• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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The effect of salt usage behavior on sodium intake and excretion among Korean women

  • Lee, Jeung-Yun;Cho, Dong-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.232-237
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    • 2012
  • This study was done to explore the effect of Korean women's salt usage behavior on their sodium intake and excretion according to aging. Dietary sodium intake and salt usage behavior were analyzed to compare the difference between young and middle-aged women. One hundred fifty six young women and 77 middle-aged women without hypertension or any current medication were recruited. Body mass index, waist hip ratio, blood pressure were measured from each subject. Salt usage behaviors were surveyed with questionnaire, sodium intake with 24-hr recall method, and sodium excretion with spot urine. Middle-aged women were more obese than young women according to body mass index and waist hip ratio. Blood pressure was significantly higher for the middle-aged. Young women consumed more fats and middle-aged women more carbohydrates. Middle-aged women consumed more sodium and potassium, and excreted more sodium. Among questionnaire items, kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables were found to be related with high sodium diet. Salted vegetables and salted nuts and potato chips were significantly correlated with young women's high sodium diet, while soy sauce on fried food, kimchi, salted vegetables accounted for middle-aged women's high sodium diet. With these results, we concluded that middle-aged women consumed more carbohydrates, less fat, and more sodium and potassium than young women. Middle-aged women frequently choose kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables, and they contribute to high sodium intake. We recommend to choose low-salt kimchi, less soup or pot stew, and more fresh vegetables for lower sodium diet.

Salt reduction in foods using protein hydrolysates (단백질 가수분해물을 이용한 식품 내 소금 저감화)

  • Shin, Jung-Kue
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.313-324
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    • 2018
  • As excessive intake of salt is regarded as a reason for health problems, the tendency of people to attempt to reduce intake of salt in their everyday lives is on the rise. In Korea, where many people have a higher intake of salt compared to those in other countries, there have been diverse efforts to improve on this eating habit. Protein hydrolysates are chemically, physically hydrolyzed protein that have been widely utilized as a material for not only regular food but health functional food due to have diverse biological effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, prevention of diabetes, and regulation of blood pressure. Various amino acids such as glutamic acid, arginine and arginine dipeptides, which exist in the components of protein hydrolysates, have also been recently recognized as being helpful in decreasing the use of salt in foods as they can greatly enhance salty taste when used concurrently with salt due to having both salty and palatable flavors. In the case of protein hydrolysates that decompose soy protein or fish protein such as anchovy, they could reduce consumption of salt by as much as 50% without affecting people's food preferences when applied to food as they boost salty taste by approximately 10% to 70%. Although there are only a few studies on protein hydrolysates as a salty taste enhancer or salt substitute, the results of several studies are indicative of the potential of protein hydrolysates as a salty taste enhancing ingredient.

Analysis of presumed sodium intake of office workers using 24-hour urine analysis and correlation matrix between variables (24시간 소변분석을 통한 직장인의 나트륨 섭취 추정량 및 관련 변수와의 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the sodium intake of office workers using 24-hour urine analysis and to analyze the correlation matrix between variables. The sodium intake of the subjects (n = 137), based on a 24-hr sodium excretion period, was male (n = 56) 6072.4 mg and female (n = 81) 5,168.2 mg. Urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive correlation with BMI, frequency of eating out, expenditure of eating out, salty taste assessment and high-salt dietary behavior. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive correlation with intake frequencies of cabbage kimchi, broiled fish, feast noodle and rice with leaf wraps. Based on the results of multiple regression, urinary sodium excretion was found to be related to intake frequencies of cabbage kimchi, broiled fish, rice with leaf wraps and high score of high-salt dietary behavior.

Dietary Risk Factors for Hypertension among Korean Adult Men

  • Park, Jin-Young;Shim, Jae-Eun;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2006
  • There have been many studies indicating increased salt intake is related to elevated blood pressure (BP). Hypertension and pre-hypertension are prevalent in Korea. A national survey showed that the Korean average daily salt consumption was 12.5g, which is more than twice the current recommendation in the UK or USA. This study was performed to understand which aspects of the Korean diet contributed to high salt intake and elevated BP in Korea. The subjects consisted of 1,110 Korean adult men aged 30 to 49 years who were selected from the data of 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, a nationwide cross sectional survey. The relationship of BP with sodium and high sodium food intakes were analyzed. After categorizing subjects according to their BP, the socio-demographic information and food and nutrients intakes were analyzed. BP increased with a larger amounts of sodium intake and the trend was significant with diastolic BP. However, the trends of BP for sodium densities of the diet were not. People with hypertension significantly tended to be older, larger, and less educated than people with normal BP. And they consumed more foods from the fats, oils & sweets group and larger amounts of discretionary sodium than normal people. The current report advocates that public health intervention, which improves the awareness of the role of salt on elevated blood pressure for the public, should be implemented in Korea.

