• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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Bile Salt-Tolerance of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Anaerobic Broth System (혐기적 Broth System에서 젖산균의 담즙산염 내성)

  • 신용서;김성효;이갑상
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 1995
  • To evaluate bile salt-tolerance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus casei IFO 3533, Streptococcus thermnophilus KCTC 2185, Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842), We investigated the survivals, acid production and $\beta $-galactosidase activity of LAB under anaerobic broth system. Cellular permeability of LAB and their cellular retention of $\beta $-galactosidase were also examined in the same system. Although the growth of LAB was slightly suppressed by 0.3% bile salt, they showed normal growth curve. Streptococcus thermophilus KCTC 2185 was significantly more resistant to bile salt than the others. The $\beta $-galactosidase activity from Streptococcus thermophilus KCTC 2185 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and their cellular retention of $\beta $-galactosidase decreased by 0.3% bile salt. The cellular permeability of LAB in the presence of bile salt increased significantly.

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Isolation of Gamma-Induced Rice Mutants with Increased Tolerance to Salt by Anther Culture

  • Lee, In-Sok;Kim, Dong-Sub;Hyun, Do-Yoon;Lee, Sang-Jae;Song, Hi-Sup;Lim, Yong-Pyo;Lee, Young-Il
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2003
  • Doubled haploids have long been recognized as a valuable tool in plant breeding since it not only offers the quickest method of advancing heterozygous breeding lines to homozygosity, but also increased the selection efficiency over conventional procedures due to better discrimination between genotypes within any one generation. Salt tolerant mutants were obtained in rice the variety, 'Hawsungbyeo', through in vitro mutagenesis of in vitro cultured anther-derived calli. Various doses (30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy) of gamma ray were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on callus formation on medium containing 1% NaCl, green plant regeneration, frequency of selected doubled haploid mutants and of the salt tolerant screen. It was demonstrated that the dose of 30 and 50 Gy gamma rays had significant effects on callus formation, regeneration and selection of salt tolerance. No tolerant lines were obtained from non-mutagenized cultures. From gamma ray irradiated cultures, five tolerant lines ($M_2$generation) at germination stage and 13 tolerant lines ($M_3$genoration) at seedling stage were obtained. The frequency of salt tolerant mutants indicates that anther culture applied in connection with gamma rays is an effective way to improve salt tolerance.

Salt Tolerance in Plants - Transgenic Approaches

  • Sangam S.;Jayasree D.;Reddy K.Janardhan;Chari P.V.B.;Sreenivasulu N.;Kishor P.B.Kavi
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Salinity is one of the major limiting factors for agricultural productivity. In plants, accumulation of osmolytes plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress tolerance. Likewise, exclusion or compartmentation of $Na^+$ ions into vacuoles provides an efficient mechanism to avert deleterious effects of $Na^+$ in the cytosol. Both vacuolar and plasma membrane sodium transporters and $H^+-ATPases$ can provide the necessary ion homeostasis. A variety of crop plants were engineered with respect to the synthesis of osmoprotectants and ion-compartmentation, but there are other cellular pathways involved in the salinity responses that are still not completely explored. Genomics approaches are increasingly used to identify genes and pathway changes involved in salt-tolerance. The new knowledge may be used via guided genetic engineering of multiple genes to create crop plants with significantly increased productivity in saline soils. This review surveys how plants deal with high salt conditions and how salt tolerance can be improved by transgenic approaches.

Expression of yeast Hem1 gene controlled by Arabidopsis HemA1 promoter improves salt tolerance in Arabidopsis plants

  • Zhang, Zhi-Ping;Yao, Quan-Hong;Wang, Liang-Ju
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2010
  • 5-Aminolevulinate (ALA) is well-known as an essential biosynthetic precursor of all tetrapyrrole compounds, which has been suggested to improve plant salt tolerance by exogenous application. In this work, the gene encoding aminolevulinate synthase (ALA-S) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hem1) was introduced into the genome of Arabidopsis controlled by the Arabidopsis thaliana HemA1 gene promoter. All transgenic lines were able to transcribe the YHem1 gene, especially under light condition. The chimeric protein (YHem1-EGFP) was found co-localizing with the mitochondria in onion epidermal cells. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants could synthesize more endogenous ALA with higher levels of metabolites including chlorophyll and heme. When the $T_2$ homozygous seeds were cultured under NaCl stress, their germination and seedling growth were much better than the wild type. Therefore, introduction of ALA-S gene led to higher level of ALA metabolism with more salt tolerance in higher plants.

Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

  • Liu, Ai-Ling;Zou, Jie;Liu, Cui-Fang;Zhou, Xiao-Yun;Zhang, Xian-Wen;Luo, Guang-Yu;Chen, Xin-Bo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stress tolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs). In this study, we generated transgenic rice over-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphological observation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plants exhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salt treatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviative appearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leaf electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenic plants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile, transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild type plants could not be rescued after drought and re-watering treatment. These findings indicate that over-expression of OsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stresses in rice seedlings.

