• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sandy loam upland soil

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Evaluating germination of lettuce and soluble organic carbon leachability in upland sandy loam soil applied with rice husk and food waste biochar (왕겨 바이오차 및 음식물쓰레기 바이오차가 밭 사양토에서 상추발아 및 수용성 유기탄소 용출에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Han, Kyung-Hwa;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Jung, Kang-Ho;Cho, Hee-Rae;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk (RHB) and food waste biochar (FWB) on upland soil with sandy loam texture, in terms of physico-chemical analysis, lettuce seed germination test, and orgainc carbon leaching experiment. RHB and FWB had different physico-chemical properties each other. Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) of RHB was 32, showing two times higher than that of FWB. FWB had high salt and heavy metal content, compared to RHB. This is probably due to different ingredients and production processing between two biochars each other. Results of germination test with Lettuce showed lower germination rate when FWB was applied because of higher salt concentration compared to control and RHB. Organic carbon leaching test using saturated soil column (${\Phi}75{\times}h75mm$) with $10MT\;ha^{-1}$ biochar application rate, showed higher saturated hydraulic conductivity in rice husk biochar treatment column, compared to control and food waste biochar treatment. The highest total organic carbon concentration in column effluent was lower than those in both of rice husk biochar and food waste biochar, whereas the differences was negligible after 9 pore volumes of effluent. Consequently, biochars from byproducts such as rice husk and food waste in sandy loam textured upland soil could enhance a buffer function such as reduction of leaching from soil, but the harmful ingredient to crops such as high salt and heavy metals could limit the agricultural use of biochars.

The Effect of Soil Textures on the Flowering characteristics and Green Manure Yield of Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) in Upland Soil

  • Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Seo, Myung-Chul;Park, Tea-Sun;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Sang, Wan-gyu;Shin, Pyeong;Lee, Geon Hwi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.367-367
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    • 2017
  • Crimson clover, a legume crop, is a landscape crop and green manure crop that can be sowing in spring and autumn. Its red flower blooms in May, and serves various roles such as landscape composition, weeds suppressing, prevention of soil loss and nutrient on sloping land and supplying nitrogen and organic matter in soil. Thus, in order to utilize this crop in agriculture land, we evaluated the growth characteristics of crimson clover cultivated in four different soil textures, sand, sandy loam, loam, and clay loam. The nitrogen content of crimson clover was 15.8 g kg-1 and C/N rate was 20.3. Its growth was good in sandy loam and loam. Its plant height was 42.5 cm in sandy loam and 49.5 cm in loamy, respectively, which are approximately 20 cm longer than the sand and clay loam. The crimson clover in sandy loam and loam bloomed about seven days earlier than those in sand and clay loam. Regarding number of flower per hill and flower length, there were no difference between soil textures. Dry weight of crimson clover was 2.5 Mg ha-1, 2.3 Mg ha-1 each in sandy loam and loam. Therefore, it was approximately 0.8 ~ 1.1 Mg ha-1 higher than dry weight of sand and sandy loam. Plant height and dry weight of crimson clover was increased late harvest time. Nitrogen contribution were higher in loam and clay loam, when it was respectively 51.3 kg ha-1, 53.5 kg ha-1. Therefore, according to flowering properties and dry weight, the growth and development of crimson clover was finest in sandy loam and loam.

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The Effect of Long-term Application of different Organic Material Sources on Soil Physical Property and Microflora of Upland Soil (유기물원이 다른 퇴비연용이 밭토양의 물리성 및 미생물상 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Gu;Lee, Sang-Bok;Kim, Seong-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.365-372
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various kinds of composts on the change of soil physical properties and microorganism in upland soils. Field experiments were conducted in the loam and sandy loam soils, while the clay loam and sandy loam soils were used for laboratory experiments. Various kinds of composts such as poultry manure compost(PMC). cow manure compost(CMC). human excrement sludge(HES), and food industrial sludge compost(FISE) were applied annually at rates of 0, 40, and $80Mg\;ha^{-1}$ to soils grown with soybean and maize plants for 4 years during 1994 to 1997. The results of this study were as follows : Bulk density of loam soil decreased with compost application to $1.07{\sim}1.32Mg\;m^{-3}$ compared with $1.49Mg\;m^{-3}$ of control plot, while in sandy loam soil it decreased to $1.00{\sim}1.20Mg\;m^{-3}$ compared with $1.25Mg\;m^{-3}$ of control plot. Bulk density of soil was decreased according to maize cultivation compared with bare control, but soybean cultivation was similar. Population of organic material decomposing microorganisms was increased rapidly at the initial incubation stage at $25^{\circ}C$, and increased more sensitively at the loam soil than sandy loam soil. In the case of the change of microorganisms associated with nitrogen circulation, ammonia oxidizing bacteria was more at the initial incubation stage, and denitrifying bacteria was more at the initial incubation stage, and denitrifying bacteria increased until 1~4 weeks after incubation and increased more at the loam soil than sandy loam soil.