Salt-sensitive genes and their relation to obesity (소금민감성유전자와 비만)

  • Cheon, Yong-Pil;Lee, Myoungsook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Although it is well known thatmortality and morbidity due to cardiovascular diseases are higher in salt-sensitive subjects than in salt-resistant subjects, their underlying mechanisms related to obesity remain unclear. Here, we focused on salt-sensitive gene variants unrelated to monogenic obesity that interacted with sodium intake in humans. Methods: This review was written based on the modified $3^rd$ step of Khans' systematic review. Instead of the literature, subject genes were based on candidate genes screened from our preliminary Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS). Finally, literature related to five genes strongly associated with salt sensitivity were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of obesity. Results: Salt sensitivity is a measure of how blood pressure responds to salt intake, and people are either salt-sensitive or salt-resistant. Otherwise, dietary sodium restriction may not be beneficial for everyone since salt sensitivity may be associated with inherited susceptibility. According to our previous GWAS studies, 10 candidate genes and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with salt sensitivity were suggested, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ${\alpha}$-adducin1 (ADD1), angiotensinogen (AGT), cytochrome P450 family 11-subfamily ${\beta}$-2 ($CYP11{\beta}$-2), epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), G-protein b3 subunit (GNB3), G protein-coupled receptor kinases type 4 (GRK4 A142V, GRK4 A486V), $11{\beta}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (HSD $11{\beta}$-2), neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down regulated 4 like (NEDD4L),and solute carrier family 12(sodium/chloride transporters)-member 3 (SLC 12A3). We found that polymorphisms of salt-sensitive genes such as ACE, $CYP11{\beta}$-2, GRK4, SLC12A3, and GNB3 may be positively associated with human obesity. Conclusion: Despite gender, ethnic, and age differences in genetics studies, hypertensive obese children and adults who are carriers of specific salt-sensitive genes are recommended to reduce their sodium intake. We believe that our findings can contribute to the prevention of early-onset of chronic diseases in obese children by facilitating personalized diet-management of obesity from childhood to adulthood.

Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content

  • Park, Hae-Ryun;Jeong, Gye-Ok;Lee, Seung-Lim;Kim, Jin-Young;Kang, Soon-Ah;Park, Kun-Young;Ryou, Hyun-Joo
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2009
  • The average sodium intake of Koreans was reported to be 5,279.9 mg/day, which is one of the highest intake levels worldwide. The average Koreans intake 19.6% of sodium from kimchi, showing kimchi as the main contributor of sodium in this country (Ministry of Health and Welfare, 2005). The sodium content of dishes that are frequently chosen by workers, and which were served by foodservice cafeterias were chemically analyzed. The average sodium content of one meal provided by 10 foodservice cafeterias was 2,777.7 mg. Twenty-one, one-dish-meals, frequently chosen by workers for a lunch menu, were collected at 4 different restaurants for each menu by one male, aged in the twenties and analyzed chemically also. Workers who eat lunch at a workplace cafeteria everyday could intake about 8 g of salt at a one-time meal and those who eat out for a one-dish-meal would intake 3-8 g of salt without counting sodium content from the side dishes. From these study results, one could estimate that over 10 g of salt could be possible for a single meal for workers who eat out everyday. A nationwide nutrition campaign and education for low salt diets for restaurant owners and foodservice providers should be seriously considered.

The Association between Smoking, Alcohol Intake, and Low-Salt Diet: Results from the 2008 Community Health Survey (흡연 및 음주행태와 저염식생활 실천과의 관련성: 2008년 지역사회건강조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Chun, In-Ae;Park, Jong;Han, Mi-Ah;Choi, Seong-Woo;Ryu, So-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.223-235
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the association between health-related behaviors including smoking, alcohol intake, and the practice of a low-salt diet using data from a Community Health Survey conducted in 2008. The study subjects were 129,151 persons (19 years and older) without cardiovascular diseases or diabetes mellitus diagnosis history. An index for evaluating low salinity was created by summing three low salinity-related questions (range: 0~3), and a low-salt diet was defined if the index of low salinity was 3. We examined the levels of smoking and alcohol intake according to the index of low salinity, and conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the odds ratios of low-salt diet practice in relation to smoking and drinking behavior, adjusting for general characteristics. The smoking and drinking status significantly improved as the level of low salinity index increase. Adjusting for general characteristics, those with smoking, alcohol intake, or a combined habit of the two behaviors had significantly lower odds ratios for practice of a low-salt diet. In conclusion, smoking and drinking behavior were negatively associated with the practice of a low-salt diet. Based on these findings, it may be necessary to have comprehensive nutritional education programs that consider the multiple effects of smoking, drinking, and a low-salt diet.

