• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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Salt-Related Dietary Attitudes, Behaviors, and Nutrition Knowledge of University Students according to Estimated Salt Intake Using Urinary Salt Signal (일부 남녀 대학생의 소변 중 Salt Signal로 추정한 소금 섭취량에 따른 소금 섭취 관련 식태도, 식행동, 영양지식에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Min, Daun;Jang, Eungyoung;Yeon, Jee-Young;Kim, Jong Wook;Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.226-233
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate salt-related dietary attitudes, behaviors, and nutrition knowledge according to urinary salt signal of university students. Based on urinary salt signal, we classified subjects into an "adequate Na intake (ANI)" group (n=52) (salt ${\leq}6g$) and "excess Na intake (ENI)" group (n=66) (salt >6 g). Subjects were asked about general characteristics, lifestyle, salt-related dietary attitudes, behaviors, and nutritional knowledge using questionnaire. The ENI group had more subjects who were drinkers (P<0.05) compared to the ANI group. The ENI group (33.45) showed a significantly lower score in terms of salt-related dietary attitudes compared to the ANI group (35.50) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the total score of salt-related dietary behavior between the groups. The score of nutrition knowledge was significantly higher in the ANI (9.77) group than in the ENI (8.82) group (P<0.05). The correlation analysis indicated that the urinary salt signal had a negative correlation with the salt-related dietary attitude score after adjustments for age, sex, and body mass index (r=-0.2100, P<0.05). These results support the validity of using the urinary salt signal to simplify estimation of sodium intake.

Blood Pressure and Dietary Related Risk Factors Associated with High Sodium Intake Assessed with 24-hour Urine Analysis for Korean Adults (한국 성인들의 24시간 소변 분석법에 근거한 고나트륨군의 혈압과 고나트륨 섭취관련 위험인자에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Yeon-Seon;Lim, Hwa-Jae;Kim, Sook-Bae;Kim, Hee Jun;Son, Sook Mee
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.537-549
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to examine blood pressure and other characteristics of a high sodium intake group assessed with 24-hr urine analysis and the dietary factors related to the risk of high sodium intake among Korean adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults aged 20-59 years. Subjects who completed 24-hr urine collection (N = 205) were divided into 3 groups (tertile) according to the sodium intake estimated with 24-hour urine analysis. We compared the blood pressure, BMI and dietary related factors of the 3 groups (low, medium, high sodium intake group) with General Linear Model (GLM) and Duncan's multiple range test (p < 0.05). The risk factors related to high sodium intake were assessed with odds ratio (p < 0.05). Results: The sodium intake (mg/day) of the 3 groups were $3359.8{\pm}627.9$, $4900.3{\pm}395.1$ and $6770.6{\pm}873.9$, respectively, corresponding to daily salt intake (g/day) 8.5, 12.4 and 17.2, respectively. High sodium group showed significantly elevated age, BMI and systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Being male gender was associated with significantly increased risk of sodium intake (OR = 1.972; 95%CI: 1.083-3.593). The other factors related to high sodium intake were higher BMI (${\leq}25$) (OR = 2.619; 95% CI: 1.368-5.015), current alcohol consumption (OR = 1.943; 95%CI: 1.060-3.564), and having salty soybean paste with salt percentage > 14% (OR = 3.99; 95% CI: 1.404-6.841). The dietary attitude related to increased risk of high sodium intake included 'enjoy dried fish and salted mackerel' (p < 0.001) and 'eat all broth of soup, stew or noodle' (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Because high sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure, nutrition education should focus on alcohol consumption, emphasis on related dietary factors such as using low salt soybean paste, improvements in the habit of eating dried fish and salted mackerel or eating all broth of soup, stew or noodle.

High Dietary Salt Intake Increase of Gastric Ulcer in Stressed Rats (침수.속박스트레서에 의한 위궤양 모델 쥐에서 식염의 섭취 수준이 궤양 발병 및 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • 이상아
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.920-929
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    • 1997
  • This study examined the effect of dietary salt levels on the incidence and cure of gastric ulcer in rats. Two sets of experiment were conducted . In the first experiment, the rats were divided into 3 groups. The 3 groups were fed 0%, 4%, and 8% NaCl diets respectively for 20days. The rats were given water -immersion restraint stress at the end of the dietary period , and sacrificed. The ulcer index by histological test was higher in rats fed the 8% NaCl diet than those in the other groups. The hexosamine and glutathione levels were significantly lower in the rats fed the 8% NaCl diet. Hematocrit and total iron binding capacity(TIBC) showed lower values caused by bleeding of gastric mucosa. The second experiment was designed to determine the effect of soldium concentration on the cure of gastric ulcer . As the gastric ulcer was recovered, ulcer length was gradually deceased in the control group but not changed in the 8% NaCl diet group. The gastric hexosamine and hepatic glutathione were increased in the control group but decreased in the 8% NaCl diet group. The hematologic indices of stressed rats showed the same tendency. As a result, dietary salt per se did not cause gastric ulcer . Once an ulcer is formed by stress or any other factor, higher levels of dietary salt may be detrimental to gastric mucosa, thereby delaying the healing of the ulcer. It is recommended that dietary salt intake be reduced in stress-prone people.

