• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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Compliance with a Low-Salt Diet, Sodium Intake, and Preferred Salty Taste in the Hypertensive Elderly (노인 고혈압 환자의 저염식이 이행, 나트륨 섭취 및 짠 맛에 대한 기호도)

  • Lee, Young-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Kyung;Kwon, Gyoung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study aimed to examine the compliance to a low-salt diet, sodium intake, and preferred salty taste in elderly patients with hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Participants were 105 elderly patients with hypertension living in a rural area. The compliance with a low-salt diet, sodium intake, and preferred salty taste, blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference were measured, and compared according to the general characteristics and the levels of blood pressure. Descriptive statistics, $X^2$-test, t-test, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: compliance with a low-salt diet was marginally elevated. Sodium intake was relatively high and the main sources were seasonings and vegetables. The participants tended to prefer high levels of salt. Sodium intake was significantly higher the hypertensive individuals (stage I and II) compared to prehypertensive subjects on a normal maintenance diet. Sodium intake from vegetables was also significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Nursing intervention for hypertensive elderly patients should include strategies to decrease sodium intake.

A Study on the Salt Contents in Foods Served by Institutional Foodservice Establishment (산업체 급식에서 제공되는 식사의 염분 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ah;No, Sung-Yun;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the salt-intake from meals that were served by an institutional foodservice establishment for a month. Meals (176) were classified into 12 food groups by CAN Pro 3.0. These consisted of bap 6, mandu 5, guk 29, jjigae 9, jjim 4, gui 8, jeon 5, bokeum 25, jorim 16, fried 7, namul 49, pickled 12. The average salt content of 100 g of each menu item was significantly higher in the order of pickled>jorim>bokeum>gui>namul>jeon>jjigae>jjim>fried. The average salt and sodium contents of 1 potion of menu item was significantly higher in the order of jjigae>mandu>guk>bap>jorim>pickled>bokeum>gui>fried>jjim>gimchi>namul>jeon. The average salt contents of kim-chijjigae (6.05 g), eggjorim (7.01 g), cooked namul (2.78 g) and salted pepperleaves (4.67 g) was higher than that of the other menu items served frequently in the establishment. The average intake of salt and sodium was 23.48 g (sodium 9,310 mg) a day, 7.35 g (sodium 2,960 mg) with breakfast, 7.55 g (sodium 2,990 mg) with lunch and 8.33 g (sodium 3,300 mg) with dinner. The daily salt intake was slightly higher than that of DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes).

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Impact of Salt Intake on Red and Fallow Deer Production in Australia - Review -

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Miao, Z.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1779-1787
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    • 2000
  • Southern and south-western Australia is a typical mediterranean environment, characterised by wet, cold winters and dry, hot summers. The evaporation rate varies significantly in summer, resulting in a high salinity of drinking water for grazing animals. In addition, a large amount of land in the cropping areas is affected by salt. Puccinellia, tall wheat grass and saltbushes have been planted to improve the soil condition and to supply feed for grazing animals. Animals grazing these areas often ingest an excessive amount of salt from soil, forage and drinking water which can reduce feed intake, increase the water requirement, depress growth and affect body composition as demonstrated in sheep. While the deer industry has been successfully developed in these regions, the potential impact of excessive salt intake on deer production is unknown. The salt tolerance has been well defined for sheep, cattle and other livestock species, but the variation between animal species, breeds within species, maturity status and grazing environments makes it impossible to apply these values directly to deer. To optimise deer production and effectively use natural resources, it is essential to understand the salt status of grazing deer and the impact of excessive salt intake on growth and reproduction of deer.

Development of a Salt Taste Sensor for Improvement on Meal HabitDirection Method (식습관 개선을 위한 음식 짠맛센서 개발)

  • Yang, Gil-Mo;Seo, In-Ho;Kim, Gi-Young;Lee, Kang-Jin;Son, Jae-Yong;Mo, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Saet-Byoul
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2010
  • The amount of salt intake of Korean people is 11.4 grams per a day, which is 2.3 times of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO - 5 grams of salt a day. The relationship between high salt consumption and increased risk of high blood pressure, observed not only in hypertensive but also in normotensive patients. High salt intake is also associated with an increased risk of heart attack, cerebral ischemia and osteoporosis. Therefore, this research is for developing a salt taste sensor to reduce sodium consumption and improve meal habits for the perception of a more bland taste of most foods. When the sensor was put into food sample, current intensity achieved with distribution cables. Current intensity was correlate with a simple equivalent of salt taste stimulus intensity. The salt taste sensor consists of salinity & temperature measuring probe, signal processing circuit and LCD display & LED warning light. When salinity is going over a set point, LCD displayer indicate salt taste on LCD panel by percent value (%), and at the same time, blue LED light change to red LED light. So we could know the grade of salt taste in soup before meals conveniently and objectively. The results show that operating range of 10 to $80^{\circ}C$ and accuracy of ${\pm}0.1%$ were achieved with an analysis time of about 2 or 3 sec. Moderate reductions in salt intake can help to avert adult diseases and lead a healthy life.

