• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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An Effective Defensive Response in Thai Aromatic Rice Varieties(Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) to Salinity

  • Cha-um, Suriyan;Vejchasarn, Phanchita;Kirdmanee, Chalermpol
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2007
  • Rice is one of the world's staple crops and is a major source of carbohydrate. Rice is exported from several countries, providing a major source of income. There are many documents reporting that rice is a salt-sensitive crop in its developmental stages. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effective salt-tolerance defense mechanisms in aromatic rice varieties. Pathumthani 1(PT1), Jasmine(KDML105), and Homjan(HJ) aromatic rice varieties were chosen as plant materials. Rice seedlings photoautotrophically grown in-vitro were treated with 0, 85, 171, 256, 342, and 427 mM NaCl in the media. Data, including sodium ion$(Na^+)$ and potassium ion$(K^+)$ accumulation, osmolarity, chlorophyll pigment concentration, and the fresh and dry weights of seedlings were collected after salt-treatment for 5 days. $Na^+$ in salt-stressed seedlings gradually accumulated, while $K^+$ decreased, especially in the 342-427 mM NaCl salt treatments. The $Na^+$ accumulation in both salt-stressed root and leaf tissues was positively related to osmolarity, leading to chlorophyll degradation. In the case of the different rice varieties, the results showed that the HJ variety was identified as being salt-tolerant, maintaining root and shoot osmolarities as well as pigment stabilization when exposed to salt stress or $Na^+$ enrichment in the cells. On the other hand, PT1 and KDML105 varieties were classified as salt-sensitive, determined by chlorophyll degradation using Hierarchical cluster analysis. In conclusion, the HJ-salt tolerant variety should be further utilized as a parental line or genetic resource in breeding programs because of the osmoregulation defensive response to salt-stress.

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Studies on the Salt - tolerance of Lawn Grasses in Sand Culture (사경에 의한 잔디류의 내염성에 관한 연구)

  • 홍종운
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.5-30
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    • 1988
  • The object of this experiments was to know the salt tolerance of Fults and other lawn grasses. Fults, Olympic (Tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schred), Ceeping red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and Zoysia grass (Z. japonica S.) were grown in hydroponics with vermiculite at various concentrations of NaCl. Hoagland's solution was used as the basic solution (control), and the concentrations of Cl to it were 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and l5OOOppm, respectively. Each was cultivated under the circumstances during 2 months. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1.The growth of Fults, Olympic, Creeping red fescue and others were better at Cl lOOOppm than control. In the 5OOOppm application, Fescues become worse and 23.9% of them were withered. In concentration of Cl above 9OOOppm, it was impossible to live. 2.In the l0000~l1000ppm application, Olympic and Kentucky bluegrass were become worse and most of them died. 3.Fults were almost possible to live in the below of 9OOOppm, but they began to die in the above of 10000 ppm. 4.With the increasing concentration of Cl, plants were dwarfed and the number of stems, leaves and roots were reduced, but it was especially observed that the number of stolons of Creeping red fescue were increased at 1000~4000ppm. 5.Fults grass was the most salt tolerant turfgrass, but was impossible to live at salt level of about 36 millimhos (Exchange NaCI conductivity-ppm). Among the grasses, according to salt tolerance, they were arranged as follows. Fults > Zoysia japonica S. > Ky belugrass > Olympic grass > Creeping red fescue 6.The number of leaves, stems, tillers, and dry weight of Olympic grass, Fults and others were increased more at Cl 1OOOppm application than control, but in the above 4OOOppm application, those of plants were decreased. 7.The productivity of all grasses under the experiments was increased at 3.l75millimhos (Exchange NaCi conductivity ppm) in the concentration of Cl. The each dry-weight of Olympic, Creeping red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and Zoysia grass was decreased at 8.85millimhos, and the weight of Fults grass was also decreased remarkably at 12.20millimhos. 8.As the result of this experiments, most plants grow normally at low concentration of NaCI-l000ppm. That seems to stimulate more the grasses to grow than non-salt.

