• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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Food Intake Frequency, and Compliance in Stroke Patients (노졸증 발생 후 뇌종증 환자의 식습관 및 식이순응도 조사 연구)

  • 박경애;김화성;김종성;권순억;최스미
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.542-552
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary habits and food compliance in stroke patients. One-hundred sixty eight elderly stroke patients and 97 young patients with first -ever stroke admitted to Asan Medical Center between 1994 and 1998 were studied. Using a structured interview, we assessed food intake. food consumption frequency and compliance to low salt, low meat hight fish and high fruit and vegetable diets. These results were analyzed with X$^2$, t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SAS package program. Salted food intake and cholesterol-containing food frequency were increased whereas frequency of fruits and vegetables intake was decreased in young stroke patients compared to the elderly. Meat intake and cholesterol-containing food frequency were increased in the males compared to the females in elderly stroke patients. and fish intake and cholesterol-containing food frequency were higher in the males than the females in the young. In patients with high economic status, frequency of fruits and vegetables was elevated. Also compliance the low meat and high fruit and vegetable diet in young patients was lower than that in the elderly. When the life-style risk factors influencing the food intake of frequency of fruits and vegetables was affected by education in young stroke patients. In elderly stroke patients, meat intake frequency of cholesterol-containing foods and fruits and vegetables were influenced by sex and /or income. Our results suggest that dietary intake of salt meat ,cholesterol-containing foods. fruits and vegetables in stroke patients may vary with age, sex the presence of risk factors or economic status therefore guidelines and nutrition education should by formulated to prevent stroke recurrence based on dietary habits and risk factors of individual patients.

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Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects

  • Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee;Balan, Sumitha Nair;Chua, Leong-Siong;Say, Yee-How
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, dis cretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic difference, discretionary salt use and blood pressures.

Effects of Lifestyles, Dietary Habits, Food Preferences and Nutrient Intakes on Sensitivity to and Preference for Salty Tastes of Korean Women

  • Lee, Hong-Mie
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate factors affecting sensitivity and preference for salty tastes of Korean adult females. Sensitivity and preference for salty tastes were determined as detection threshold concentration of NaCl solution and the optimally-preferred NaCl concentration of the bean sprout soup, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the information regarding general characteristics, self diagnosis of stress, health-related lifestyle practices, dietary habits and food preferences. Dietary intake using 24-hours recall and blood pressure were measured. Salty taste detection thresholds and optimally-preferred NaCl concentrations were 0.0197% and 0.357%, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the optimally-preferred salt concentration and age, despite no significant correlation between either sensitivity or preference for salty taste and sodium intake, which was 3,605mg/day. Those who had bread or cereal with milk as breakfast instead of a traditional Korean meal and those who preferred jjigae to soup had significantly higher NaCl preferences for bean sprout soup. Going to bed after midnight and skipping meals (${\geq}3/week$) decreased salty taste sensitivity without reaching statistical significance. Self awareness of one's own health, recent weight changes, family history of hypertension, sleep quality, getting-up time, rate of eating and other food preferences did not affect either perception. Stress level, TV watching, BMI and sodium intake did not have significant correlation to sensitivity or preference. Further research including a large number of well-controlled subjects and more accurate measurement of sodium intake should be directed to find other factors affecting salt preference and sensitivity in order to decrease Na intake and related diseases.

Sodium Content and Nutrients Supply from Free Lunch Meals Served by Welfare Facilities for the Elderly in Gyeonggi-do (경기 일부지역 노인복지관 제공 무료 급식의 나트륨 등 영양소 함량에 관한 조사)

  • Park, Seoyun;Ahn, So Hyun;Kim, Jin Nam;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.459-469
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to estimate the salt content and evaluate the nutritional quality of free lunch meals served by welfare facilities for the elderly. We collected food items from 8 welfare facilities in Gyeonggi-do, and calculated the total salt content from the salinity and weight of individual food items. The average salt content from lunch meals was 5.68 g, which was over the recommended daily salt intake by the WHO. The greatest contributor to the salt content among the menu groups was soup and stew (37.5%). Soup, stew, deep-fried foods, and sauces were major sources of salt, while the most salty dishes were sauces, deep-fried food, salt-fermented food, and kimchi. The nutrient content was sufficient, except for calcium in both men and women, which was equal to approximately 1/3 of the dietary recommended intakes (DRIs) for Korean adults of their mean age. In addition, the index of nutritional quality (INQ) and nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) of most nutrients were satisfactory, except for those of calcium and sodium. The INQs of calcium and sodium were 0.64 and 4.41, respectively, while the mean adequacy ratio of a meal was 0.95. These results suggest that multilateral efforts to lower sodium intake be considered and calcium sources be added, in order to improve the quality of meals served to the elderly at welfare facilities.