Measurement and Evaluation of Optimum Salt Concentration in Usual Dishes for the Menu Suggestion (적염 섭취 식단 모델을 제시하기 위한 상용 음식의 최적 염미도 측정 및 적염 식단 모델)

  • 이혜상;이경신
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.305-311
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    • 1996
  • This study was to seek menu model in usual dishes to guarantee the optimum salt intake considering the optimum gustation of salt surveyed on Korean adults. First, a pilot test was practiced using rice gruel to determine the criteria and a meaningful interval of salt concentration. Based on the criteria and interval so determined, a test was performed to seek the optimum gustation of salt concentration in usual diets. Subjectgroup for the above tests was university students living in Kyung-Book area. The results were as follows: 1. Mode value of the optimum gustation of salt was 0.5% and the received threshold difference of salt was 0.2% in the pilot test. 2. Mode values of the optimum gustation of salt in a la carte, soups and stews were lower than those of other side dishes. 3. But the portion size of a la carte, soups and stews is much larger than that of other side dishes, so that a la carte, soups and stews are sources of relatively larger amount of salt than other side dishes. 4. Considering the recommended optimum salt intake, it is desirable to reduce the amount of stock in soups and stews and to select fried food or salad more frequently.

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Sodium Intake, Salt Taste and Gastric Cancer Risk According to Helicobacter Pylori Infection, Smoking, Histological Type and Tumor Site in China

  • Zhong, Chen;Li, Kai-Nan;Bi, Jing-Wang;Wang, Bao-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2481-2484
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    • 2012
  • Aim: The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. Using a case-control study among residents in Jinan, we examined the association between the salt taste and gastric cancer according to H. pylori infection, smoking and histological type as well as tumor site. Methods: This population-based case-control study included 207 cases and 410 controls. Data on potential risk factors of gastric cancer were obtained by interview of cases and controls with a questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H. pylori were applied to assess infection. Risk measures were determined using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The proportions of salt taste at intervals of 1.8-7.2 g/L and ${\geq}7.2$ g/L were significantly higher in cases than controls, with ORs of 1.56 (1.23-3.64) and 2.03 (2.12-4.11), respectively, subjects with high salt intake having an elevated risk for gastric cancer when infected with H. pylori. Significant modification by smoking and tumor site was observed across the different measures of salt intake, the highest salt taste showed higher cancer risk in ever smokers or with non-cardia cancers. Conclusion: Our study supports the view that high intake of sodium is an important dietary risk factor for gastric cancer, with a synergistic effect found between salt and H.pylori and smoking, dependent on the tumor site.

The Effects of a Nutrition Education Program for Hypertensive Female Elderly at the Public Health Center (고혈압 여자 노인 대상의 보건소 영양교육 효과 분석)

  • Yim, Kyeong-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.640-652
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    • 2008
  • Hypertension is among the most common and important risk factors for stroke, heart attack, and heart failure which is considered to be the leading cause of death in Korea. The prevalence rate of hypertension in Korea is 27.9%, according to the 2006 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Since non-pharmacologic nutrition education is recommended as the first step in the management of hypertension, evaluation of nutrition program is needed to form strategies for improving patients' dietary adherence. This study was designed to evaluate the overall effectiveness of a hypertension nutrition education program (HNEP) for reducing the salt intake, at a public health center located in Gyunggi-province. The HNEP was offered for 16 weeks from May to September in 2007. Nutrition education activities included cooking classes, food preparation demonstrations, physical fitness programs, salty taste preference test sessions, games, case-study presentations, planning and evaluation of menus, etc. Forty patients participated fully in the program which had 47 female enrollees. Data about nutrient intake (24-hour recall), nutrition knowledge, food behavior were collected before (baseline) and after the program. Changes after program completion indicated the following: 1) diastolic blood pressure was decreased (p < 0.05), 2) sodium (salt) intake was also decreased (p < 0.01), especially baseline high salt intake group, 3) nutrition knowledge was improved (p<0.001), 4) dietary behaviors for maintaining a low salt diet was improved (p < 0.001), 5) participants preferred cooking class from nutrition education methods. As a conclusion, it appears that a nutrition education program for hypertensive female elderly for reducing the salt intake might effectively decrease blood pressure and salt intake. It also improves nutrition knowledge, dietary behavior, and finally adherence to a recommendable low-sodium diet.

