• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sand filtration

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Analysis and effectiveness of biological thin Layer (Schmutzdecke) on the sand surface in slow sand filtration processes (완속여과 공정에서 표층 생물막 생성 및 제어와 원인조류 규명)

  • Kim, Seong-Su;Park, No-Suk;Kim, Chung-Hwan;Park, Jong-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2008
  • Because of their simplicity, efficiency, and economy, slow sand filters are appropriate means of water treatment for small water systems. Biological activity within the sand bed have the strongest influence on removal efficiency of pollutants by slow sand filtration. This report investigated the microorganisms(algae) of slow sand filtration pilot plant at Y water treatment plant. Data were collected at inflow and slow sand filtration from May to October, 2007. The results indicated that the light exposure was influenced on microorganism in slow sand filtration according to the formation of algal biofilm. The relative contribution of biomass and accumulated particulates to head loss development in slow sand filters requires further study.

A Study on the Removal of Organics and Disinfection Effect in Sand Filter Using Nano Silver Sand (은나노 모래를 이용한 모래여과에서 유기물질 제거 및 소독 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Seon, Yong-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.16-20
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    • 2012
  • In this study, novel nano silver sand filtration method was compared with UV treatment and normal sand filtration method through filtering treated water from sewage treatment plant. As a result, $BOD_5$ removal rate of nano silver sand filtration showed higher approximately 31% and 23%, comparing with UV treatment and sand filtration. Moreover, $KMnO_4$ removal rate of nano silver sand was about 6.6 and 2.8 times higher than other two methods. In addition, it showed better for removing SS and total coliform, comparing with others. Also, there is no bacteria on nano silver sand after experiments. Therefore, nano silver sand filtration will be effective for advanced water treatment.

Treatment Characteristics of Sand Filtration and Microfiltration (MF) in Advanced Water Treatment (고도정수처리에서 사여과와 정밀여과의 유기물처리특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyung-Suk;Lee, Byoung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.723-734
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    • 2010
  • With a belief of high water quality production and less chemical usage, membrane technology including Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), and Nanofiltration(NF) is being employed more and more in drinking water treatment process. However, due to higher energy consumption of UF and NF, MF is normally used for drinking water treatment especially in a plant of large scale. In this investigation, performance ofsand filtration and membrane filtration was compared regarding removal of various water quality parameters, such as TOC, DOC, KMnO4 consumption, THMFP, and HAAFP. Two lines of pilot plant have been operated, one of which line is a traditional advanced water treatment process which includes sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation, and activated carbon, and the other line is an alternative treatment process which includes sedimentation with inclined plate, MF membrane, ozonation, and activated carbon. For the first about 4months of period, MF filtration showed similar or little bit higher performance than sand filtration. However, after about 4month later, sand filtration showed much higher performance in removing all parameters monitored in the investigation. It was found that sand filtration is a better option than MF filtration as far as microbial community is fully activated in sand filter bed.

Comparison of operational efficiency between sand-filtration process and membrane filtration process (모래여과 공정과 막여과 공정의 운영효율 비교)

  • Byeon, Kwangjin;Jang, Eunsu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.529-537
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    • 2017
  • Membrane filtration process is an advanced water treatment technology that has excellently removes turbidity and microorganisms. However, it is known that it has problems such as low economic efficiency and the operating stability. Therefore, this study was to evaluate on the economical feasibility and operational stability comparison of membrane and sand filtration process in Im-sil drinking water treatment plant. For the economic analysis of each process, the electricity cost and chemical consumption were compared. In the case of electric power consumption, electricity cost is $68.67KRW/m^3$ for sand filtration and $79.98KRW/m^3$ for membrane filtration, respectively. Therefore, membrane filtration process was about 16% higher than sand filtration process of electricity cost. While, the coagulant usage in the membrane filtration process was 43% lower than the sand filtration process. Thus, comparing the operation costs of the two processes, there is no significant difference in the operating cost of the membrane filtration process and the sand filtration process as $85.94KRW/m^3$ and $79.71KRW/m^3$ respectively (the sum of electricity and chemical cost). As a result of operating the membrane filtration process for 3 years including the winter season and the high turbidity period, the filtrated water turbidity was stable to less than 0.025 NTU irrespective of changes in the turbidity of raw water. And the CIP(Clean In Place) cycle turned out to be more than 1 year. Based on the results of this study, the membrane filtration process showed high performance of water quality, and it was also determined to have the economics and operation stability.

