. For example, daily recommended doses per day are not agreement as 1-2g in the West and 3-6 g in the Orient. Duration of administration also seems variable according to the purpose. Two to three months are generally recommended to feel the benefit but time- and dose-dependent effects of ginseng still need to be solved from now on. Furthermore, the effect of ginsenosides transformed by the intestinal microflora, and differential effect associated with ginsenosides content and its composition also should be clinically evaluated in the future. In conclusion, the more wide-spread use of ginseng as a herbal medicine or nutraceutical supplement warrants the more rigorous investigations to assess its effacy and safety. In addition, a careful quality control of ginseng preparations should be done to ensure an acceptable standardization of commercial products.

홍삼 유래 성분들의 면역조절 효능

  • Jo, Jae-Yeol
    • Food preservation and processing industry
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.6-12
    • /
    • 2009
  • 면역반응은 외부 감염원으로부터 신체를 보호하고 외부감염원을 제거하고자 하는 주요항상성 유지기전의 하나이다. 이들 반응은 골수에서 생성되고 비장, 흉선 및 임파절 등에서 성숙되는 면역세포들에 의해 매개된다. 보통 태어나면서부터 얻어진 선천성 면역반응을 매개하는 대식세포, 수지상 세포 등과, 오랜기간 동안 감염된 다양한 면역원에 대한 경험을 토대로 얻어진 획득성 면역을 담당하는 T 임파구 등이 대표적인 면역세포로 알려져 있다. 다양한 면역질환이 최근 주요 사망률의 원인이 되고 있다. 최근, 암, 당뇨 및 뇌혈관질환 등이 생체에서 발생되는 급 만성염증에 의해 발생된다고 보고됨에 따라 면역세포 매개성 염증질환에 대한 치료제 개발을 서두르고 있다. 또한 암환자의 급격한 증가는 암발생의 주요 방어기전인 면역력 증강에 대한 요구들을 가중시키고 있다. 예로부터 사용되어 오던 고려인삼과 홍삼은 기를 보호하고 원기를 회복하는 명약으로 알려진 대표적인 우리나라 천연생약이다. 특별히, 홍삼은 단백질과 핵산의 합성을 촉진시키고, 조혈작용, 간기능 회복, 혈당강하, 운동수행 능력증대, 기억력 개선, 항피로작용 및 면역력 증대에 매우 효과가 좋은 것으로 보고되고 있다. 홍삼에 관한 많은 연구에 비해, 현재까지 홍삼이 면역력 증강에 미치는 효과에 대한 분자적 수준에서의 연구는 매우 미미한 것으로 확인되어져 있다. 홍삼의 투여는 NK 세포나 대식세포의 활성이 증가하고 항암제의 암세포 사멸을 증가시키는 것으로 확인되어졌다. 현재까지 알려진 주요 면역증강 성분은 산성다당류로 보고되었다. 또 한편으로 일부 진세노사이드류에서 항염증 효능이 확인되어졌으며, 이를 통해 피부염증 반응과 관절염에 대한 치료 효과가 있는 것으로 추측되고 있다 [본 연구는 KT&G 연구출연금 (2009-2010) 지원을 받아 이루어졌기에 이에 감사드린다]. 면역반응은 외부 감염물질의 침입으로 유도된 질병환경을 제거하고 수복하는 중요한 생체적 방어작용의 하나이다. 이들 과정은 체내로 유입된 미생물이나 미세화학물질들과 같은 독성물질을 소거하거나 파괴하는 것을 주요 역할로 한다. 외부로 부터 인체에 들어온 이물질에 대한 방어기전은 현재 두 가지 종류의 면역반응으로 구분해서 설명한다. 