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The Effect of Soil Textures on the Flowering characteristics and Green Manure Yield of Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) in Upland Soil

  • Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Seo, Myung-Chul;Park, Tea-Sun;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Sang, Wan-gyu;Shin, Pyeong;Lee, Geon Hwi
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2016
  • Crimson clover, a legume crop, is a landscape crop and green manure crop that can be sowing in spring and autumn. Its red flower blooms in May, and serves various roles such as landscape composition, weeds suppressing, prevention of soil loss and nutrient on sloping land and supplying nitrogen and organic matter in soil. Thus, in order to utilize this crop in agriculture land, we evaluated the growth characteristics of crimson clover cultivated in four different soil textures; sand, sandy loam, loam, and clay loam. The nitrogen content of crimson clover was $15.8g\;kg^{-1}$ and C/N ratio was 20.3. Its plant height was 42.5 cm in sandy loam and 49.5 cm in loamy, respectively, approximately 20 cm longer than the sand and clay loam. The crimson clover in sandy loam and loam bloomed about seven days earlier than those in sand and clay loam. Regarding number of flower per hill and flower length, there were no difference among the soil textures. Dry weight of crimson clover for sandy loam and loam was $2.5Mg\;ha^{-1}$ and $2.3Mg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively, $0.8{\sim}1.1Mg\;ha^{-1}$ higher than that of sand and sandy loam. Plant height and dry weight of crimson clover increased with delaying harvest time. Nitrogen contribution in loam and clay loam was $51.3kg\;ha^{-1}$ and $53.5kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. Therefore, in terms of flowering properties and dry weight, the proper soil texture for the growth and development of crimson clover was sandy loam and loam.

A Study on the Consumptive Use of Irrigated Water in Upland (II) (전작물 수분 소비량 조사 연구(II))

  • 김시원;최덕수
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1985
  • To define the amount of consumptive use of upland crops, the moisture consumption characters were investigated with different soil moisture content by soil properties(loam, sandy loam, sand) at the experimental farm of Kon-Kuk University from April 20 to July 20 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. Total moisture consumption under bare soil condition had an order of loam> sandy loam> sand and showed an order of pF 1.5> pF2. 1> pF 2.7 by re-irrigation point and the average during the experimental period (92days) was 435. 9mm and the daily average moisture consumption was 4. 7mm. 2. The moisture consumption characters of bare soil plot obtained showed that the amount of irrigation water per one time and the days of intermission increased and, on the contrary, the times of irrigation and the total amount of irrigation water decreased by the increment of re-irrigation point in the same soil 3. Total moisture consumption of spring cabbage under open cultivation showed 528.6 rim in maximum and had an order of loam> sandy loam> sand. In the aspect of rc-irrigation point, it had an order of pFl. 5> pF 2.1> pF 2.7. In case the planning basic year was taken into account, the amount of irrigation water needed for open cultivation was 456. 3 mm and its average daily moisture consumption was 6. 2mm. 4. Total moisture consumption of summer cucumber under open cultivation showed 635. 8mm in maximum and had an order of loam> sandy loam> sand. In the aspect of re-irrigation point, it had an order of pF 1.5> pF2. 1> pF2. 7 In case the planning basic year was taken into consideration, the amount of irrigation water was 516. 9mm and its aversge daily moisture consumption was 6. 5mm. 5. The result of cabbage cultivation showed its maximum yield in loam soil when the pF values were maintained from 1,5 to 2.1 and then the evapotranspiration ratio was 1, 76 and also when the amount of irrigation water were similar, it showed effective to reduce the days of intermtission. 6. The result of cucumber cultivation showed its maximum yield in sandy loam soil when the pF value maintained from 1.5 to 1.7 and when the irrigation point maintained at pF 2,7 in sandy soil, its yield was severely decreased.

