• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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The Growth Phase and Yield Difference of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) on Soil Salinity in Reclaimed Land (간척지에서 토양 염농도별 케나프의 생육반응 및 수량성)

  • Kang, Chan-Ho;Choi, Weon-Young;Yoo, Young-Jin;Choi, Kyu-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Song, Young-Ju;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.511-520
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    • 2014
  • Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) was recognized as a potential source of forage. To reduce the production cost, we should insure large cultivation area. The one of the best candidate places to expand the useful kenaf production was 'Saemangeum' reclaimed land. To confirm the possibility of kenaf growth in reclaimed land, we seeding and cultivated the kenaf in 'Saemangeum'. The germination percentage of kenaf on 5.0 dS/m soil salinity was 18%. It is less 66% than that of 4.0 dS/m soil salinity and at 6.0 dS/m, the germination percentage of kenaf was under 10%. The growth and development of kenaf in reclaimed land grew worse with increasing soil salinity. The stem diameter which the most important factor that decide the value and yield of product was upper 2.6 cm when soil salinity maintained under 4.0 dS/m, but if soil salinity marked over 4.0 dS/m, the stem diameter of kenaf was drop under 2.0 cm and it deteriorate the number of leaves per plant by 20~46%. The necrosis on older tip and marginal leaves were noted approximately first month after seeding which was correlated directly with the salinity levels of reclaimed soil. Reduction of total yield was coincide with increasing levels of EC. If soil salinity over 5.0 dS/m, the amount of decreased by soil salinity was 51% than that of non-reclaimed region. The allowable soil salinity level of which could be maintained within 20% reduction rate was 4.2 dS/m. Consequently kenaf can be grown successfully with moderately saline soil condition. However, salt levels in excess of 4.2 dS/m severely have restricted plant growth and development and will result in significant yield reduction.

Effect of VA Mycorrhizal Fungi on Alleviation of Salt Injury in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) (VA 균근균(菌根菌) 접종(接種)에 의한 고추의 염류장해(鹽類障害) 경감효과(輕減效果))

  • Sohn, Bo-Kyoon;Huh, Sang-Man;Kim, Kil-Yong;Kim, Yong-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.482-492
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    • 2000
  • Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi are known to increase plant growth as well as to enhance salt tolerance of plants where plant roots are colonized by VAM. In pot experiment, pepper was grown in soil containing 0, 200, 400, and $600P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ with and without mycorrhizal inoculum. Pots were irrigated with saline water containing 0.5, 2.0, and $6.0dS\;m^{-1}$. At 0, 200, and $400P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ of three EC treatments, plant hight in mycorrhizal treatments was significantly different compared to nonmycorrhizal treatments. However, plant hight at $600P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ was not different between mycorrhizal and nomycorrhizal treatments. Leaf area at $0P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ of three EC treatments, and $200P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $6.0dS\;m^{-1}$ in mycorrhizal treatments significantly increased compared to nonmycorrhizal treatments. However, these increase were not discovered in high salinity and P level. Level of EC affected dry weight, and especially, interection of P and EC, or P and VA inoculation highly affected root dry weight. R/S ratio generally decreased in mycorrhizal treatments. Significantly decreased R/S ratio was shown at 0, 400, and $600P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ of $6.0dS\;m^{-1}$. Chlorophyll content generally increased with decreased salinity and P level where mycorrhizal treatments showed higher chlorophyll content compared to nonmycorrhizal treatments. The benefits of VAM inoculation on fruit production was discovered at only low P level and salinity. Mycorrhizal dependency on dry weight basis was generally shown in $0P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ of three EC treatments and 0.5, $2.0dS\;m^{-1}$ of $200P\;kg\;ha^{-1}$ level. Colonization rate ranged 3.3 to 43.3% and number of spores was 47.7 to 198.3 $100g^{-1}$ soil. Colonization rate and number of spores increased with decreased P level and salinity where there was high correlation ($r=0.858^{**}$) between both. Also improved uptake of mineral nutrients was discovered at mycorrhizal treatments in decreased P level and salinity.

