• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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The Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Urocortin in Brain Mechanisms Controlling Feed Intake of Sheep

  • Sunagawa, K.;Weisiger, R.S.;McKinley, M.J.;Purcell, B.S.;Thomson, C.;Burns, P.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1529-1535
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    • 2000
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and a new peptide, urocortin (UCN) have a direct action in brain mechanisms controlling feed, water and salt intake in sheep. We gave a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the peptide at a small dose of $5{\mu}g/0.2ml/hr$ for 98.5 hrs from day 1 to day 5 in sheep not exposed to stress. Feed and water intake during ICV infusion of CRF or UCN decreased significantly compared to those during artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion. NaCl intake during infusion of CRF or UCN was the same as that during CSF infusion. Mean carotid arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate during ICV infusion of CRF or UCN were not significantly different from that during CSF infusion. On the other hand, the plasma glucose concentration during ICV infusion of CRF or UCN tended to be higher than that during CSF infusion. These observations indicate that decreased feed intake induced by CRF and UCN infusion is not mediated by the activation of both the pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The results suggested that brain CRF and UCN act directly in brain mechanisms controlling ingestive behavior to decrease feed and water intake, but do not alter salt intake in sheep.

Living Science of Table Salt in Human Ecology -Common Salt, Health and Environment- (인간생태계에서의 소금의 생활과학 - 소금. 건강. 환경 -)

  • Fujino, Yasuhiko
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.230-244
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    • 1999
  • 1) Table salt (=NaCl=common salt=salt) is scientifically characterized, and the significant role in dietary and daily life has generally been discussed from the standpoint of human ecology. 2) In dietary life, salt fundamentally gives a deliciousness to dishes and nutro-physiologically functions to keep homeostasis in the body. Meanwhile, the excessive intake of salt often causes the high blood pressure and induces several fatal diseases. 3) In daily life, salt derivatives(Na-, Cl-compound) are quite useful widely over food, clothing and housing. Meanwhile, some of them especially organochlorine compounds often pollute the environment and damage the humans and or ecology as so-called environmental hormone resulting in dioxins. 4) For the ambivalence of salt in health and environment, humans, but not salt, are wholly responsible. The fact would go not only to salt but also generally to resources on the earth. 5) Humans should adequately be moderate in utilizations and consumptions of salt and or resources. Everything must be kept with in bounds. This conception would surely bring the stable maintenance and the sound development to the system of human ecology as well as global ecology.

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Sodium Chloride Regulation of COX-2 gene expression is independent of aldosterone activated mineralocorticoid receptor

  • Lim, Won-Chung;Park, Wan-Kyu;Lee, Young-Joo
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.190.2-191
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    • 2003
  • Production of prostaglandins involved in renal salt and water homeostasis is modulated by regulated expression of the inducible form of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at restricted sites in the rat kidney. COX-2 expression in the kidney is regulated by dietary salt intake, but the mechanism of its action is not fully understood. We have previously that high salt regulates COX-2 expression in rat kidney. (omitted)

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Dietary Behavior Score and Serum Lipid Profiles of Old Men with Atherosclerosis Operated by Angiography (하지 혈관조영술을 시행한 노년기 남성 동맥경화증 환자의 식행동 점수, 영양소 섭취량 및 혈청 지질 상태)

  • Yoon, Jin-Sook;Lee, Ji-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to examine the association of dietary behaviors, serum lipid profiles according to the progression of angiographically evaluated atherosclerosis. The subjects were 32 male patients aged 59-80 yrs living in the Daegu area who underwent initial angiography for their lower extremities. We classified the subjects into two groups according to the seriousness of iliac lesions based on angiographic results : Group I (lower lesion group) and Group II (higher lesion group). Dietary habits were evaluated by 10-item questionnaires. Daily food intake of each subject was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. There were no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the two groups. The food habit score of Group II was significantly lower than that of Group I (P<0.001). Group II showed significantly lower dietary habit scores in the consumption of fish and bean product (P<0.001), seaweed product (P<0.01), and salt use (P<0.001) than those of Group I. Dietary intake of vitamin C was significantly lower in Group II (P<0.01). Our results indicate that the more serious of atherosclerotic lesions the patients had, the poorer dietary habits they exhibited. Therefore, medical nutrition therapy for atherosclerotic patients should emphasize maintaining a balanced diet by consuming more fishes, beans, and seaweed as well as by reducing salt intake.