A Study on the Salt Intake Amounts of Manufacturing Workers in Pusan Area (부산지역 산업장 근로자들의 식염 섭취량에 관한 조사)

  • Kim, Don-Gyun;Lee, Su-Il;Jeong, Gap-Yeol;Lee, Chung-Ryeol;Lee, Yong-Hwan;So, Dong-Jin
    • 산업보건소식
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    • no.47
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    • pp.4-14
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    • 1987
  • The authors investigated estimated amounts of salt intake of workers in manufacturing industries who consisted of 1,506 males in 6 manufacturing fields and 476 females in 3 fields in Pusan area using filter paper method which was developed recently. The obtained results were as follows; 1. Mean excretion amounts of urinary electrolytes were Na 200.7 mEq/l, K 44.2 mEq/l and Cr 1.12g/l in male and Na 190.2 mEq/l, K 44.0 mEq/l and Cr 1.10g/1 in female. 2. Mean daily salt intake amounts were 19.4g in male and l5.3g in female. 3. By the fields of manufacturing industries in male, workers in metal product field had the highest salt intake as 20.0g, and the following were workers in food and tobacco field as 19.7g, workers in textile, wearing apparel and leather field as 19.6g in order. 4. In female, workers in textile, wearing apparel and leather field had the highest salt intake as l5.7g and the next were workers in chemical, coal and rubber products field as l5.0g and workers in fabricated metal products, machinery and equipments as l4.3g, respectively.

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METHODS TO IMPROVE UTILIZATION OF RICE STRAW I. EFFECTS OF MOISTENING, SODIUM CHLORIDE AND CHOPPING ON INTAKE AND DIGESTIBILITY

  • Badurdeen, A.L.;Ibrahim, M.N.M.;Schiere, J.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 1994
  • Two studies were conducted using 40 cross-bred bulls to study the effect of chopping, moistening with water or common salt solution on the nutritive value of rice straw (variety BG-400). Moistening with water did not significantly effect digestibility or intake of rice straw. As compared to straw fed in the long form, chopping did not significantly influence intake (2.33 vs 1.97kg $100kgBW^{-1}day^{-1}$, respectively), but significantly (p<0.05) decreased the digestibility (41.6 vs 37.4%) and intake of digestible dry matter (0.99 vs 0.74kg $100kgBW^{-1}day^{-1}$). Rice straw moistened with 2 or 4% common sea salt solution and directly fed to animals (Exp. 1) did not significantly effect its digestibility (43.9 and 43.1%, respectively) or intake (2.66 or 2.59kg $100kgBW^{-1}day^{-1}$, respectively), but over night storing of 2% salt solution sprayed straw (Exp. 2) significantly reduced its digestibility (33.6%). The latter is difficult to explain because the sodium concentration (mg/g straw dry matter) was lower than 4% salt solution treatment used in experiment 1 (3.30 vs 5.22). It is concluded that chopping, moistening with water or NaCl salt solution did not significantly improve the nutritive value of rice straw.

A Study on Salt Intake and Urinary Sodium Excretion by Groups Educated Regarding Low Salt Diet (일부 저염식 피교육자의 식염섭취 및 뇨중 Sodium 배설양상 -장류 및 김치류 등 고식염 함유 식품을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, K.S.;Shin, D.C.;Lee, S.J.;Kim, H.K.
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.187-194
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    • 1980
  • To estimate the amount of daily salt intake by source of food and urinary sodium excretion, a dietary survey was conducted from August 27th to September 3, 1980. The salt concentration of six kinds of food was measured. The families of 25 womens' club leaders and 25 families of hypertensive patients were studied after they had been given a short course of education on lowsalt diet. The results were as follows: 1. The average amount of high-salt foods eaten daily by the study group were as follows: 4.5 Gm. in the form of table salt 16.8 ml of home-made soy sauce 6.20 ml of commercial soy sauce 11.9 Gm. of home-made red-pepper bean paste 12.0 Gm. of home-made soy-bean paste 120.7 Gm. of Kimchi 2. The average NaCl concentration of each food was as follows: 99.5% in table salt, 22.5% in home made soy sauce, 11.9% in Commercial soy sauce, 6.8 Gm% in home made red pepper bean paste, 9.2 Gm% in home-made soy-bean paste and the average concentration of various kinds of Kimchi was 2.7 Gm%. 3. The total amount of daily salt intake per adult was calculated as 14.3 Gm. By sources of food 4.5 Gm from table salt, 3.9 Gm from home-made soy sauce and 3. 3 Gm from Kimchi were taken daily Three other kinds of food were also minor sources of salt intake.4. The average amounts of individual daily salt intake were not significantly different between the hypertensive group and the normotensive group: the median of the normotensive group (11.7Gm.) was significantly lower than that of the hypertensive group (14.9Gm.). Therefore the womens' club leaders appeared to respond more quickly than the hypertensive group after low-salt diet education. 5. The average amount of sodium excretion in the 24 hour urine specimen was 234.7 mEq. From this finding the daily NaCl intake was estimated to be 15.8Gm.

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