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Effect of Sodium Chloride Supplementation on Bone Metablism in Rats Consuming a Low Calcium Diet (저칼슘 식이 섭취시 식염첨가가 흰쥐의 골격대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1096-1104
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effect of sodium cholride supplementation on bone metabolism in female rats consuming a low calcium diet. Twenty five female rats were divided into three dietary groups (control Na : 0.1038%, 1% Na : 1.036%, 2% Na : 2.072%). All experimental diets contained 0.27% Ca and were fed to rats with deionized water for 7 weeks. Bone mineral density(BMD) and bone mineral content(BMC) of total body, spine and femur were measured using energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) by small animal software. Then Ca efficiency was calculated from BMD and BMC. Serum Ca, P, Na and urine Ca, P, Na were determined. Urinary pyridinoline, serum ALP were measured to monitor bone resorption. Following 7 weeks, sodium cholride supplemented groups had higher urinary Ca excreteion, urinary pyridinoline, crosslinks value and serum ALP. There was no significant difference in case of serum Ca among all groups. Sodium chloride supplemnted groups had lower Ca effciency of total, spine and femur BMD and BMC than that of control group. In conclusion high salt intake not only increases urinary Ca excretion as urinary Na excretion does but also increase bone resorption and decrease Ca efficiency of each bone. It is been suggested that high salt intake may be harmful for bone maintenance. Therfore, the decrease of salt intake to the level of recommendation would be desirable.

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A Study on Correlation between Blood Pressure and Dietary Na, K Intakes Pattern in the Family Members of Normal and Cerebrovascular Disease Patients (뇌졸중 환자 가족과 정상인에 있어서 혈압과 Na, K 섭취경향간의 상관관계 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Dai;Choe, Myeon;Ju, Jin-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 1995
  • Purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and dietary sodium, potassium intake pattern in the family members of normal cerebrovascular (CVA) disease, excluding patients themselves. Both mean values of systolic (125.8$\pm$23.7 vs 119.3$\pm$19.2mmHg) and diastolic(76.1$\pm$16.7 vs 71.6$\pm$12.5mmHg) bllood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients were significantly higher than those of normal subjects. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weibght, sodium in soybean paste, potassium in hotpepepr paste, soybean paste and meats in normal subjects group. In the family members of cerebrovascular patient, systolic blood pressure was possively correlated with age, weight, sodium in soy sauce, drinking water and potassium in soups. Interestingly, table salt intake was positively correlated with systosolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Diastolic bolld pressure was positively correlated with age, weight, table salt intake potassium in hotpepper paste and soybean paste in normal subjects group. Diastolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weight and table salt intake in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Urinary potassium excretion was negatively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients.

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The Role of Brain Somatostatin in the Central Regulation of Feed, Water and Salt Intake in Sheep

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Weisinger, Richard S.;McKinley, Michael J.;Purcell, Brett S.;Thomson, Craig;Burns, Peta L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.929-934
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    • 2001
  • The physiological role of brain somatostatin in the central regulation of feed intake in sheep was investigated through a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of somatostastin 1-28 (SRIF) at a small dose of $5{\mu}g/0.2ml/hr$ for 98.5 hours from day 1 to day 5. Sheep (n=5) were fed for 2 hours once a day, and water and 0.5 M NaCI solution were given ad libitum. Feed, water and salt intake were measured during ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and SRIF. The feed intake during SRIF infusion on days 2 to 5 increased significantly compared to that during CSF infusion. Water intake, when compared to that during CSF infusion, only increased significantly on day 4. NaCI intake during SRIF infusion was not different from that during CSF infusion. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate during SRIF infusion were not different from those during CSF infusion. The plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, osmolality and total protein during SRIF infusion were also not different from those values during CSF infusion.There are two possible mechanisms, that is, the suppression of brain SRIF on feed suppressing hormones and the direct actions on brain mechanisms controlling feed intake, explaining how SRIF works in the brain to bring about increases in feed intake in sheep fed on hay. The results indicate that brain SRIF increases feed intake in sheep fed on hay.