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Development of a Kit for Diagnosing AtCYP78A7 Protein in Abiotic-tolerant Transgenic Rice Overexpressing AtCYP78A7 (AtCYP78A7 과발현 환경스트레스 내성 형질전환 벼의 단백질 진단 키트 개발)

  • Nam, Kyong-Hee;Park, Jung-Ho;Pack, In-Soon;Kim, Ho Bang;Kim, Chang-Gi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.835-840
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    • 2018
  • Quantitative determination of the protein expression levels is one of the most important parts in assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops. Overexpression of AtCYP78A7, a gene encoding cytochrome P450 protein, has been reported to improve tolerance to abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress, in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for diagnosing AtCYP78A7 protein including AtCYP78A7-specific monoclonal antibody was developed. GST-AtCYP78A7 recombinant protein was induced and purified by affinity column. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb 6A7, mAb 4C2, mAb 11H6, and mAb 7E8) against recombinant protein were also produced and biotinylated with avidin-HRP. After pairing test using GST-AtCYP78A7 protein and lysate of rice samples, mAb 4C2 and mAb 7E8 were selected as a capture antibody and a detecting antibody, respectively, for ELISA kit. Product test using rice samples indicated that percentages of detected protein in total protein were greater than 0.1% in AtCYP78A7-overexpressing transgenic rice (Line 10B-5 and 18A-4), whereas those in negative control non-transgenic rice (Ilpum and Hwayoung) were less than 0.1%. The ELISA kit developed in this study can be useful for the rapid detection and safety assessment of transgenic rice overexpressing AtCYP78A7.

Varietal Response of Tobacco Plants Through Tissue Culture to Butachlor and Bialaphos Herbicides (조직배양(組織培養)에 의한 제초제(除草劑) Butachlor와 Bialaphos에 대(對)한 담배의 품종간반응(品種間反應))

  • Bae, Y.Z.;Kim, K.U.;Jeong, H.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 1988
  • This study was carried out to determine effect of butachlor [N.-(buthoxymethyl)-2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl) acetamide] and bialaphos [2-amino-4(hydroxy)(methyl) phosphionyl] butyryl-alanylalanine sodium salt on the germination of tobacco seed, induction and growth of callus from tobacco. Further, fatty acids and ammonia content of tobacco calli were determined. Bialaphos had no effect on tobacco seed germination, but the growth of seedling was markedly affected by an application of 10 ppm bialaphos. However, regardless of varieties tested, tobacco seed germination was completely inhibited by $5{\times}10^{-5}M$ of butachlor. At an application of $5{\times}10^{-5}M$ butachlor, tobacco seeds were to some extent germinated and showed further growth. Hyangcho among varieties tested, showed the most tolerant response to butachlor. In induction of callus from various tobacco varieties and their growth, aromatic type of tobacco varieties exhibited the most tolerance against bialaphos. However, no distinct varietal differences were determined in the treatment of butachlor. The major fatty acids identified in tobacco calli were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid. No marked difference in terms of fatty acids was observed among tobacco varieties used, but it was observed that there was the higher ratio of quantity in unsaturated fatty acids over saturated one, bialaphos treatment accumulated about 9 times higher ammonia content than that of the untreated control, giving an evidence that bialaphos might inhibit glutamine synthetase activity.

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Cold Storage and Quality Stability of Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (우렁쉥이 저온저장 및 품질안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kang-Ho;Lee, Min-Ju;Jung, Byung-Chun;Hong, Byeong-Il;Cho, Ho-Sung;Lee, Dong-Ho;Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.382-388
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    • 1994
  • Because of its restrictive harvest from spring to summer, It is necessary to preserve raw ascidians, Halocynthia roretzi, for the purpose of processing regardless of season. We evaluated low Temperature tolerance of ascidian and conditions for cold storage to secure the quality of the stock. To retard the browning of meat rapidly occurred after sucking, ascidians were blanched for 10 seconds in 10% boiling salt solution or dipped for 60 seconds in 0.2% $NaHSO_3$ solution, respectively. The samples were stored in ice, at $-17^{\circ}C$ or $-35^{\circ}C$ for 85 days, respectively. Changes in VBN, glycogen, brown pigment formation, total carotenoid, nucleotides and their related compounds during the storage were determined, and sensory evaluation of quality was also practiced. VBN and brown pigment formation were rapidly increased. Glycogen was gradually decreased and then not detectable after 85 days in case of ice storage. Lipophilic brown pigment was higher than hydrophilic and rapidly increased during storage. The result of sensory evaluation showed that the ascidian treated in 0.2% $NaHSO_3$ was good for 85 days of storage at $-35^{\circ}C$ . Judging from the results of chemical experiment and sensory evaluation, the quality of ascidian treated in 0.2% $NaHSO_3$ and stored at $-35^{\circ}C$ was better than that of other samples.