Cross-Tolerance and Responses of Antioxidative Enzymes of Rice to Various Environmental Stresse

  • Kuk, Yong-In;Shin, Ji-San
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.264-273
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    • 2007
  • In order to examine the cross-tolerance of two chilling-tolerant cultivars (Donganbyeo and Heukhyangbyeo) and two chilling-susceptible cultivars (Hyangmibyeo and Taekbaekbyeo) to salt, paraquat, and drought, changes of physiological response and antioxidant enzymes were investigated. The seedlings were grown in a growth chamber until the 4-leaf stage. The seedlings were exposed to chilling at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. For drought treatment, the seedlings were subjected to drought by withholding water from plants for 5 days. For paraquat study, plants were sprayed with $300{\mu}M$ paraquat. For the salt stress, the seedlings were transferred to the Hoagland's nutrient solution containing 0.6% (w/v) NaCl for 4 days. Chilling-tolerant cultivars showed cross-tolerant to other stresses, salt, paraquat, and drought in physiological parameters, such as leaf injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and lipid peroxidation. The baseline levels of antioxidative enzyme activities, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activities in chilling-tolerant cultivars were higher than in the chilling-susceptible cultivars. However, there were no differences in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities between chilling-tolerant and -susceptible cultivars in untreated control. CAT activity in chilling-tolerant cultivars was higher than that in chilling-susceptible cultivars during chilling, salt, and drought treatments, but not during paraquat treatment. However, other antioxidative enzymes, APX, POX, and GR activities showed no significant differences between chilling-tolerant and -susceptible cultivars during chilling, salt, paraquat, and drought treatments. Thus, it was assumed that CAT contribute to cross-tolerance mechanism of chilling, salt, and drought in rice plants.

Phenotypic and genotypic screening of rice accessions for salt tolerance

  • Reddy, Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswar;Kim, Sung-Mi;Yoon, In Sun;Kim, Beom-Gi;Kwon, Taek-Ryoun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.188-188
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    • 2017
  • Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major crops that is seriously impacted by global soil salinization. Rice is among those crops where most of the high-yielding cultivars are highly sensitive to salinity. The key to a plant survival under NaCl salt stress is by maintaining a high $K^+/Na^+$ ratio in its cells. Selection for salinity tolerance genotypes of rice based on phenotypic performance alone is less reliable and will delay in progress in breeding. Recent advent of molecular markers, microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to find out salt tolerant rice genotypes. In the current experiment phenotyping and genotyping studies were correlated to differentiate different rice accessions for salinity tolerance. Eight rice accessions along with check plant Dongjin were screened by physiological studies using Yoshida solution with 50mM NaCl stress condition. The physiology studies identified four tolerant and four susceptible accessions based on their potassium concentration, sodium concentration, $K^+/Na^+$ ratio and biomass. 17 SSR markers were used to evaluate these rice accessions for salt tolerance out of which five molecular markers were able to discriminate tolerant accessions from the susceptible accessions. Banding pattern of the accessions was scored comparing to the banding pattern of Dongjin. The study identifies accessions based on their association of $K^+/Na^+$ ratio with molecular markers which is very reliable. These markers identified can play a significant role in screening large set of rice accessions for salt tolerance; these markers can be utilized to improve salt tolerance of commercial rice varieties with marker-assisted selection (MAS) approach.

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Isolation and characterization of ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS) Arabidopsis mutants capable of germination under saline conditions. (Ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS)에 의해 변이된 애기장대 종자 집단으로부터 염 내성 돌연변이체 선발 및 특성 분석)

  • Chung, Moon-Soo;Chung, Jung-Seong;Kim, Cheol-Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.641-645
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    • 2007
  • We conducted a seed germination screening under saline conditions to identify salt tolerance(sto) mutants with ethyl methane sulfonate(EMS) mutagenesis seed pool. During the screening, we identified three mutant lines that seemed to confer elevated salt tolerance in high concentrations of NaCl. At 175 mM NaCl, germination rate of sto42-14 mutant(one of the EMS salt tolerance mutants) was 7-fold higher than that of wild-type plants. Interestingly, sto42-14 mutant exhibited insensitivity to high glucose concentration and growth inhibition to gibberellin. Our results suggest that sto42-14 is involved in salt stress tolerance as well as in glucose and gibberellin response in Arabidopsis.

Induced Systemic Drought and Salt Tolerance by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 Root Colonization is Mediated by ABA-independent Stomatal Closure

  • Cho, Song-Mi;Kang, Beom-Ryong;Kim, Jeong-Jun;Kim, Young-Cheol
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.202-206
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    • 2012
  • Root colonization by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants resulted in induced tolerance to drought and salinity caused by halide salt-generated ionic stress but not by osmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Stomatal apertures decreased following root colonization by P. chlororaphis O6 in both wild-type and ABA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant plants. These results suggest that an ABA-independent stomatal closure mechanism in the guard cells of P. chlororaphis O6-colonized plants could be a key phenotype for induced systemic tolerance to drought and salt stress.

Identification of salt and drought inducible glutathione S-transferase genes of hybrid poplar

  • Kwon, Soon-Ho;Kwon, Hye-Kyoung;Kim, Wook;Noh, Eun Woon;Kwon, Mi;Choi, Young Im
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2014
  • Recent genome annotation revealed that Populus trichocarpa contains 81 glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes. GST genes play important and varying roles in plants, including conferring tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Little information is available on the relationship - if any - between drought/salt stresses and GSTs in woody plants. In this study, we screened the PatgGST genes in hybrid poplar (Populus alba ${\times}$ Populus tremula var. glandulosa) that were predicted to confer drought tolerance based on our expression analysis of all members of the poplar GST superfamily following exposure to salt (NaCl) and drought (PEG) stresses, respectively. Exposure to the salt stress resulted in the induction of eight PatgGST genes and down-regulation of one PatgGST gene, and the level of induction/repression was different in leaf and stem tissues. In contrast, 16 PatgGST genes were induced following exposure to the drought (PEG) stress, and two were down-regulated. Taken together, we identified seven PatgGSTs (PatgGSTU15, PatgGSTU18, PatgGSTU22, PatgGSTU27, PatgGSTU46, PatgGSTU51 and PatgGSTU52) as putative drought tolerance genes based on their induction by both salt and drought stresses.