• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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Inhibitions of $H^+$-ATPases and Ion Channels by Lanthanum

  • Kim, Young-Kee;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Park, Soo-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.39-39
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    • 2001
  • Many physiological processes of plant cells, such as nutrient uptake, salt tolerance, and cell enlargement, are mediated by ion transports across the plasma membrane. H$^{+}$-ATPases on both plasma and vacuolar membranes play major roles on active transports and ion channels mediate passive transports of various ions. It has been known that these proteins involved in cellular osmotic regulation and salt tolerance in the salt-accumulated soils.(omitted)

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Comparative Response of Callus and Seedling of Jatropha curcas L. to Salinity Stress

  • Kumar, Nitish;Kaur, Meenakshi;Pamidimarri, D.V.N. Sudheer;Boricha, Girish;Reddy, Muppala P.
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 2008
  • Jatropha curcas L. is an oil bearing species with many uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel crop. Salt stress effect on growth, ion accumulation, contents of protein, proline and antioxidant enzymes activity was determined in callus and seedling to understand the salt tolerance of the species. Exposure of callus and seedling to salt stress reduced growth in a concentration dependent manner. Under salt stress Na content increased significantly in both callus and seedling whereas, differential accumulation in the contents of K, Ca, and Mg was observed in callus and seedling. Soluble protein content differed significantly in callus as compared to seedling, however proline accumulation remained more or less constant with treatments. The proline concentration was ~2 to 3 times more in callus than in seedling. Salt stress induced qualitative and quantitative differences in superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (POX; E.C. 1.11.1.7) in callus and seedling. Salt induced changes of the recorded parameters were discussed in relation to salinity tolerance.

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Metabolic changes during adaptation to saline condition and stress memory of Arabidopsis cells

  • Chun, Hyun Jin;Park, Mi Suk;Lee, Su Hyeon;Jin, Byung-Jun;Cho, Hyun Min;Hong, Young-Shick;Kim, Min Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.175-175
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    • 2017
  • To understand molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation of plant cells to saline stress and stress memory, we developed Arabidopsis callus suspension-cultured cells adapted to high salt. Adapted cells to high salt exhibited enhanced tolerance compared to control cells. Moreover, the salt tolerance of adapted cells was stably maintained even after the stress is relieved, indicating that the acquired salt tolerance of adapted cells was memorized. In order to characterize metabolic responses of plant cells during adaptation to high salt stress as well as stress memory, we compared metabolic profiles of salt-adapted and stress-memorized cells with control cells by using NMR spectroscopy. A principle component analysis showed clear metabolic discrimination among control, salt-adapted and stress-memorized cells. Compared with control cells, metabolites related to shikimate metabolism such as tyrosine, and flavonol glycosides, which are related to protective mechanism of plant against stresses were largely up-regulated in adapted cell lines. Moreover, coniferin, a precursor of lignin, was more abundant in salt-adapted cells than control cells. Cell morphology analysis using transmission electron microscopy indicated that cell wall thickness of salt-adapted cells was significantly induced compared to control cells. Consistently, salt adapted cells contained more lignin in their cell walls compared to control cells. The results provide new insight into mechanisms of plant adaptation to saline stress as well as stress memory in metabolic level.

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Evaluation and classification of selected rice varieties for salinity tolerance at seedling stage

  • Lee, Seung-Yeob;Ahn, Jeong-Ho;Kwon, Tae-Oh
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2003
  • To identify the new source of breeding materials for rice salt tolerance, the salinity tolerance of thirty-four varieties was evaluated under 0.5% saline condition at seedling stage. The salinity score showed highly significant correlations to dry weight and dead leaf ratio. The tested varieties were classified into three groups by visual score, reduction ratio of dry weight, and dead leaf ratio. Eighteen varieties were classified as the highly tolerant group (salinity scores of 1.3-3.7), seven varieties were fallen into the tolerant group (salinity scores of 4.2-5.8), and others were susceptible (salinity scores of 6.7-9.0). In highly tolerant group, most indica varieties including Getu, Dikwee and Kuatic Putic, didn't exsert a panicle under the Korean climate. But six varieties, Xiangcho V, Annapuruna, HP 3319-2wx-6-3-1, Giza 175, and GZ 2447-S-17, GZ 4255-6-3 were suitable to the Korean climate, and their heading date (6-16, August) and culm length (65-78㎝) were similar to the Korean varieties. Accordingly, these varieties can be utilized as crossing materials for the salt tolerance in japonica rice.