Distribution characteristics of heterotropic bacteria population in slow sand filters (완속여과 여층 내 종속영양세균의 분포 특성)

  • Park, Jong-Geun;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2009
  • Slow sand filtration (SSF) was the first engineered/mechanical filtration process used in drinking water treatment. In SSF, untreated water slowly percolate through a bed of porous sand. Biological activity within the sand bed have the strongest influence on removal efficiency of pollutants by slow sand filtration. In this study, the microbial population distributions in slow sand filters operated at the various operation conditions was evaluated. The concentrations of $10^4$ to $10^5$ CFU per g dry wt. were observed. No significant differences were seen between the number of filter-covered materials. The data indicate that the temperature has affect on population distribution. Also, the light exposure was influenced on microorganism in slow sand filtration according to the heterotropic plate counts. The role of microorganism within the sand media requires further study.

The Optimal Composing the Filter-Bed for Coping with Daily Flow-Rate Fluctuation for the Performance of Sand Filtration Process (일유량 변동에 따른 여과수질 악화에 대처하기 위한 최적 여재구성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Dong-Hak;Park, No-Suk;Kim, Seong-Su;Bae, Cheol-Ho;Jung, Nahm-Chung;Cjoi, Seung-II
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.485-491
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    • 2007
  • The fluctuation of inlet flow to a water treatment plant makes a serious problem that it can change the filtration rate abruptly, and ultimately occur the breakthrough of the detained particles inside filter media. Also, since it takes very short time (about 10 minutes) for the surface wave occurred from the fluctuation of inlet flow to reach the filtration process, it is impossible to control the filtration rate stably. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of daily flow-rate fluctuation on the performance of sand filtration process, and to suggest the dual media composition for coping with that effect. Comparative column tests have been carried out for various dual media (sand and anthracite) compositions. From the results of column tests, dual media, especially in the case of sand 45cm/anthracite 30cm, is more effective to cope with the effect of flow-rate fluctuation on the performance of filtration than single media (only sand). In addition, irrespective of dual media composition, managing ability to cope with that fluctuation tends to be weak at the end of allowable filtration duration time,

Evaluation of particulate removal in slow sand filtration processes (완속여과 공정에서 전처리 공정 도입에 따른 입자제거 효율평가)

  • Kim, Seong-Su;Bae, Chul-Ho;Park, No-Suk;Kang, Suk-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.461-466
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    • 2008
  • Because of their simplicity, efficiency, and economy, slow sand filters are appropriate means of water treatment for small water systems. In this study, the effect of filtration velocity and dirty skin (Schmutzdecke) was evaluated on the performance of turbidity removal. Also, removal characteristics of particulate were investigated in the case of the usage of non-woven fabric on the surface of sand and the application of PCF as pretreatment process. Comparative column tests were carried out for the various operation condition. From the result of column tests, filtration velocity had little effect on the turbidity removal rate. The formation of algal biofilm on the surface of media is helpful in turbidity removal, while non-woven fabric is not as effective as expected. The relative contribution of biomass and accumulated particulates to head loss development in slow sand filters requires further study.