즉, 선천성 면역 반응 (innate immunity)과 후천성 면역 반응 (adaptive immunity)이 그것이다. 선천성 면역반응은 1) 피부나 점막의 표면과 같은 해부학적인 보호벽 구조와 2) 체온과 낮은 pH 및 chemical mediator (리소자임, collectin류) 등과 같은 생리적 방어구조, 3) phagocyte류 (대식세포, 수지상세포 및 호중구 등)에 의한 phagocytic/endocytic 방어, 그리고 4) 마지막으로 염증반응을 통한 감염에 저항하는 면역반응 등으로 구분된다. 후천성 면역반응은 획득성면역이라고도 불리고 특이성, 다양성, 기억 및 자기/비자기의 인식이라는 네 가지의 특징을 가지고 있으며, 외부 유입물질을 제거하는 반응에 따라 체액성 면역 반응 (humoral immune response)과 세포성 면역반응 (cell-mediated immune response)으로 구분된다. 체액성 면역은 침입한 항원의 구조 특이적으로 생성된 B cell 유래 항체와의 반응과 간이나 대식세포 등에서 합성되어 분비된 혈청내 보체 등에 의해 매개되는 반응으로 구성되어 있다. 세포성 면역반응은 T helper cell (CD4+), cytotoxic T cell (CD8+), B cell 및antigen presenting cell 중개를 통한 세포간 상호 작용에 의해 발생되는 면역반응이다. 선천성 면역반응의 하나인 염증은 우리 몸에서 가장 빈번히 발생되고 있는 방어작용의 하나이다. 예를 들면 감기에 걸렸을 경우, 환자의 편도선내 대식세포나 수지상세포류는 감염된 바이러스 단독 혹은 동시에 감염된 박테리아를 상대로 다양한 염증성 반응을 유도하게 된다. 또한, 상처가 생겼을 경우에도 감염원을 통해 유입된 병원성 세균과 주위조직내 선천성 면역담당 세포들 간의 면역학적 전투가 발생되게 된다. 이들 과정을 통해, 주위 세포나 조직이 손상되면, 즉각적으로 이들 면역세포들 (주로 phagocytes류)은 신속하게 손상을 극소화하고 더 나가서 손상된 부위를 원상으로 회복시키려는 일련의 염증반응을 유도하게 된다. 이들 반응은 우리가 흔히 알고 있는 발적 (redness), 부종 (swelling), 발열 (heat), 통증 (pain) 등의 증상으로 나타나게 된다. 즉, 손상된 부위 주변에 존재하는 모세혈관에 흐르는 혈류의 양이 증가하면서 혈관의 직경이 늘어나게 되고, 이로 인한 조직의 홍반과, 부어 오른 혈관에 의해 발열과 부종이 초래되는 것이다. 확장된 모세혈관의 투과성 증가는 체액과 세포들이 혈관에서 조직으로 이동하게 하는 원동력이 되고, 이를 통해 축적된 삼출물들은 단백질의 농도를 높여, 최종적으로 혈관에 존재하는 체액들이 조직으로 더 많이 이동되도록 유도하여 부종을 형성시킨다. 마지막으로 혈관 내 존재하는 면역세포들은 혈판 내벽에 점착되고 (margination), 혈관벽의 간극을 넓히는 역할을 하는 히스타민 (histamine)이나 일산화질소(nitric oxide : NO), 프로스타그린딘 (prostagladins : PGE2) 및 류코트리엔 (leukotriens) 등과 같은 chemical mediator의 도움으로 인해 혈관벽 사이로 삼출하게 되어 (extravasation), 손상된 부위로 이동하여 직접적인 외부 침입 물질의 파괴나 다른 면역세포들을 모으기 위한 cytokine (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-$\alpha$, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6 등) 혹은 chemokine (MIP-l, IL-8, MCP-l등)의 분비 등을 수행함으로써 염증반응을 매개하게 된다. 염증과정시 발생되는 여러 mediator 중 PGE2나 NO 및 TNF-$\alpha$ 등은 실험적 평가가 용이하여 이들 mediator 자체나 생성관련효소 (cyclooxygenase [COX] 및 nitric oxide synthase [NOS] 등)들은 현재항염증 치료제의 개발 연구시 주요 표적으로 연구되고 있다. 