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Studies on the Consumptive Use of Irrigated Water in Upland (田作物 水分消費量 調査 硏究)

  • Kim, Shi-Won;Lee, Kyong-Hi;Doh, Duk-Hyun
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.47-58
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    • 1984
  • The study results of the mosture consumption character and irrigation effect of tomato, red pepper and chinese cabbage, in case the soil moisture is kept with different moisture content by the soil properties(loam, sandy loam, sand), are summarized as follows: 1. The available rainfall under bare soil condition had an order of sand>sandy loam> loam and their average was 64.2%. 2. Total moisture consumption under bare soil condition had an order of loam>sandy loam>sand and their average was 4.2mm. 3. The amount of irrigated water to keep certain soil moisture under bare soil condition showed minimum in sand and maximum in loam. It is considered because the capillary phenomenon was more developed in loam. 4. Total moisture consumption of tomatoes under premature cultivation showed 925mm in maximum and had on order of loam>sandy loam>sand. In the aspect of re-irrigation point, it had an order of PF 1.5> PF 1.7>PF 2.1. In case the twenty years's drought frequency was taken into account, the target amount of irrigation water meeded for premature cultivation was 916mm and its average daily moisture consumption was 10.8mm. 5. Total moisture consumption of red pepper under open cultivation showed 1145mm in maximum and had an order of loam>Sandy loam>sand. In the aspect of re-irrigation frequency was taken into consideration the target amount of irrigation water was 1,174.8mm and its average daily moisture consumption was 8.0mm. 6. Total moisture consumption of autumn chinese cabbages was 349mm in maximum and had an order of loam>sandy loam>sand. In the aspect of re-irrigation point, it had an order of PF 1.5>PF 2.1>PF 2.7. In case the twenty year's drought frequency was taken into account, the target amount of irrigation water needed for chinese cabbage cultivation was 259.5mm and its average daily moisture consumption was 6.5mm. 7. It is effective to keep the soil moisture of tomato from PF 1.5 to PF 2.1 in loam and the soil moisture control was effective in sandy loam than red pepper and chinese cabbage. In sand, the production was severaly decreased and the re-irrigation point of PF 1.5 was effective.

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The Effect of Long-term Application of Different Organic Material Sources on Chemical Properties of Upland Soil (유기물원이 다른 퇴비연용이 밭토양의 화학성 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Gu;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Lee, Sang-Bok;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Seong-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.416-431
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    • 2000
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various kinds of composts on the change of soil chemical properties in upland soils. Field experiments were conducted in the loam and sandy loam soils. Various kinds of composts such as poultry manure compost(PMC), cow manure compost(CMC), human excrement sludge(HES), and food industrial sludge compost(FISC) were applied annually at rates of 0, 40, and $80Mg\;ha^{-1}$ to soils grown with soybean and maize plants for 4 years during 1994 to 1997. The results of this study were as follows : The continuous application of human excrement sludge decreased soil pH up to 4.4~5.0, while other compost treatments increased soil pH compared with control plot. The EC increased initially and showed their maximum values at 20days after compost application, and then decreased up to 40 days, thereafter kept a certain level. The available phosphorous accumulated at 0~20cm depth in loam soil, and 0~50cm in sandy loam soil. Annual accumulation rates were 17% higher in sandy loam soil than loam soil. The more compost application rates and times, the higher base saturation percentage increased in upland soils. Four year's application at a rate of $80Mg\;ha^{-1}$ per year increased the base saturation percentage to 87~97% compared with 45% at control plot in the loam soil. While in sandy loam soil only three year's application of same rate increased the base saturation percentage to 81~92% compared with 30.4% at control plot. The average annual increasing rate of base saturation percentage at the same application rates of composts were higher in sandy loam soil by 2.0~3.7 times than in loam soil. The application of compost increased the exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K contents of soils by 2, 2~3, and 3~5 times, respectively, compared with the control. The contents of exchangeable cations were high in surface soil, and decreased with increase of soil depths. In the case of heavy metal content, there were no difference at the application of PMC and CMC but Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu was increased a little when the HES applied, and Ni and Cr was increased application with FISC.

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The Effect of Long-term Application of Different Organic Material Sources on Chemical Properties of Upland Soil (유기물원이 다른 퇴비연용이 밭토양의 화학성 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Gu;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Lee, Sang-Bok;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Seong-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.239-253
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    • 1999
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various kinds of composts on the change of soil chemical properties in upland soils. Field experiments were conducted in the loam and sandy loam soils. Various kinds of composts such as poultry manure compost(PMC), cow manure compost(CMC), human excrement sludge(HES), and food industrial sludge compost(FISC) were applied annually at rates of 0, 40, and $80Mg\;ha^{-1}$ to soils grown with soybean and maize plants for 4 years during 1994 to 1997. The results of this study were as follows : The continuous application of human excrement sludge decreased soil pH up to 4.4~5.0, while other compost treatments increased soil pH compared with control plot. The EC increased initially and showed their maximum values at 20days after compost application, and then decreased up to 40 days, thereafter kept a certain level. The available phosphorous accumulated at 0~20cm depth in loam soil, and 0~50cm in sandy loam soil. Annual accumulation rates were 17% higher in sandy loam soil than loam soil. The more compost application rates and times, the higher base saturation percentage increased in upland soils. Four year's application at a rate of $80Mg\;ha^{-1}$ per year increased the base saturation percentage to 87~91% compared with 45% at control plot in the loam soil. While in sandy loam soil only three year's application of same rate increased the base saturation percentage to 81~92% compared with 30.4% at control plot. The average annual increasing rate of base saturation percentage at the same application rates of composts were higher in sandy loam soil by 2.0~3.7 times than in loam soil. The application of compost increased the exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K contents of soils by 2, 2~3, and 3~5 times, respectively, compared with the control. The contents of exchangeable canons were high in surface soil. and decreased with increase of soil depths. In the case of heavy metal content, there were no difference at the application of PMC and CMC but Ni. Fe, Zn, Cu was increased a little when the HES applied, and Ni and Cr was increased application with FISC.