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Isolation and Characterization of Oligotrophic Strains with High Enzyme Activity from Buckwheat Sokseongjang (메밀 속성장 유래 효소활성 우수 저영양성 균주 분리 및 특성)

  • Lee, Sung-Young;Kim, Ji-Yeun;Baek, Sung-Yeol;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Koo, Bon-Sung;Park, Hye-Young;Choi, Hye-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.735-741
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    • 2011
  • Bealmijang is a short-term fermented regional product that is prepared with soybean and extra ingredients. In this study, starter strain candidates were screened from Bealmijang for fermented soybean paste products. Twenty one bacterial strains producing extracellular enzymes (amylase, cellulase, protease, xylanase and lipase) were isolated from Bealmijang, buckwheat sokseongjang. The isolates were assessed for fibrinolytic and antibacterial activities, and salt tolerance. Strain HJ18-4, identified as Bacillus subtilis (AB601598) by biochemical properties (89.6%) and 16S rDNA sequencing (100%), showed the highest enzymatic, fibrinolytic, and antibacterial activities among the isolates. Although the growth of HJ18-4 was inhibited by the increase of NaCl concentration, the growth still exceeded that of B. subtilis KACC 10114 at 5% and 10% NaCl. These results suggest that B. subtilis HJ18-4 is suitable as a starter for soybean paste manufacture.

Effect of Flooding Treatment on the Desalting Efficiency and the Growth of Soiling and Forage Crops in a Sandy Soil of the Iweon Reclaimed Tidal Land in Korea (이원간척지 사질 염류토양의 담수제염처리가 제염효과와 녹비.사료작물의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Sohn, Yong-Man;Kim, Hyun-Tea;Jeon, Geon-Yeong;Song, Jae-Do;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Moo-Eon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2010
  • Effect of flooding on the desalting efficiency and the growth of sudan grass, barnyard grass, sesbania and corn was studied in a sandy soil of the Iweon reclaimed tidal land. Flooding plots were treated by 400 (one time flooding), 800 (two times flooding), and 1,200 mm(three times flooding) of water, respectively, and then soil salinities of the treated plots were compared with salinity of the control plot (not flooded) for estimation of desalting effect. Desalting ratio of 1,200 mm treatment was 78.3% for depth 0-20 cm, 70.5% for depth 20-40 cm and 60.8% for depth 40-60 cm, and then the soil salinity reached at 3~6 dS $m^{-1}$. Consequently, it was considered that sandy saline soil was satisfactorily desalted for upland crops to be cultivated by 1,200 mm flooding, but insufficiently desalted by 400 mm and 800 mm flooding because of high salinity ranged 5~14 dS $m^{-1}$ even after flooding treatment. In addition, it was estimated that soil salinity should be controled lower than 7.7 dS $m^{-1}$ in order to obtain more than 80%of crop emergence when four crops are simultaneously cultivated by inter- or mixed cropping in a field. Dry matter yields (kg $10a^{-1}$) was 1,068 for sudan grass, 696for barnyard grass, 1,426 for sesbania, and 1,164 for corn by 1,200 mm flooding treatment, but only 46.8~74.3% by 800 mm flooding treatment and 2.9~25.5% by 400 mm flooding treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that the flooding treatment more than 1,200 mm is necessary for satisfactory desalinization in order for the low salt tolerance crops to be cultivated in the sandy reclaimed tidal land.

Recent Trend and Prospects of Potato Industry in Kazakhstan (카자흐스탄의 감자산업 동향과 전망)