Development of efficient protocol for screening of rice genotypes using physiological traits for salt tolerance

  • Kim, Sung-Mi;Reddy, Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswar;Yoon, In Sun;Kim, Beom-Gi;Kwon, Taek-Ryoun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.189-189
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    • 2017
  • Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that severely affect crop production throughout the world; especially rice plant which is generally categorized as a typical glycophyte as it cannot grow in the presence of salinity. Phenotypic resistance of salinity is expressed as the ability to survive and grow in a salinity condition. Salinity resistance has, at least implicitly, been treated as a single trait. Physiological studies of rice suggest that a range of characteristics (such as low shoot sodium concentration, compartmentation of salt in older rather than younger leaves, high potassium concentration, high $K^+/Na^+$ ratio, high biomass and plant vigour) would increase the ability of the plant to cope with salinity. Criteria for evaluating and screening salinity tolerance in crop plants vary depending on the level and duration of salt stress and the plant developmental stage. Plant growth responses to salinity vary with plant life cycle; critical stages sensitive to salinity are germination, seedling establishment and flowering. We have established a standard protocol to evaluate large rice germplasms for overall performance based on specific physiological traits for salt tolerance at seedling stage. This protocol will help in identifying germplasms which can perform better in the presence of different salinity treatments based on single trait and also combination of different physiological traits. The salt tolerant germplasm can be taken forward into developing better varieties by conventional breeding and exploring genes for salt tolerance.

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A New Insight of Salt Stress Signaling in Plant

  • Park, Hee Jin;Kim, Woe-Yeon;Yun, Dae-Jin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.447-459
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    • 2016
  • Many studies have been conducted to understand plant stress responses to salinity because irrigation-dependent salt accumulation compromises crop productivity and also to understand the mechanism through which some plants thrive under saline conditions. As mechanistic understanding has increased during the last decades, discovery-oriented approaches have begun to identify genetic determinants of salt tolerance. In addition to osmolytes, osmoprotectants, radical detoxification, ion transport systems, and changes in hormone levels and hormone-guided communications, the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway has emerged to be a major defense mechanism. However, the mechanism by which the components of the SOS pathway are integrated to ultimately orchestrate plant-wide tolerance to salinity stress remains unclear. A higher-level control mechanism has recently emerged as a result of recognizing the involvement of GIGANTEA (GI), a protein involved in maintaining the plant circadian clock and control switch in flowering. The loss of GI function confers high tolerance to salt stress via its interaction with the components of the SOS pathway. The mechanism underlying this observation indicates the association between GI and the SOS pathway and thus, given the key influence of the circadian clock and the pathway on photoperiodic flowering, the association between GI and SOS can regulate growth and stress tolerance. In this review, we will analyze the components of the SOS pathways, with emphasis on the integration of components recognized as hallmarks of a halophytic lifestyle.

An Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Activities and Salt Tolerance of Rhizobacteria Isolated from Plants Native to Coastal Sand Dunes (해안사구의 토착식물로부터 분리된 근권세균의 내염능과 식물성장촉진능 평가)

  • Hong, Sun Hwa;Lee, Mi Hyang;Kim, Ji Seul;Lee, Eun Young
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2012
  • Coastal sand dunes are important for ecosystems due to the variety of rare species that can be found in this kind of habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. For environmental remediation, a potential strategy is phytoremediation using the symbiotic relationship of plants and microbes in the rhizosphere, which has proven ecologically sound, safe, and cost effective. Ninety-five colonies were isolated from the rhizosphere soil (RS) or rhizoplane (RP) of Rorippa islandica, Rumex crispus, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Lilium sp Stellaria media, and Gramineae. These colonies were then tested for plant growth promoting activities (PGPAs) such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, and siderphores synthesis ability. In addition, salt tolerance was evaluated at 4% and 8% salt concentrations. It was observed that amongst the test subjects about 50% of the strains had a high resistance to salinity. Many of them could produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) IAA (in RS 13.9% and in RP 7.6%), exhibited ACC deaminase activity (55.8% in RS and 36.6% in RP), and could synthesize siderphores (62.7% in RS and 50% in RP). Correlation coefficient analyses were carried out for the three kinds of plant growth promoting abilities (PGPA) and salt tolerance. A positive correlation was found between an ability to synthesize siderphores and ACC deaminase activity (r=0.605, p<0.037). Similarly, positive correlations were noted between salt tolerance and ACC deaminase activity (r=0.762, p<0.004, r=0.771), and salt tolerance and an ability to synthesize siderphores (r=0.771, p<0.003).