Survey on Nutrition Knowledge, Food Behaviors, and Food Frequency of Sodium Intake in Korean University Students (대학생의 나트륨 관련 영양지식과 식행동 및 나트륨 급원식품 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Hong, Myung-Sun;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.12-19
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed for the purpose of establishing proper dietary behaviors and improving sodium intake status by investigating nutrition knowledge, dietary behaviors, and food intake frequency related to sodium in 398 university students living in Gyeonggi-do and Incheon. Female students showed a higher rate of eating out more than five times a week as well as daily snack intake than male students. Female students showed a higher score for sodium-related nutrition knowledge than male students, whereas male students showed higher sodium intake than female students. Subjects who showed a higher frequency of eating out and snack intake also showed a higher salt intake ratio and sodium-related nutrition knowledge. Subjects with higher scores related to sodium-related nutrition knowledge showed a higher low salt intake ratio and incidence of low sodium food intake. From this research, depending on the level of nutrition knowledge related to sodium university students showed differences in dietary behavior related to sodium intake. This result would be helpful to develop lower sodium training materials specific to low sodium food selection tips, reading nutrition labels, and so on.

Salt Processed Food and Gastric Cancer in a Chinese Population

  • Lin, Si-Hao;Li, Yuan-Hang;Leung, Kayee;Huang, Cheng-Yu;Wang, Xiao-Rong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5293-5298
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    • 2014
  • To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

Effects of Heat Stress and Extra Salt Addition on Acid-Base Balance, Water Intake and Egg Quality in Layers (고온 스트레스와 소금의 첨가가 산란계의 산-염기 평형과 음수량 및 난질에 미치는 영향)

  • 이석휴;현화진;이봉덕;한성욱;지설하;이수기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.310-317
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    • 1990
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding extra dietary salt on the blood acid-base balance, water intake and egg quality in heat stressed layers. Eighteen 44-wk-old brown commercial layers(Dekalb Warren) were randomly alloted to 0.25 and 0.75% dietary salt treatments, with nine replicates per treatment and one bird per replicate. After 3 d of preliminary period at 13~$16^{\circ}C$(normal temperature), layers were subjected to 3 d of collection period. Then the room temperature was raised to 33-$35^{\circ}C$f(hot temperature), and another 3 d of collodion period was followed. The experiment was designed as a $2\times2$ factorial and analyzed as suck The ANOVA test and comparison among treatment means were done at 5% probability levels. Results obtained were summarized as follows. L The heat stressed layers decreased feed intake, and increased water intake and excreta moisture content significantly. The addition of extradietary salt significantly increased excreta moisture content 2. The heat stressed layers showed significantly higher blood pH and lower $pCO_2$ values than the control bird However, the addition of extra salt did not change any acid-base variables. 3. The egg weight and shell quality decreased significantly, and haugh unit increased significantly by the heat stress. However, these values were not affected by the salt addition. In summary, the heat stressed layers displayed respiratory alkalosis and poor egg quality, as expected However, the addition of ex03 salt to the diet failed to alleviated the heat stress in this layer experiment.

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A Comparison of Salty Taste Assessments and Dietary Attitudes and Dietary Behaviors Associated with High-Salt Diets in Four Regions in Korea (전국 권역별 짠맛에 대한 미각판정과 짜게 먹는 식태도 및 식행동 비교)

