• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Tolerance

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Studies of Physiological Response to the Salt Tolerance of Rice Cultivars (염류 스트레스에 대한 수도품종의 생리적 반응에 대한 연구)

  • 조동하
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 1998
  • This study was to investigate the dry weight, the amount of Na+ and K+ water potential and leaf photosynthesis rate in plants for determining the salt tolerance mechanism in rice cultivars on soil and solution culture with NaCl. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows ; In general, rice cultivars, cv. Tetep and Jinbu, having high salt tolerance in ID(identified on dry matter production level) showed the higher salt tolerance in RGR (relative growth rate), compared with rice cultivars(cv. Nonglim 41ho, Dunraebyeo and Sobackbyeo) having low salt tolerance. The contents of Na in rice differed depending on culivars and plant parts. Tetep contained 2.9times higher amounts of Na+ than leaf blade and root part. High salt tolerance cultivar Obongbyeo showed a larger decrease in osmotic potential than low salt tolerance cultivar Dunraebyeo suggesting that osmotic adjustment was developed under salt stress conditions in a salt tolerant cultivar . In order to know the IY(identified on grain yeild level using rice cultivars having different salt tolerance the capacity of photosyntheiss was investigated. The capapcity of photosynthesis in cv. Tetep and Obongbyeo having high salt tolerance was much higher that in cv.Dunraebyeo and Nonglim 41 having low salt tolerance.

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Physiological and Genetic Responses of Salt-stressed Tunisian Durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Cultivars

  • Kim, Sang Heon;Kim, Dae Yeon;Yacoubi, Ines;Seo, Yong Weon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.314-321
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    • 2018
  • Durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) is a major crop species cultivated for human consumption worldwide. In Tunisia, salt stress is one of the main problems that limit crop production. 'Mahmoudi' was selected as the most salt-sensitive out of 11 Tunisian durum cultivars. Using the salt-tolerant cultivar 'Om Rabia', resistant and susceptible cultivars were evaluated to compare genetic responses under salt stress. At the fully expanded third leaf stage, salt stress was applied by submerging the pots in 500 mM NaCl for 5 min every day for saline water irrigation in the greenhouse. The treatment was applied for 1 week and salt stress tolerance was determined by changes of growth parameters to the control condition. The salt tolerance trait index and salt tolerance index were calculated and used as selection criteria. The expression levels of TdHKT1;4, TdHKT1;5, and TdSOS1 were examined using qPCR. For further evaluation of physiological responses, salt stress (150 mM NaCl) was additionally applied for 48 h at the fully expanded third-leaf stage. Increased expression of the genes responsible for salt tolerance and proline content in tolerant durum can be used to broaden genetic diversity and provide genetic resources for the durum breeding program.

Soybean Improvement for Drought, Salt and Flooding Tolerance

  • Pathan, Safiullah;Nguyen, Henry T.;Sharp, Robert E.;Shannon, J. Grover
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.329-338
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    • 2010
  • Drought, salinity and flooding are three important abiotic factors limiting soybean production worldwide. Irrigation, soil reclamation, and drainage systems are not generally available or economically feasible for soybean production. Therefore, productive soybean varieties with tolerance are a cost effective means for reducing yield losses due to these factors. Genetic variability for higher tolerance to drought, salt and flooding is important. However, only a small portion of nearly 200,000 world soybean accessions have been screened to find genotypes with tolerance for use in breeding programs. Evaluation for tolerance to drought, salinity and flooding is difficult due to lack of faster, cost effective, repeatable screening methods. Soybean strains with higher tolerance to the above stresses have been identified. Crosses with lines with drought, salt and flooding tolerance through conventional breeding has made a significant contribution to improving tolerance to abiotic stress in soybean. Molecular markers associated with tolerance to drought, salt and flooding will allow faster, reliable screening for these traits. Germplasm resources, genome sequence information and various genomic tools are available for soybean. Integration of genomic tools coupled with well-designed breeding strategies and effective uses of these resources will help to develop soybean varieties with higher tolerance to drought, salt and flooding.