Effect of Combined Use of Sun-dried Salt and Monosodium Glutamate on Sodium Concentration in Vegetable Rice Porridge and Bean-sprout Soup (채소죽과 콩나물국의 천일염과 MSG 사용에 따른 나트륨 함량 변화)

  • Sung, Dongeun;Park, Jae Young;Han, Jiseok;Park, Yooyoung;Cho, Mi Sook;Oh, Sangsuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2017
  • The feasibility of reduction of sodium intake using sun-dried salt and monosodium glutamate (MSG) was studied. Preference test was performed to evaluate the sensory properties of bean-sprout soup and vegetable rice porridge soup. Sun-dried salt and MSG might be a partial substitute for refined salt. There was a significant difference in salt taste strength between sun-dried salt and refined salt. Sun-dried salts 0.45% with MSG 0.07% resulted in the highest taste preference compared to that of sun-dried salts 0.60% without MSG in bean-sprout soup, which resulted in 23.9% reduction of sodium intake. Sun-dried salts 0.38% with MSG 0.04% resulted in the highest taste preference compared to sun-dried salts 0.53% without MSG in vegetable rice porridge soup, which resulted in 25.4% reduction of sodium intake. There seemed to be a synergistic effect on reduced usage of sodium salt when MSG was used in vegetable rice porridge and bean-sprout soup with sun-dried salt.

A Study on the Validity of Filter Paper Method in Estimation of the Amount of Daily Salt Intake (여과지법에 의한 식염섭취량추정의 타당성에 관한 조사연구)

  • Lee, Choong-Ryeol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.341-351
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    • 1987
  • For the purpose of the determination of the most proper sampling time on using spot urine which can represent the general status of electrolytes in 24 hour urine and for test of the validity of filter paper method which was developed recently in estimation of the amount of daily salt intake, the author investigated this study by different sampling time and various measuring methods in 21 healthy men and 12 women. The summarized results were as follows; 1) The mean excretion amount of urinary electrolytes were Na 3.93 g/l, K 1.47 g/l, and creatinine 1.08 g/l in male, and Na 3.83 g/l, K 1.86 g/l, and creatinine 0.99 g/l in female. 2) In using spot urine for estimation of the amount of daily salt intake, morning urine was the most approximate to that of 24 hour urine in both sexes. 3) There was validity in estimation of daily salt intake by filter paper method using spot urine instead of 24 hour urine. 4) The estimated amounts of daily salt intake in male was higher than the values in female as 16.04-16.22 g and 13.35-13.82 g respectively.

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A Study of Health Communication Method for Reducing Sodium Intake bases on Theory of Planned Behavior (계획된 행위이론에 근거한 나트륨 섭취감소를 위한 건강 커뮤니케이션 방안연구)

  • Hahm, Tae-Shik;Lee, Tae-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.258-265
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    • 2017
  • Although excessive intake of sodium is known to cause various diseases and threaten public health and policies for reducing overconsumption of sodium are being implemented, the theoretical research on sodium intake is incomplete. This study attempted to provide a policy basis by examining whether or not planned behavior theory, which is a typical health communication theory used to describe health-related behaviors, can be applied to explain sodium intake behavior. Especially, sodium ingestion behaviors were compared using the theory of actions planned for men and women as well as young people, middle-aged, and elderly persons, who are predicted to show differences in eating habits. In this study, questionnaires were prepared to measure the daily eating habits of subjects and subordinate factors of planned behavior theory: behavioral beliefs, outcome expectations, normative beliefs, compliance motivation, and control beliefs. Questionnaires were given to 93 college students and their families. As a result of the difference analysis and path analysis of the questionnaire responses, the following suggestions were obtained. First, age difference is more obvious than sex difference in terms of low salt intentions. For example, older people are healthier than younger people in terms of eating habits and health concerns. Second, the elderly are more likely to practice the low-salt formula when they are provided information on the benefits and effects of the low-salt formula compared to younger ones. Third, systematic efforts are needed to promote a culture that emphasizes the health benefits of a low salt diet rather than providing piecemeal information on the advantages and effects of a low salt diet.