  • Kim, Hyun-Hee;Jung, Yun-Young;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.38-48
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to compare regional differences in salty taste assessments, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes and dietary behaviors associated with high-salt diets in four national regions in Korea (Region 1: Seoul, Sokcho, Region 2: Buyeo, Jecheon, Gong Ju, Region 3: Daegu, Gyeongsan, Region 4: Jeon Ju). Subjects were 860 persons who participated in sodium reduction campaign. The result of the salty taste assessment by region was not significantly different. The nutrition knowledge score of subjects in Region 1 was the highest. Dietary attitude scores that showed preference for high-salt diets of Region 2 and Region 4 subjects were higher than those of Regions 1 and 3 subjects (p < 0.001). Dietary behavior scores were not significantly different among regions. The correlation between sodium intake and salty taste assessment was significant (p < 0.01). Older subjects who had high blood pressure levels and lower nutrition knowledge were more likely to have high sodium intakes. Even though the salty taste assessment and dietary behavior scores by region were not significantly different, the salty taste assessment scores had a significant negative correlation with nutrition knowledge and had a significant positive correlation with dietary attitude and dietary behavior in terms of preference for high-salt diets. Therefore, nationwide education regarding salt intake reduction and health and a campaign to encourage favorable attitudes and behavioral changes regarding consumption of a no-salt / low-salt diet is needed.

The Threshold of 0.5% Salt-water Taste and Risk of Stomach Cancer (0.5% 소금물에 대한 역치와 위암발생의 위험도)

  • Ohrr, Hee-Chul;Lee, Kang-Hee;Yi, Sang-Wook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.293-302
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    • 2000
  • The relationship between sodium intake and stomach cancer risk has been studied much in Japan but a great portions still remain controversial. There has been few studies on relationship between sodium intake and stomach cancer in Korea. The goal of this nested case-control study is to investigate the association between sodium intake and stomach cancer risk in a rural county of Korea We estimated sodium intake indirectly by the threshold of salt-water taste of patients. This study was based on both of the data from 'Kangwha Cohort Study' which had been conducted from March 1985 and 'Kangwha Community Cancer Registry' which had been launched on July in 1982 by the College of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine. Yonsei University. A total of 145 patients who developed stomach cancer in Kangwha County were initially recruited as the case group. We tried to get two community-controls per stomach cancer case by matching age and gender. Finally we got information from 90 cases and 146 controls about the threshold of the salt taste and preference of salty food and so on. Some 79% of the information about ease group came from proxy respondents and 56% among controls. Risk ratios of developing stomach cancer adjusted for smoking, body mass index and self-stated health level were estimated. No statistically significant association between the threshold of salt taste and stomach cancer risk found in this study. We recommend some further studies utilizing urinary salt excretion, diet record method for better estimating of salt intake with a paticular emphasis on interaction effect between salty and spicy food in hospital-based case-control study designs.

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Salt-Related Dietary Behaviors and Sodium Intakes of University Students in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 대학생의 소금 관련 식행동 및 나트륨 섭취량)

  • Chung, Eun-Jung;Shim, Eu-Gene
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.578-588
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of dietary sodium (Na) intake with salt-related dietary behaviors of 218 university students (95 men; 123 women) living in Gyeonggi area. Dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) was used to identify salt-related dietary behaviors and to determine Na intakes. In men, systolic & diastolic blood pressures, Na intakes and DFQ-15 scores were significantly higher than in women. High-salt intake group (HS), classified by DFQ-15, had higher scores of high-salt dietary attitude and more Na intakes than low-salt intake group (LS). HS took protein foods and had balanced diets less frequently than LS (p<0.05). HS had fried dishes & fatty meats, and added salt to dishes more frequently (p<0.05). HS and LS had differences in preference of soy-boiled and Chinese or Japanese foods, in intake frequency of bean-paste soup, in use of soy sauce with fried food or raw fish, and in salt addition to dishes at the table (p<0.05). HS, classified by Na intakes, had high-salt dietary attitudes such as preference of seasoned rice & soy-boiled foods and habitual addition of soy sauce or salt to dishes at the table. The subjects using food labels when purchasing had better salt-related attitudes & behaviors, and lower DFQ-15 scores & Na intakes than the non-users (p<0.01). Self-assessed HS (SHS) had worse salt-related attitudes and behaviors (p<0.05). Male self-assessed LS (SLS) had higher Na intakes, which indicated that self-assessment of salt preference did not actually reflect Na intake. In summary, male university students belonged to a high-risk group of salt intakes, and HS preferred soy-boiled foods or fatty dishes, frequently added salt to dishes and rarely had balanced diets. These results suggest that nutrition education programs for university students should include fundamental dietetics and a balanced diet, in addition to a low-Na diet.