Salt Tolerance Enhanced by Transformation of a P5CS Gene in Carrot

  • Han Kyu-Hyun;Hwang Cheol-Ho
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2003
  • Proline is known as an osmoprotectant accumulating in response to salt and dehydration stresses. An increased level of proline is achieved by either an induced synthesis or a reduced degradation of proline. In an attempt to increase salt tolerance in carrot, a P5CS gene from mothbean was introduced via an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting carrot cells and the regenerated plants containing the transgene showed increased levels of proline compared to nontransgenics. The transgenic cell line, Pj2 showed about 6 times increased degree of tolerance determined by relative growth after a treatment in 250 mM NaCl. In facts, due to the retarded growth shown in non-saline condition, Pj2 cells grow only about 1.2 times better than nontransgenic control under salt stress condition. Taken together, it appears that a P5CS is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis and the increased accumulation of proline by overexpression of the enzyme is enough to enhance tolerance to salt stress in carrot.

Physiological Characteristics and Death Rate of Planted Trees in Reclaimed Seaside Areas (임해매립지 조경수목의 생리적 특성과 식재수목의 고사율)

  • 박현수;이상석;이상철
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyze the correlation between Death Rate of Trees (DRT) and the Physiological Characteristics of Trees(PCT) in POSCO Gwangyang works, which is a reclaimed area. To analyze the DRT, 15 species of deciduous trees were selected, for example Ulmus davidiana var., Zelkova serrata, Melia azedarach var. etc. Though there were numerous factors to affect the growing of trees, 5 PCT were considered to be main factors, soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, water needs, transplanting difficulty, and nutrient needs. According to two kinds of soil-base: mound and pot area, we tested the relationship between 5 PCT and DRT by use of t-test and multiple regression analysis. The results are as follows. 1. The DRT of Acer palmatum, Cornus kousa, Magnolia kobus, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Albizzia julibrissin were high by more than 20%. On the other hand, Chionanthus retusa, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Celtis sinensis, and Lagerstroemia indica were low by less than 10% in the DRT and are considered to be species suitable for planting in reclaimed areas. 2. The DRT of trees in pot areas was meaningfully higher than in mound areas; for this reason the mound technique is desirable as a soil-base for planting in reclaimed areas. 3. In the pot area, the independent variables, in the order of soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, transplanting difficulty, had an effect on the DRT more significantly than in mount area. On the other hand, wind salt tolerance and soil salt tolerance affected the DRT in mount areas. This means that soil salt tolerance, wind salt tolerance, and transplanting difficulty have to be considered as significant factors to the DRT. Although the researchers tried to interpret how the PCT affected the DRT in order to analyze the relationship between the two in reclaimed areas, it was neglected at an experimental level. Therefore, future research should work on this aspect in detail.

Genomic Insight into the Salt Tolerance of Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Tetragenococcus halophilus

  • Heo, Sojeong;Lee, Jungmin;Lee, Jong-Hoon;Jeong, Do-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1591-1602
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    • 2019
  • To shed light on the genetic basis of salt tolerance in Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus, we performed comparative genome analysis of 10 E. faecalis, 11 E. faecium, and three T. halophilus strains. Factors involved in salt tolerance that could be used to distinguish the species were identified. Overall, T. halophilus contained a greater number of potassium transport and osmoprotectant synthesis genes compared with the other two species. In particular, our findings suggested that T. halophilus may be the only one among the three species capable of synthesizing glycine betaine from choline, cardiolipin from glycerol and proline from citrate. These molecules are well-known osmoprotectants; thus, we propose that these genes confer the salt tolerance of T. halophilus.

Characterizing Salt Stress Response in a Rice Variety and Its Salt Tolerant Lines Derived from In Vitro Mutagenesis

  • Lee In Sok;Kim Dong Sub;Kang Si Yong;Wi Seung Gon;Jin Hua;Yun PiI-Yong;Lim Yong Pyo;Lee Young Il
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2004
  • The objectives were to compare the salt tolerance levels in the parental rice cultivar, Dongjinbyeo, and induced mutagenesis derived its lines for plant height, MDA, ATPase, POD, and 2-dimensional protein electrophoresis pattern in NaCl-containing hydroponic nutrient solutions. Rice plants isolated from a population of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjinbyeo) mutation lines, which were generated in combination with in vitro selection and gamma-ray, exhibited salt tolerance. Line No. 18 had the longest plant, whereas NaCl-sensitive line (No. 25) had the shortest plant. The parent, and the sensitive line showed severe damage from salt stress. Tolerant lines (No. 18, 50) had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) content than the sensitive one (Dongjinbyeo, No. 25) during salt stress. Several proteins showed significant quantitative variation through 2DE; phosphoribulokinase, peroxidase, oxygen evolving enhancer 1 and the $H^+-ATPase$, which are known to be involved in salt tolerance. The effect of salt on peroxidase and $H^+-ATPase$ activity in the seedlings of two groups with contrasting genotypes of rice was studied. A greater activity was recorded in the tolerant lines as compared to the sensitive ones (P<0.05, Duncan's test). The results indicate that salt tolerant lines expressed more salt stress-inducible proteins associated with salt tolerance than the sensitive lines during salt stress.