염증 반응은 지속기간에 따라 크게 급성염증과 만성염증으로 나뉘며, 삼출물의 종류에 따라서는 장액성, 섬유소성, 화농성 및 출혈성 염증 등으로 구분된다. 급성 염증 (acute inflammation)반응은 수일 내지 수주간 지속되는 일반적인 염증반응이라고 볼 수 있다. 국소반응은 기본징후인 발열과 발적, 부종, 통증 및 기능 상실이 특징적이며, 현미경적 소견으로는 혈관성 변화와 삼출물 형성이 주 작용이므로 일명 삼출성 염증이라고 한다. 만성 염증 (chronic inflammation)은, 급성 염증으로부터 이행되거나 만성으로 시작된다. 염증지속 기간은 보통 4주 이상 장기화 된다. 보통 염증의 경우에는 염증 생성 cytokine인 Th1 cytokine (IL-2, interferone [IFN]-$\gamma$ 및 TNF-$\alpha$ 등)의 생성 후, 거의 즉각적으로 항 염증성 cytokine인 Th2 cytokine(IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 및 transforming growth factor [TGF]-$\beta$ 등)이 생성되어 정상반응으로 회복된다. 그러나, 어떤 원인에서든 면역세포에 의한 염증원 제거 반응이 문제가 되면, 만성염증으로 진행된다. 이 반응에 주로 작용을 하는 염증세포로는 단핵구와 대식세포, 림프구, 형질세포 등이 있다. 암은 전세계적으로 사망률 1위의 원인이 되는 면역질환의 하나이다. 산화적 스트레스나 자외선 조사 혹은 암유발 물질들에 의해 염색체내 protooncogene, tumor-suppressor gene 혹은 DNA repairing gene의 일부 DNA의 돌연변이 혹은 결손 등이 발행되면 정상세포는 암화과정을 시작하게 된다. 양성세포 수준에서 약 5에서 10여년 후 악성수준의 암세포가 생성되게 되면 이들 세포는 새로운 환경을 찾아 전이하게 되는데 이를 통해 암환자들은 다양한 장기에 동인 오리진의 암세포들이 생성한 종양들을 가지게 된다. 이들 종양세포는 정상 장기의 기능을 손상시켜며 결국 생명을 잃게 만든다. 이들 염색체 수준에서의 돌연변이 유래 암세포는 거의 대부분이 체내 면역시스템에 의해 사멸되는 것으로 알려져 있다. 그러나 계속되는 스트레스나 암유발 물질의 노출은 체내 면역체계를 파괴하면서 최후의 방어선을 무너뜨리면서 암발생에 무방비 상태를 만들게 된다. 이런 이유로 체내 면역시스템의 정상적 가동 및 증강을 유도하게 하는 전략이 암예방시 매우 중요한 표적으로 인식되면서 다양한 형태의 면역증강 물질 개발을 시도하고 있다. 인삼은 두릅나무과의 여러해살이 풀로써, 오랜동안 한방 및 민간에서 원기를 회복시키고, 각종 질병을 치료할 수단으로 사용되고 있는 대표적인 전통생약이다. 예로부터 불로(不老), 장생(長生), 익기(益氣), 경신(經身)의 명약으로 구전되어졌는데, 이는 약 2천년 전 중국의 신농본초경(神農本草經)에서 "인삼은 오장(五腸)을 보하고, 정신을 안정시키고, 혼백을 고정하며 경계를 멈추게 하고, 외부로부터 침입하는 병사를 제거하여주며, 눈을 밝게 하고 마음을 열어 더욱 지혜롭게 하고 오랫동안 복용하면 몸이 가벼워지고 장수한다" 라고 기술되어있는 데에서 유래한 것이다. 다양한 연구를 통해 우리나라에서 생산되는 고려인삼 (Panax ginseng)이 효능 면에서 가장 탁월한 것으로 알려져 있으며 특별이 고려인삼으로부터 제조된 고려홍삼은 전세계적으로도 그 효능이 우수한 것으로 보고되어 있다. 대부분의 홍삼 약효는 dammarane계열의 triterpenoid인 ginsenosides라고 불리는 인삼 saponin에 의해 기인된 것으로 알려져 있다. 이들 화합물군의 기본 골격에 따라, protopanaxadiol (PD)계 (22종) 및 protopanaxatriol (PT)계 (10종)으로 구분되고 있다 (표 1). 실험적 접근을 통해 인삼의 약리작용 이해를 위한 다양한 노력들이 경주되고 있으나, 여전히 많은 부분에서 충분히 이해되고 있지 않다. 그러나, 현재까지 연구된 인삼의 약리작용 관련 연구들은 심혈관, 당뇨, 항암 및 항스트레스 등과 같은 분야에서 인삼효능이 우수한 것으로 보고하고 있다. 그러나 면역조절 및 염증현상과 관련된 최근 연구결과들은 많지 않으나, 향후 다양하게 연구될 효능부분으로 인식되고 있다.

  • PDF