• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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Impact of Salt Intake on Red and Fallow Deer Production in Australia - Review -

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Miao, Z.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1779-1787
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    • 2000
  • Southern and south-western Australia is a typical mediterranean environment, characterised by wet, cold winters and dry, hot summers. The evaporation rate varies significantly in summer, resulting in a high salinity of drinking water for grazing animals. In addition, a large amount of land in the cropping areas is affected by salt. Puccinellia, tall wheat grass and saltbushes have been planted to improve the soil condition and to supply feed for grazing animals. Animals grazing these areas often ingest an excessive amount of salt from soil, forage and drinking water which can reduce feed intake, increase the water requirement, depress growth and affect body composition as demonstrated in sheep. While the deer industry has been successfully developed in these regions, the potential impact of excessive salt intake on deer production is unknown. The salt tolerance has been well defined for sheep, cattle and other livestock species, but the variation between animal species, breeds within species, maturity status and grazing environments makes it impossible to apply these values directly to deer. To optimise deer production and effectively use natural resources, it is essential to understand the salt status of grazing deer and the impact of excessive salt intake on growth and reproduction of deer.

Selection of Ginseng Superior Lines Tolerant to Salt Stress Through Zygotic Embryo Culture (배배양에 의한 인삼우수계통으로부터 염류 Stress 내성 계통의 선발)

  • 양덕춘;윤영상;김무성
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2004
  • Selection of stress-tolerant ginseng lines in fields is very difficult because it is almost impossible to control properly the environmental conditions of soil. On the contrary, it can be studied with ease to search for stress-tolerant ginseng lines through in vitro culture because of easy manipulation of stress conditions. This study was conducted for the selection of ginseng pure lines tolerant to salt stress. Murashige & Skoog(MS) media with 2.5 folds of KNO$_3$, NH$_4$NO$_3$, MgSO$_4$.7$H_2O$, KH$_2$PO$_4$, and CaC1$_2$.2$H_2O$ was established for the selection of ginseng pure lines tolerant to salt stress in vitro. Among 88 ginseng pure lines bred by Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Punggi Hwangsuk, 78093, 82886, 78135, 86024 and KG104 lines was tolerant to salt stress. For the stable production of quality Korean ginseng, genetic tolerance to salt stress is one of important factors since relatively high salt concentrations in the ginseng nursery soil environment of Korea. Ginseng inbred pure lines were tested for their tolerance to salt stress through in vitro culture technique.

A Selection of Phragmites australis for Purification of Waste Landfill Leachate (쓰레기 매립지 침출수 정화를 위한 갈대 선발)

  • Cho, Yong-Joo;Yi, Jong-Young;Choi, Hong-Keun;Kim, Chang-Kyun;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1129-1137
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the ecological characteristics of reed populations growing in Korea and tried to select reed populations showing better growth patterns in waste landfill leachate. To examine the growth characteristics, 14 reed populations from various habitats were collected. Four reed populations were from inland reclaimed habitats, 4 reed populations from brackish or salt marsh habitats, and 6 reed populations from fresh water habitats. Total plant biomass after the treatment with landfill leachate showed that Daebudo and Nanjido reed populations had the higher biomass with 3755 g DW/pot and 3305 g DW/pot, respectively. Reed populations being sampled from the higher salinity and landfill habitats had relatively higher total biomass than that of other reed populations. Especially reed populations from landfill habitats showed higher biomass. Reed populations from Songjiho and Daebudo, which were believed to have tolerance to salt stress, also showed good growth patterns. Population from the fresh water habitats exhibited relatively lower tolerance to leachate treatment compared to others. From the results, we could conclude that reed populations from Nanjido and Daebudo with higher biomass and better salt tolerance were able to good candidates for purification of waste landfill leachate.

Isolation and Identification of a New Gene Related to Salt Tolerance in Chinese Cabbage (배추에서 신규 염 저항성 관련 유전자 분리 및 검정)

  • Yu, Jae-Gyeong;Park, Young-Doo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.748-755
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to find a salt tolerance gene in Brassica rapa. In order to meet this objective, we analyzed data from a KBGP-24K oligo chip [BrEMD (Brassica rapa EST and microarray database)] of the B. rapa ssp. pekinensis 'Chiifu' under salt stress (250 mM NaCl). From the B. rapa KBGP-24K microarray chip analysis, 202 salt-responsive unigenes were primarily selected under salt stress. Of these, a gene with unknown function but known full-length sequence was chosen to closely investigate the gene function. The selected gene was named BrSSR (B. rapa salt stress resistance). BrSSR contains a 285 bp open reading frame encoding a putative 94-amino acid protein, and a DUF581 domain. The pSL94 vector was designed to over-express BrSSR, and was used to transform tobacco plants for salt tolerance analysis. T1 transgenic tobacco plants that over-expressed BrSSR were selected by PCR and DNA blot analyses. Quantitative real-time RT PCR revealed that the expression of BrSSR in transgenic tobacco plants increased by approximately 3.8-fold. Similar results were obtained by RNA blot analysis. Phenotypic characteristics analysis showed that transgenic tobacco plants with over-expressed BrSSR were more salt-tolerant than the wild type control under 250 mM NaCl for 5 days. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the over-expression of BrSSR may be closely related to the enhancement of salt tolerance.

Humic Acid Confers HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1-Mediated Salinity Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

  • Khaleda, Laila;Park, Hee Jin;Yun, Dae-Jin;Jeon, Jong-Rok;Kim, Min Gab;Cha, Joon-Yung;Kim, Woe-Yeon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 2017
  • Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY $K^+$ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of $Na^+$ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of $Na^+$ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.