Study on the Salt Tolerance of Rice and Other Crops in Reclaimed 2. On the Salt Tolerance of Chinese Cabbage and Cabbage in Various Salty Conditions (간척지에서 수도 및 기타작물의 내염성에 관한 연구 2. 여러 가지 염분조건에서 배추와 양배추의 내염성에 관하여)

  • 임형빈
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 1969
  • Salt tolerances of Chinese cabbage and cabbage were observed by means of the sand culture and field experiment. The point of 50% yield reduction of Chinese Cabbage was 1% of salt concentration in sand culture. The Na absorption in the salty upland conditions was increased but the absorption of Ca, Mg were interrupted as the salt concentration was raised and there were no differences in the absorption of N and P. The Si absorption was increased at low salty conditions, but the salt concentration was raised, the absorption was interrupted drastically. The cabbage was more stronger salt tolerance than Chinese cabbage, and it was possible to prevent the salt damage significantly by planting on sloping beds instead of planting on the double-row beds in field condition.

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Rice plants regenerated under saline conditions displayed salt tolerance and stress memory

  • Cho, Hyun Min;Chun, Hyun Jin;Kim, Min Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.152-152
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    • 2017
  • Plants exposed to environmental stress for long durations often can adapt to stress conditions with improved tolerance. Moreover this acquired tolerance to stress can be retained even after reverting to destressed growth conditions, which is known to stress memory. In these adaptation and stress memory processes, epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications play a key role. Here, we showed that regenerated rice plants from embryogenic callus exposed to gradually increasing NaCl concentrations (up to 120 mM NaCl) acquired salt tolerance and their enhanced tolerance are inherited to subsequent generations. The rice plants (R0) regenerated from rice callus under saline conditions were transplanted into normal paddy field and R1 seeds were harvested. These R1 seeds displayed higher germination rate on MS medium containing 100mM NaCl than wild-type. The callus derived from R1 seeds showed better growth than control callus on high salinity medium. And the salt-adapted R1 plants exhibited higher chlorophyll contents and also higher $K^+/Na^+$ ratio than wild-type rice under saline conditions. The results indicated that rice plants successfully adapted to saline growth conditions during regeneration on high salt medium and moreover this acquired tolerance to salt stress was inherited subsequent generation.

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Overexpression of the Escherichia coli catalase gene, katE, enhances tolerance to salinity stress in the transgenic indica rice cultivar, BR5

  • Moriwaki, Teppei;Yamamoto, Yujirou;Aida, Takehiko;Funahashi, Tatsuya;Shishido, Toshiyuki;Asada, Masataka;Prodhan, Shamusul Haque;Komamine, Atsushi;Motohashi, Tsuyoshi
    • Plant Biotechnology Reports
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2008
  • Salinity stress is a major limiting factor in cereal productivity. Many studies report improvements in salt tolerance using model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana or standard varieties of rice, e.g., the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. However, there are few reports on the enhancement of salt tolerance in local rice cultivars. In this work, we used the indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar BR5, which is a local cultivar in Bangladesh. To improve salt tolerance in BR5, we introduced the Escherichia coli catalase gene, katE. We integrated the katE gene into BR5 plants using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The introduced katE gene was actively expressed in the transgenic BR5 rice plants, and catalase activity in $T_1$ and $T_2$ transgenic rice was approximately 150% higher than in nontransgenic plants. Under NaCl stress conditions, the transgenic rice plants exhibited high tolerance compared with nontransgenic rice plants. $T_2$ transgenic plants survived in a 200 mM NaCl solution for 2 weeks, whereas nontransgenic plants were scorched after 4 days soaking in the same NaCl solution. Our results indicate that the katE gene can confer salt tolerance to BR5 rice plants. Enhancement of salt tolerance in a local rice cultivar, such as BR5, will provide a powerful and useful tool for overcoming food shortage problems.