The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Effects of short-term supplementation of erythritol-salt on urinary electrolyte excretion in rats (단기간의 에리스리톨 소금 섭취가 흰쥐의 요 중 전해질 배출에 미치는 영향)

  • Kyung, Myungok;Lim, Ji Ye;Lee, Kyungsun;Jung, Sangwon;Choe, Keunbum;Yang, Chang-Kun;Kim, Yuri
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted in order to investigate the diuretic effects of Erythritol (ET) salt on urinary electrolyte excretion in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Methods: Animals were divided into two groups: Salt group (n = 7) and Salt + ET fed group (n = 7). Animals were provided food and water ad libitum. Supplements were administered orally to animals for one week. Results: Body weights were not statistically different between groups either on Day 1 or Day 7. However, water consumption of the Salt + ET group was significantly higher than that of the Salt group on Day 1 and Day 7. Urine volume of the Salt + ET group was approximately 27% and 38% higher than that of the Salt group on Day 1 and Day 7. In addition, we found that the total amounts of urinary electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, of the Salt + ET group were significantly higher than those of the Salt group on Day 7. We also found that serum electrolyte concentrations did not differ between two groups. These results demonstrated that salt intake with ET was effective in increasing urinary electrolyte excretion, which might be caused by higher water intake and diuretic effect inhibiting reabsorption of water, sodium, and potassium in renal tubules. Conclusion: The results suggest that short-term supplementation of ET salt can be a potential diuretic agent by inhibiting sodium and potassium reabsorption and inducing loss of water.

Surprisingly, traditional purple bamboo salt, unlike other salts does not induce hypertension in rats

  • Kim, Young-Sick;Lee, Eun-Hee;Kim, Hyung-Min
    • CELLMED
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.16.1-16.5
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    • 2013
  • Hypertension induces many of the social costs related by cardiovascular diseases. Sodium is known as a crucial factor in inducing type I hypertension. In traditional Korean medicine, bamboo salt (BS) has been used in the attenuation of salts toxic coldness and nowadays it has shown various therapeutic effects. It contains mostly sodium chloride (about 91.7% of BS); however, the effect of BS on hypertension is still not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of BS on blood pressure for the first time. Two group of BS, sun-dried salt (SDS), NaCl, or distilled water (DW, vehicle control) was administrated orally for 8 weeks. Although BS had no effect on body weight and food intake, it increased water intake (p < 0.05). The BS groups, in terms of blood pressure, was similar to the DW group; whereas the SDS and NaCl groups showed significantly increased blood pressure levels (p < 0.05). BS also decreased sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) mRNA expression, unlike SDS or NaCl. These observations indicate that BS may be a promising strategy for the prevention of various diseases including salt-related diseases.

Study on the Eating Habits and Practicability of Guidelines for Reducing Sodium Intake according to the Stage of Change in Housewives (주부의 나트륨 저감화 행동변화 단계에 따른 식행동 특성 분석 및 저나트륨 식사 방법의 실천용이도에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, So-Hyun;Kwon, Jong-Sook;Kim, Kyungmin;Yoon, Jin-Sook;Kang, Baeg-Won;Kim, Jong Wook;Heo, Seok;Cho, Hea-Young;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.724-736
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    • 2012
  • This study was intended to investigate the sodium-related perception, dietary behavior, and practicability of methods for reducing sodium intake(RSI) according to the stage of change in consumers. The survey was conducted to 770 housewives, among them 553 subjects who answered the key questions for the stage of change were categorized into 'Maintenance (M)' stage (maintaining reduced salt intake for more than 6 months; n = 287, 51.90%), 'Action (A)' stage (maintaining reduced salt intake for less than 6 months; n=139, 25.14%), and 'Pre-Action (P)' stage (not starting reduced salt intake; n = 127, 22.97%). The subjects in M and A were significantly older than those in P (p < 0.01). The scores of desirable dietary habit and dietary balance were the highest in M followed by A and P. When eating out, the subjects in P considered 'price' more and 'healthiness of food' less than those in M and A did. Among the guidelines for RSI, 'Avoid Processed Foods', 'Eat enough vegetables and fruits' and 'Add little amount of dipping sauce for fried food' were selected as the three easiest items to perform. With regard to the sodium-related perception, the subjects in M considered eating-out food to be more salty than homemade dishes, read nutrition labels more, avoided table salt or dipping sauce for fried food more, and had 'own low-sodium recipe' than those in P (p < 0.001). It is suggested that practicability of actions for RSI and the stage of change should be considered to develop effective personalized education program and nutrition guidance.