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Salt tolerance in phosphorus efficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (고린(高燐) 활용성 토마토 항 염분 특성)

  • Lee, Dong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 1998
  • To test a potential salt tolerance in phosphorus (P) efficient plants (T9 and T8), tomato seedlings were hydroponically grown in saline media. The tolerance was evaluated by comparing growth and metabolism against T5, non-P-efficient variety, at different salt concentrations: 0, 1, 5, 10 g/L. Fresh weights (FW) were measured weekly. Dry weight (DW), mineral contents, and stomatal resistance (Rs) were measured at the termination of experiment. At the lower two salt concentrations (0, 1 g/L), no significant difference was observed in terms of FW, DW, and Rs. At 5, 10 g/L of salt concentration, however, significant variation is evident: T9 and T8 outperformed T5. On the other hand, no difference was also in N, P, K, and Na contents at the corresponding salt concentration. These observations together indicate that P-efficient strain can better tolerate to salinity.

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Effect of Exogenous Proline on Metabolic Response of Tetragenococcus halophilus under Salt Stress

  • He, Guiqiang;Wu, Chongde;Huang, Jun;Zhou, Rongqing
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1681-1691
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effect of proline addition on the salt tolerance of Tetragenococcus halophilus. Salt stress led to the accumulation of intracellular proline in T. halophilus. When 0.5 g/l proline was added to hyperhaline medium, the biomass increased 34.6% (12% NaCl) and 27.7% (18% NaCl) compared with the control (without proline addition), respectively. A metabolomic approach was employed to reveal the cellular metabolic responses and protective mechanisms of proline upon salt stress. The results showed that both the cellular membrane fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling responded by increasing unsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites (environmental stress protector). Higher contents of intermediates involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway were observed in the cells supplemented with proline. In addition, addition of proline resulted in increased concentrations of many organic osmolytes, including glutamate, alanine, citrulline, N-acetyl-tryptophan, and mannitol, which may be beneficial for osmotic homeostasis. Taken together, results in this study suggested that proline plays a protective role in improving the salt tolerance of T. halophilus by regulating the related metabolic pathways.

Soil salinity shifts the community structure and diversity of seed bacterial endophytes of salt-sensitive and tolerant rice cultivars

  • Walitang, Denver I.;Ahmed, Shamim;Jeon, Sunyoung;Pyo, Chaeeun;Sa, Tongmin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.244-244
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    • 2017
  • Soil salinity due to accumulation of salts particularly sodium chloride affects agricultural lands and their vegetation. Generally, rice is a moderately sensitive plant with some cultivars with varying tolerance to salinity. Though there are physiological differences between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars, both are still affected especially during high salinity and prolonged exposure. This also ultimately affects their indigenous bacterial endophytes particularly those that inhabit the rice seed endosphere. This study investigates the dynamic structure of seed bacterial endophytes of salt-sensitive and tolerant rice cultivars grown in different levels of soil salinity. Endophytic bacterial diversity was studied Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Results revealed a very interesting pattern of diversity and shifts in community structure of bacterial endophytes in the rice seeds. There is a general decrease in diversity for the salt-sensitive rice cultivar, IR29 as soil salinity increases. For the salt-tolerant cultivars, IC32 and IC37, diversity interestingly increased at moderate salinity then decreased at high soil salinity. The patterns of community structure is also strikingly different for the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars. IR29 has a more even distribution of abundance, but under soil salinity, the community shifted where Curtobacterium, Pantoea, Flavobacterium and Microbacterium become the more dominant bacterial communities. For IC32 and IC37, the dominant bacterial groups under normal stress conditions were also the dominant bacterial groups during salt stress conditions. Their seed bacterial community is dominated by endophytes belonging to Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Pantoea, Kosakonia and Enterobacter. Stenotrophomonas and Xanthomonas have not changed in terms of abundance under different salinity stress level in the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars. This study showed that soil salinity greatly influenced the seed bacterial communities of rice seeds irrespective of their physiological tolerance to salinity.