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Combats Salt Stress by Maintaining Cell Membrane Structure and Functionality

  • Wang, Dingkang;Zhang, Min;Huang, Jun;Zhou, Rongqing;Jin, Yao;Wu, Chongde
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2020
  • Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is an important yeast that is required in the food fermentation process due to its high salt tolerance. In this study, the responses and resistance strategies of Z. rouxii against salt stress were investigated by performing physiological analysis at membrane level. The results showed that under salt stress, cell integrity was destroyed, and the cell wall was ruptured, which was accompanied by intracellular substance spillover. With an increase of salt concentrations, intracellular Na+ content increased slightly, whereas intracellular K+ content decreased significantly, which caused the increase of the intracellular Na+/K+ ratio. In addition, in response to salt stress, the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase increased from 0.54 to 2.14 μmol/mg protein, and the ergosterol content increased to 2.42-fold to maintain membrane stability. Analysis of cell membrane fluidity and fatty acid composition showed that cell membrane fluidity decreased and unsaturated fatty acid proportions increased, leading to a 101.21% rise in the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. The results presented in this study offer guidance in understanding the salt tolerance mechanism of Z. rouxii, and in developing new strategies to increase the industrial utilization of this species under salt stress.

Confirmation of Drought Tolerance of Ectopically Expressed AtABF3 Gene in Soybean

  • Kim, Hye Jeong;Cho, Hyun Suk;Pak, Jung Hun;Kwon, Tackmin;Lee, Jai-Heon;Kim, Doh-Hoon;Lee, Dong Hee;Kim, Chang-Gi;Chung, Young-Soo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.413-422
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    • 2018
  • Soybean transgenic plants with ectopically expressed AtABF3 were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and investigated the effects of AtABF3 expression on drought and salt tolerance. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation was carried based on the half-seed method (Paz et al. 2006). The integration of the transgene was confirmed from the genomic DNA of transformed soybean plants using PCR and the copy number of transgene was determined by Southern blotting using leaf samples from $T_2$ seedlings. In addition to genomic integration, the expression of the transgenes was analyzed by RT-PCR and most of the transgenic lines expressed the transgenes introduced. The chosen two transgenic lines (line #2 and #9) for further experiment showed the substantial drought stress tolerance by surviving even at the end of the 20-day of drought treatment. And the positive relationship between the levels of AtABF3 gene expression and drought-tolerance was confirmed by qRT-PCR and drought tolerance test. The stronger drought tolerance of transgenic lines seemed to be resulted from physiological changes. Transgenic lines #2 and #9 showed ion leakage at a significantly lower level (P < 0.01) than ${\underline{n}}on-{\underline{t}}ransgenic$ (NT) control. In addition, the chlorophyll contents of the leaves of transgenic lines were significantly higher (P < 0.01). The results indicated that their enhanced drought tolerance was due to the prevention of cell membrane damage and maintenance of chlorophyll content. Water loss by transpiration also slowly proceeded in transgenic plants. In microscopic observation, higher stomata closure was confirmed in transgenic lines. Especially, line #9 had 56% of completely closed stomata whereas only 16% were completely open. In subsequent salt tolerance test, the apparently enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic lines was measured in ion leakage rate and chlorophyll contents. Finally, the agronomic characteristics of ectopically expressed AtABF3 transgenic plants ($T_2$) compared to NT plants under regular watering (every 4 days) or low rate of watering condition (every 10 days) was investigated. When watered regularly, the plant height of drought-tolerant line (#9) was shorter than NT plants. However, under the drought condition, total seed weight of line #9 was significantly higher than in NT plants (P < 0.01). Moreover, the pods of NT plants showed severe withering, and most of the pods failed to set normal seeds. All the evidences in the study clearly suggested that overexpression of the AtABF3 gene conferred drought and salt tolerance in major crop soybean, especially under the growth condition of low watering.

A Basic Study on Sugar Beet Culture in Reclaimed Salty Area 1. On the Sugar Accumulation of Sugar Beet in Reclaimed Salty Area (간척지에 있어서의 사탕무우 재배에 관한 기초적 연구 1. 간척지에서 사탕무우의 당축적에 관하여)

  • 임형빈
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 1977
  • In order to investigate the possibility of sugar beet culture in reclaimed area of our country and the salt tolerance of sugar beet, a variety Kawemegapoly was used for experimentation in plots of various salt concentration arranged in Kimpo reclaimed area located at Kyongkido Province. The salt concentration of cultivating layer of the field in the west coast of Korea began to decline from the middle of June and rises again in the middle of October growing season of sugar beet as generally seen in relaimed paddy fields of Korea. The soil of less than 0.5% salt concentration is most suitable for the culture of sugar beet has bery strong salt tolerance. The sugar accumulation of sugar beet in each plot declined once in the middle part or in latter September and began to proceed again from the early of October. Such temporary retrocession of sugar accumulation was observed.

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