A transcription factor "OsNAC075" is essential for salt resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • Jung, Yu-Jin;Lee, Myung-Chul;Kang, Kwon-Kyoo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2011
  • Salt stress is a major environmental factor influencing plant growth and development. To identify salt tolerance determinants, we systematically screened salt sensitive rice mutants by use of the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon tagging system. In this study, we focused on the salt sensitive mutant line, designated SSM-1. A gene encoding a NAC transcription factor homologue was disrupted by the insertion of a Ds transposon into SSM-1 line. The OsNAC075 gene (EU541472) has 7 exons and encodes a protein (486-aa) containing the NAC domain in its N-terminal region. Sequence comparison showed that the OsNAC075 protein had a strikingly conserved region at the N-terminus, which is considered as the characteristic of the NAC protein family. OsNAC075 protein was orthologous to Arabidopsis thaliana ANAC075. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed OsNAC075 belonged to the OsNAC3 subfamily, which plays an important role in response to stress stimuli. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of OsNAC075 gene was rapidly and strongly induced by stresses such as NaCl, ABA and low temperature ($4^{\circ}C$). Our data suggest that OsNAC075 holds promising utility in improving salt tolerance in rice.

Increased biomass and enhanced tolerance to salt stress in Chinese cabbage overexpressing Arabidopsis H+-PPase (AVP1) (애기장대 H+-PPase(AVP1) 과발현 배추에서 바이오매스 증가와 내염성 향상)

  • Park, Mehea;Won, Hee-Yeun;Kim, Chang Kil;Han, Jeung-Sul
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2012
  • On the basis of the reported agriculturally valuable phenotypes resulted from ectopic overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar $H^+$-PPase (AVP1), we generated the Chinese cabbage lines expressing AVP1 which then subjected to salt stress to determine the AVP1 expression if it consistently confers the capability for increasing biomass and enhancing tolerance to salinity in other species. Collectively, here we demonstrate that the transgenic young plants show more vigorous growth and higher tolerance to salt stress than wild-type ones. Increased biomass phenotype by AVP1 expression was supported by comparing fresh and dry weights of transgenic and wild type plants grown under normal condition, while higher salt tolerance trait was confirmed by tracing the kinetics of photosystem II quantum yield and DAB-staining under gradually intensified salt stress induced by MS salt or NaCl, followed by normal condition.

Study on the Seed Germination and Salt Tolerance of Plants in Reclaimed Salt Area (간척지내 식물종자의 내염성과 발아에 관한 연구)

  • 김철수
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 1980
  • The germination character and the salt tolerance of seeds collected in a salt reclaimed area were studied. Twenty species of seeds out of 30 species collected were germinated under natural or continuous light conditions but only 16 species under dark condition. Germination percentage of seeds under dark was more decreased than those under other two conditions and speed of germination was accelerated at high temperature. It is clear that almost all the wild weeds were the light germinated seeds. The higher concentration of NaCl for germination inhibited to make the lower percentage and rate of germination. The germination curves of seeds treated with NaCl solution were classified into 3 different curves; a steeper, a parabola and intermediate. The critical concentrations of NaCl for germination were 2.3% for Brassica napus, 1.8% for Echinochloa hispidula, 1.5% for Setaria lutescens, 1.3% for Aster koraiensis, 0.7% for Bromus japonicus and 0.6% for Glyceria acutiflora.

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Effect of Salt Level in the Feed on Performance of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Fischer, M.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2004
  • In Australia, many cropping areas are affected by salt. In these regions, Chenopodiaceous plants, such as Atriplex, Kochia and Bassia spp have been planted to improve soil conditions. These plants have become invaluable feed resources for grazing animals in dry summers, but have a high sodium content. To assess the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used 30 fallow weaner deer to examine the effect of salt level in the diet on feed intake, water intake and body weight of fallow deer. Salt was added to lucerne chaff at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% and fresh water was offered all the time. Increasing the salt level in the diet from 0 to 6% didn't affect feed intake, osmotic pressure and mineral concentration in blood of fallow deer. However, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in deer fed diets containing more than 3% salt. Body weight was lower (p${\leq}$0.056) for fallow deer in July and August when salt content was over 3%, suggesting they can ingest over 15 g sodium/day without significant depression in both feed intake and growth rate if the fresh water is available. In the second experiment, 18 red weaner deer were fed lucerne chaff diets containing 1.5, 4.5 and 6.0% salt with 6 deer/diet. The results revealed that feed intake and blood osmotic pressure were similar (p>0.05) for red deer fed different levels of salt although the feed intake declined from 1.91 to 1.67 kg with the increase of salt level from 1.5% to 6.0% in the diet. Water intake was significantly higher for deer fed diets containing over 4.5% salt, but there was no difference in body weight during the experiment. However, no recommendation can be made on the salt tolerance of red deer due to limited increment of salt level in the diet.

Isolation and Characterization of Salt Tolerant Mutations in Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Kim, Yung-Jin;Seo, Soo-Boon;Park, Shi-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.22-25
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    • 1999
  • In order to study the mechanism for the adaptation to salt stress, we mutagenized budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Ethylmethane sulfonate, and isolated salt-tolerant mutants. Among the salt-tolerant mutants, two strains exhibit additional temperature sensitive phenotype. Here, we report that these two salt-tolerant mutants are specific to {TEX}$Na^{+}${/TEX} rather than general osmotic stress. These mutant strains may contain mutations in the genes involved in {TEX}$Na^{+}${/TEX} home-ostasis.

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