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Study on the Salt Tolerance of the Several Forage Crops (몇가지 사료작물(飼料作物)의 내염성에(耐鹽性) 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Choong Soo;Kim, Yang Sik
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.183-189
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    • 1984
  • This study was carried out to investigate the salt tolerance to the seed germination of 4 forage crops and their critical salt concentration. 1. The rate of seed germinations of 4 forage crops at 0.4% NaCl solution was not significantly decreased compared with control plot but the germination percentages at 0.8% NaCl solution were significantly dropped. 2. The days for germination were gradually delayed by increasing salt concentrations. 3. The growth of seedling root and shoot was slightly depressed at 0.4% salt solution but significantly depressed at 0.8% solution. At 1.2% salt solution, the seedling growth was stopped immediatly after seed germination. 4. The NaCl content in the seedling was increased at the medium containing higher amount of NaCl, however increasing rate of NaCl level in the seedling showed significant differences among the forage crops tested in this experiment. 5. The critical salt concentration to the germination of the forage crops was 0.4% to 0.8%. The perennial ryegrass showed the highest salt tolerance in the seed germination, and the tall fescue and the creeping red fescue showed medium, and the orchardgrass showed the lowest tolerance.

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Salinity Tolerance of Aquatic Yellow Flag as Affected by Different Salts (염 종류에 따른 수생식물 노랑꽃창포의 내염성 반응)

  • Noh, Jae Min;Kim, Wan Soon
    • FLOWER RESEARCH JOURNAL
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2017
  • Salt tolerance in Iris pseudacorus L. was tested whether it can be materialized to remove salt accumulation in water caused by nonpoint source pollution. Two groups of treatments were a nutritive salt group (NSG) of Hoagland solution of varying concentrations and a sodium salt group (SSG) of the solution of NaCl. In NSG leaf visible damages appeared in more than EC $5mS{\cdot}cm^{-1}$, while plants in SSG showed visible damage in all concentrations of NaCl. The damage symptoms were dark green in leaves and plant wilting in NSG, while browning of the leaf tips' browning in SSG. Plant biomass in NSG was highest in EC $1mS{\cdot}cm^{-1}$ the lowest in EC $9mS{\cdot}cm^{-1}$. In SSG, it was significantly decreased as salt concentration increased. Photosynthetic and root activities were reduced, and proline, a kind of stress-defense proteins, increased, accompanied with salt increase.

Effect of seawater on growth of four vegetable crops - Lettuce, leaf perilla, red pepper, cucumber -

  • Lee, Sang-Beom;Lee, M.H.;Lee, B.M.;Nam, H.S.;Kang, C.K.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.222-224
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    • 2011
  • The effects of seawater on growth of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.), leaf perilla(Perilla frutescens var. japonica Hara), red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) and cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were investigated in the glass greenhouse. These effects were studied on seedlings, and diluted seawater (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% v/v) was sprayed enough on leaves. The tested four vegetable crops have well grown up to 10% diluted seawater, but the tested vegetable crops were damaged from increasing salt levels. Of these, lettuce was provided salt-tolerant vegetable crop and red pepper was considered salt-sensitive vegetable crop. The salt tolerance of vegetable crops is different between crops and complicated because of additional detrimental effects caused by accumulated ions or specific ion toxicities in their leaves. These results show that agricultural use of seawater may be benefit crop cultivation in organic farming system as well as in conventional farming system.

Enhanced proline accumulation and salt stress tolerance of transgenic indica rice by over-expressing P5CSF129A gene

  • Kumar, Vinay;Shriram, Varsha;Kishor, P.B. Kavi;Jawali, Narendra;Shitole, M.G.
    • Plant Biotechnology Reports
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2010
  • [ ${\Delta}^1$ ]pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) is a proline biosynthetic pathway enzyme and is known for conferring enhanced salt and drought stress in transgenics carrying this gene in a variety of plant species; however, the wild-type P5CS is subjected to feedback control. Therefore, in the present study, we used a mutagenized version of this osmoregulatory gene-P5CSF129A, which is not subjected to feedback control, for producing transgenic indica rice plants of cultivar Karjat-3 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have used two types of explants for this purpose, namely mature embryo-derived callus and shoot apices. Various parameters for transformation were optimized including antibiotic concentration for selection, duration of cocultivation, addition of phenolic compound, and bacterial culture density. The resultant primary transgenic plants showed more enhanced proline accumulation than their non-transformed counterparts. This proline level was particularly enhanced in the transgenic plants of next generation ($T_1$) under 150 mM NaCl stress. The higher proline level shown by transgenic plants was associated with better biomass production and growth performance under salt stress and lower extent of lipid peroxidation, indicating that overproduction of proline may have a role in counteracting the negative effect of salt stress and higher maintenance of cellular integrity and basic physiological processes under stress.