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Influence of Fly Ash Application on Content of Heavy Metals in the Soil -III. Content Change in the Rice and Soybean by the Application Rate (석탄회(石炭灰) 시용(施用)이 토양중(土壤中) 중금속(重金屬) 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響) -III. 쌀과 콩중(中)의 중금속(重金屬) 함량변화(含量變化))

  • Kim, Bok-Young;Jung, Goo-Bok;Lim, Sun-Uk;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.220-225
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of treatment of fly ash on heavy metal contents in the grain. Rice was cultivated on the two types of paddy field, clay loam and sandy loam soil, with 0, 4, 8, 12t/10a of anthracite fly ash and bituminous coal fly ash, respectively. And soybean was cultivated on the same types of upland field with those of 0, 3, 6, 9t/10a, respectively. Also. rice and soybean were cultivated the same types of paddy and upland field with those ashes of 0, 12ton/10a and 0, 9ton/10a, yearly for three years. At the harvest time, the heavy metal contents in rice and soybean were Investigated. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Amount of application. 1) The contents of Cd in brown rice increased in the clay loam soil. Cr and Ni increased sandy loam soil with the application of anthracite fly ash. 2) The contents of Zn in rice increased in the sandy loam soil with the application of bituminous coal fly ash. 3) The contents of Cu in soybean increased with the application of anthracite and bituminous coal fly ash, but Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni increased only with the bituminous. 2. Successive application. 1) The contents of Cd in brown rice increased in the clay and sandy loam soil, however Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Fe increased only in sandy loam soil with the anthracite fly ash. 2) The contents of Cr in soybean were increased in the clay and sandy loam soil, but Cu, Fe increased only sandy loam soil with anthracite fly ash. 3) The contents of Cd, Zn, and Cr in brown rice increased in the clay and sandy loam soil, but those of Cu, Mn increased only in the sandy loam soil with application of bituminous. 4) The contents of Cd, Pb, and Cr in soybean increased in the sandy loam soil with the application of bituminous coal fly ash.

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Influence of Fly Ash Application on Content of Heavy Metal in the Soil I. Content Change by the Application Rate (석탄회(石炭灰) 시용(施用)이 토양중(土壤中) 중금속함량(重金屬含量)에 미치는 영향(影響) I. 시용량(施用量)에 따른 함량변화(含量變化))

  • Kim, Bok-Young;Lim, Sun-Uk;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influence of treatment of fly ash on heavy metal contents in the arable soils. Rice was cultivated on the two types of paddy field(clay loam and sandy loam soil) with 0, 4, 8, 12t/10a of anthracite fly ash and bituminous coal fly ash, respectively. And soybean was cultivated on the same types of upland field with those of 0, 3, 6, 9t/10a, respectively. At the harvest time, the heavy metal contents in surface and subsoil were investigated. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Anthracite fly ash. 1) In the paddy field of clay loam, the contents of Cu and Zn in the surface soil and Cd and Ni in the subsoil were increased with the increase of the amount of fly ash applied, but the others didn't show that tendency. 2) In the paddy field of sandy loam, only the content of Fe was increased in the surface and subsoils. 3) In the case of upland soil, the concentration of Ni and Cr in the surface soil and Cd in the subsoil were increased in the clay loam soil, and those of Cr in the surface soil and Pb in the subsoil were increased in the sandy loam soil. 2. Bituminous coal fly ash 1) In the paddy field of clay loam, the contents of Cu and Zn in the subsoil were increased with increase of the amount of fly ash applied, but in the case of sandy loam, those of Pb and Ni in the surface soil were increased. 2) In the upland soil of clay loam, the concentration of Ni in the surface soil and Pb in the subsoil were increased. 3) In case of upland soil of sandy loam, the contents of Cr and Fe were increased in the surface and subsoil, respectively, but those of Cu and Mn were increased in the both of the surface and subsoil.

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