  • Im, Ju Sung;Seo, Sang Gi;Kim, Mee Ok;Cheon, Chung Gi;Park, Young Eun;Cho, Ji Hong;Cho, Kwang Soo;Chang, Dong Chil;Choi, Jang Kyu;Lee, Jong Nam;Koo, Bon Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2018
  • Potato cultivation area in Kazakhstan has been steadily increasing for ten years from 154,000 ha in 2006 to 186,000 ha in 2016. The production amounts are also increasing from 2,360,000 tons in 2006 to 3,550,000 tons in 2016. The average yield(/ha) was 19.0 ton in 2016 while 15.4 tons in 2006. The import volume increased by about 3.2 folds for seven years from 34,874 tons in 2006 to 112,323 tons in 2013. The import price(/ton) has been also showing steady increasing from $180(USD) in 2006 to $202(USD) in 2013. The export volume dramatically increased from 73 tons in 2006 to 8,455 tons in 2013. It shows that the potato trade with neighboring countries is very active recently. Kazakhstan need seed potato of around 700,000 tons each year, which is more than the total production yield (600,000 tons/year) of Korean potato. Seed potatoes are imported from Europe by the private seed companies and then distributed to farmers after multiplications for two or three years. Potatoes are sown in May and harvested in September or October, which is similar to the summer cropping in Korean potato. The European cultivars such as 'Sante' and 'Rodeo' are preferred broadly due to their high temperature resistance, salt tolerance, long dormancy period, and yellow flesh color. Meanwhile, Early blight and Colorado potato beetle are known as the main problems at Kazakhstan potato fields. The big yield loss by insects or diseases during storage is one of the severe problems too. Considering the internal and external circumstances of Kazakhstan potato, it is expected that the Korea's high-quality seed potatoes and the post-harvest management technologies could be helpful to enter the Kazakhstan potato market effectively as well as to increase the market competitiveness.

Study on the Salt Tolerance of Rice and Other Crops in Reclaimed Soil Areas. -6. On the Effects of Increased N. P. K. Applications for Rice Plant in Reclaimed Salty Areas (간척지(干拓地)에서 수도(水稻) 및 기타작물(其他作物)의 내염성(耐鹽性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -6. 염분간척지(鹽分干拓地)에서 수도(水稻)에 대한 N, P, K,의 증비효과에 관(關)하여)

  • Im, H.B.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1970
  • The experiment was conducted at the salt concentration of 0.5% and 1% end of April, respectively, in low and high-salty and the non-salty areas of silt loam with the Nongkwang, rice variety. The factorial design with confounding blocks of 3 levels each of 10, 15 and 20 kg of N, 8, 12 and 16kg of phosphate and potash, respectively, per 10a was applied. 1. N applications increased by 1.5 and 2 times with the fixed amount of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ (8kg/10a each) increased the proportion absorbed to the applications of N in both non salty and low-salty areas. It was observed that the absorption of Ca and Si was inhibited by either an increased treatment of N alone or combination with the other nutrients in the salty area. 2. In the non-salty area, an increased applications of standard amount of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ respectively did not increased the yields. Doubling the application of $K_2O$ resulted in a decreased yield. 3. Applications of additional of 1.5 and 2 times the 10 kg of N per 10a increased the rice yields 12% and 21% respectively, in the low-salty area. An increased application of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ failed to bring about an increased yield. 4. Increasing the application of N gave a significant increased in the yield of rice grain and 1.5 times of N applications were seemed profitable on the high-salty area. Although an increased applications $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ seemed to increase the yields of grain, no significant increase was observed. 5. An increased application of N increased the number of panicles up to 1.5 times the standard amount in the non-salty area, but no further increase resulted by doubling the application. The number of panicles was increased in proportion to the increased application of N in both low and high-salty areas. An increased application of $P_2O_5$ increase the number of panicles per unit area in each experimental plot while that of $K_2O$ had no effect but rather decreased the number. 6. The effect of an increased application of N decreased the weight of panicle in the non-salty area, but when the application was increased to 1.5 times or more an increased weight of panicle resulted in both salty areas. Doubling the application had approximately the same effect as 1.5 times the application. Increasing the applications of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ had no effect on the panicle weight in the experimental plots. Increasing the applications of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ did not effect the weight of 1,000 grains produced in the non-salty and salty areas. Increasing the application of N decreased the number of grains per panicle in the non-salty area but increased the number of grains per panicle in either salty areas. 7. The ratio of matured grains was highest in the low-salty area and the lowest in the high-salty area. An increased N applications decreased the ratio of matured grains in the non-salty area. No effect was observed in both low and high-salty areas. Increased the $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ application showed no effect on the ratio of matured grains in the experimental plots. 8. Increased applications of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ was observed not to change the percentage of milling recovery in any experimental plots. Broken rice was increased equally by an increased application of N in the non-salty and salty areas but more remarkably so in the former. 9. Increased applications of N increased the straw production equally in the non-salty, low and high-salty areas. However, no increased production was observed from heavier applications of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$. Additional N applications reduced the rate of rough grain weight v.s. straw weight in the non-salty area but increased the ratios in both low and high-salty areas. Additional $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ had no effect with the ratio.

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