Salinity and Sweetness of Korean Jang Products related to Taste Threshold, Preferences of Food Group and Nutrient Intakes in the Rural Elderly (전통 장류의 염도 및 당도가 농촌 노인의 맛 감지도와 식품섭취행태에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Se In;Lee, Mee Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.780-787
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    • 2017
  • The consumption of high-salt foods is an independent risk factor for increased hypertension. Thus, evaluating the relationship of taste sensitivity and pleasantness of high-salt foods such as Korean jang products, would help contribute to an understanding of salty food eating behaviors of the Korean rural elderly. This study aimed to verify the association between taste sensitivity and salinity of Korean jang products, and the preferences of food groups and nutrient intake in the rural elderly. We studied 269 elderly persons (males 83, females 186) aged above 65 years, residing in the rural area, Sunchang gun Jeonbuk. For each subject, a recognition threshold of 4 basic tastes and pleasant concentrations of NaCl were estimated using the sip- and-spit method. Taste preferences, frequency of intake of food groups, nutrient intakes, and salinity and sweetness of Korean jang products (Doenjang, Ganjang, Gochujang) were assessed. No association was found between salt taste recognition threshold and optimally preferred concentration of salt and salinity of Korean jang products. However, the sweet taste recognition threshold was positively related to the sweetness of Korean jang products. Also, the salinity of Doenjang positively correlated with the frequencies of food groups and nutrient intakes. That is to say that the sweet taste sensitivity was related to the sweetness of Korean jang products, but was not sensitive to the salty taste. The salinity of Doenjang correlated with the consumption of food and nutrient intakes. Taken together, these findings suggest the need for appropriate intervention and education to reduce the salinity of Doenjang, which is an important modifiable factor contributing to reducing sodium intake in the rural elderly.

Effects of Sodium Intake on the Association between the Salt-Sensitive Gene, Alpha-Adducin 1 (ADD1), and Inflammatory Cytokines in the Prevalence of Children Obesity

  • Park, Mi-Young;Lee, Myoung-sook
    • Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.98-109
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To examine the effects of sodium intake on the correlations between the saltsensitive gene ${\alpha}$-adducin 1 (ADD1) and inflammatory cytokines in Korean childhood obesity. Methods: A total of 2,070 students aged 8-9 years old participated in this study. The anthropometrics, serum biochemistry profile, inflammatory cytokines, and three-day dietary assessment were analyzed according to sex, obesity degree, and ADD1 polymorphism. Results: The obesity prevalence was higher in boys (15.6%) than in girls (11.9%). Boys also showed higher values in anthropometrics; lipid, glucose, and insulin profiles; total calorie intakes, as well as those of sodium and calcium compared with those of the girls. The more obese were boys and girls, the higher were the anthropometrics and the blood levels (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, and insulin), but the lower was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The obese boys had significantly higher sodium and Na/K intakes, while the obese girls had higher visfatin level and Na/K intake. In addition, an increase in the risk factors for blood pressure and obesity in ADD1 variants was identified. Serum tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$($TNF-{\alpha}$) significantly increased with increasing sodium intake in the ADD1 W allele carriers, regardless of sex. The presence of obesity with the ADD1 W allele induced inflammatory accelerators such as $TNF-{\alpha}$ or C-reactive protein(CRP) with higher sodium intake. Conclusion: Obese children with an ADD1w allele can experience a more complex form of obesity than non-obese when exposed to an obesity-inducing environment and need to be controlled sodium intake in the diet.

Soldium Intake & Excretion of Preschool Children in Urban (도시지역 미취학 어린이의 Na 섭취 및 배설에 관한 연구)

  • 김순경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.669-678
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to estimate the sodium intake of preschool children . To determine the sodium intake & excretion of preschool children in Korea, dietary behaviors, anthropometry, intakes of dietary nutrients, urinary sodium excretion and preference for salty foods were measured in 42 preschool children (male 26 , female 16, average6.5 years old) and their mothers. The results are summarized as follows. Mean daily urinary sodium excretion was 52.7 mEq(1,212.1mg). This value did not show remarkable change compared with the other studied that were accomplished in the similarage group for about the last ten years. And the subjects showed lower preference for salty taste than those of elementary school children and adults. Mean daily lower preference for salty taste than those of elementary school children and adults. Mean daily urinary sodium excretion were significantly correlated with the frequency of eating out (p<0.01), potassium intake(p<0.001) and urinary sodium to potassium excretion ratio(p<0.001). But there weren't any correlations with mean daily sodium intake, blood pressure, dietary nutrients intake and the preference for salty taste.

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Salt Taste Acuity and Menstruation (월경중 염미감각의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 이혜숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1987
  • It was the purpose of this study to determine if the changes in the sense of taste occur with the periods of the menstrual cycle in 14 women aged 20 to 22 years. Results showed that the perceived intensity responses to different suprathreshold salt concentrations and the ad libitum salting level in soybean sprout soup did not differ significantly according to the different periods of the menstrual cycle. But women in the three or five days period previous to menstruation were sensi\ulcornertive at the lower salt concentration of 0.25%, but, on the contrary, were insensitive at the higher concentration of 1.25%, with increasing ad libitum salt preference in soybean sprout soup. Also, they were more or less high in the intensity slopes of perceived saltiness on the linear regression. The data suggests that a physiological mechanism for increasing salt intake may develop during the three or five days right before menstruation.

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