A Study on the Process Selection for Two-stage and Dual Media Filtration System for Improving Filtration Performance (여과 성능향상을 위한 이단이층 복합여과시스템의 공정선정 연구)

  • Song, Si Bum;Jo, Min;Nam, Sang Ho;Woo, Dal Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.203-214
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    • 2007
  • This study aimed at researching the process selection for two-stage and dual media filtration system, as a technology substituting the existing sand filter without expanding the site when retrofitting an old filter bed or designing a new one. In order to select the process for optimum complex filtration system, three running conditions have been tested. Test results demonstrated that Run 3 in which the 1st stage was filled with anthracite and coarse sand, and the 2nd stage was filled up with activated carbon and fine sand reduced the head loss and the load of turbidity substances. Also, Run 3 showed better performance in removing TOC, particle counts, THMFP and HAAFP, compared to other two conditions. 99 % of Cryptosporidium was removed. Bisphenol-A was rarely removed from the 1st stage of coarse sand and 2nd stage of fine sand, but 99 % of it was removed from the 2nd stage of activated carbon. In conclusion, when it is required to retrofit an old rapid filter bed or design a new one for the purpose of improving filtration performance, the following two-stage and dual media filtration system is suggested: the 1st stage of filter bed needs to be filled up with coarse sand to remove turbidity as the pretreatment for extending duration of filtering, the top part of 2nd stage needs to be filled up with granular activated caron to remove dissolved organic matters and others as the main process, and finally the bottom part of 2nd stage needs to be filled up with fine sand as the finishing process.

A Study on Efficient Simple Water Supply System in Rural Areas (농촌지역의 효율적인 간이 상수처리에 관한 연구)

  • 이홍근;백남원;백도현
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.103-115
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to establish acceptable criteria for the design of simple water treatment plant in rural areas. To develop efficient simple water treatment methods for rural areas, water quality in the study areas was investigated and rapid and slow filtrations in pilot-scale were tested under various conditions. The main results of this study are as follows. It was found that the water qualities of the study areas exceed the drinking water standards, which implies that some treatments are required in rural areas. Treatment efficiencies of both rapid sand and dual-media (sand and anthracite) filtration without pre-treatment such as flocculation and sedimentation are very low, which were turned out to be unadequate for the rural areas. Treatment efficiencies of both vertical and horizontal slow filtration without chlorination are very high for consumed $KMnO_4, NH_3-N, NO_3-N$, turbidity, and very low for coliform and bacteria. Treatment efficiencies of both vertical and horizontal slow filtration with chlorination are very high over the most pollutants. A slow filtration with chlorination is efficient for the rural areas. An adequate depth of sand layer is over 60 cm. A horizontal filtration is more economical than a vertical filtration. A horizontal filtration can be operated for a relatively long periods of time without sand washing or replacement because clogging is removed by simple back-washing.

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The study of manganese removal mechanism in aeration-sand filtration process for treating bank filtered water (강변여과수 처리를 위한 포기-모래여과공정에서 망간제거 기작에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Seung-Chul;Kim, Se-Hwan;Yang, Hae-Jin;Lim, Jae-Lim;Wang, Chang-Keun;Jung, Kwan-Sue
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 2010
  • It is well known that manganese is hard to oxidize under neutral pH condition in the atmosphere while iron can be easily oxidized to insoluble iron oxide. The purpose of this study is to identify removal mechanism of manganese in the D water treatment plant where is treating bank filtered water in aeration and rapid sand filtration. Average concentration of iron and manganese in bank filtered water were 5.9 mg/L and 3.6 mg/L in 2008, respectively. However, their concentration in rapid sand filtrate were only 0.11 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Most of the sand was coated with black colored manganese oxide except surface layer. According to EDX analysis of sand which was collected in different depth of sand filter, the content of i ron in the upper part sand was relatively higher than that in the lower part. while manganese content increased with a depth. The presence of iron and manganese oxidizing bacteria have been identified in sand of rapid sand filtration. It is supposed that these bacteria contributed some to remove iron and manganese in rapid sand filter. In conclusion, manganese has been simultaneously removed by physicochemical reaction and biological reaction. However, it is considered that the former reaction is dominant than the latter. That is, Mn(II) ion is rapidly adsorbed on ${\gamma}$-FeOOH which is intermediate iron oxidant and then adsorbed Mn(II) ion is oxidized to insoluble manganese oxide. In addition, manganese oxidation is accelerated by autocatalytic reaction of manganese oxide. The iron and manganese oxides deposited on the surface of the sand and then are aged with coating sand surface.