• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salt Intake

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Effect of Salt Level in Water on Feed Intake and Growth Rate of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2005
  • Under a typical Mediterranean environment in southern Australia, the evaporation rate increases significantly in hot summers, resulting in highly saline drinking water for grazing animals. Also in the cropping areas, dryland salinity is a problem. Grazing animals under these environments can ingest excessive amount of salt from feed, drinking water and soil, which can lead to a reduction in growth rate. To understand the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of salt levels in drinking water on feed intake and growth rate of red and fallow weaner deer. The results revealed that fallow deer did not show any abnormal behaviour or sickness when salt level in drinking water was increased from 0% to 2.5%. Feed intake was not affected until the salt content in water exceeded 1.5%. Body weight gain was not affected by 1.2% salt in drinking water, but was reduced as salt content in water increased. Compared with deer on fresh water, the feed intake of red deer on saline water was 11-13% lower when salt level in drinking water was 0.4-0.8%. An increase in salt level in water up to 1% resulted in about a 30% reduction in feed intake (p<0.01). Body weight gain was significantly (p=0.004) reduced when salt level reached 1.2%. The deer on 1% salt tended to have a higher (p=0.052) osmotic pressure in serum. The concentration of P, K, Mg and S in serum was affected when salt level in water was over 1.0%. The results suggested that the salt level in drinking water should be lower than 1.2% for fallow weaner deer and 0.8% for red weaner deer to avoid any reduction in feed intake. Deer farmers need to regularly test the salt levels in drinking water on their farms to ensure that the salt intake of grazing deer is not over the levels that deer can tolerate.

Effect of Salt Level in the Feed on Performance of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Fischer, M.;Glatz, P.C.;Bao, Y.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2004
  • In Australia, many cropping areas are affected by salt. In these regions, Chenopodiaceous plants, such as Atriplex, Kochia and Bassia spp have been planted to improve soil conditions. These plants have become invaluable feed resources for grazing animals in dry summers, but have a high sodium content. To assess the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used 30 fallow weaner deer to examine the effect of salt level in the diet on feed intake, water intake and body weight of fallow deer. Salt was added to lucerne chaff at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% and fresh water was offered all the time. Increasing the salt level in the diet from 0 to 6% didn't affect feed intake, osmotic pressure and mineral concentration in blood of fallow deer. However, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in deer fed diets containing more than 3% salt. Body weight was lower (p${\leq}$0.056) for fallow deer in July and August when salt content was over 3%, suggesting they can ingest over 15 g sodium/day without significant depression in both feed intake and growth rate if the fresh water is available. In the second experiment, 18 red weaner deer were fed lucerne chaff diets containing 1.5, 4.5 and 6.0% salt with 6 deer/diet. The results revealed that feed intake and blood osmotic pressure were similar (p>0.05) for red deer fed different levels of salt although the feed intake declined from 1.91 to 1.67 kg with the increase of salt level from 1.5% to 6.0% in the diet. Water intake was significantly higher for deer fed diets containing over 4.5% salt, but there was no difference in body weight during the experiment. However, no recommendation can be made on the salt tolerance of red deer due to limited increment of salt level in the diet.

Salt Intake Behavior and Blood Pressure: the effect of taste sensitivity and preference (소금 섭취 행태와 혈압: 맛에 대한 민감도와 선호도의 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Choi, Man-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.837-848
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    • 2007
  • The literature suggested that a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have a large effect on overall prevalence of hypertension, and therefore, the affect of taste preferences of the population on salt intake should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity on salt intake behavior as risk factors for high blood pressure. We collected information on blood pressure, diet and lifestyle behaviors, salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity from 540 respondents from Suseo-dong, Seoul. Salt taste sensitivity was assessed by administering a 1% NaCl solution to the subject's tongue and measuring the perceived intensity on 10 level scale. Salt intake behavior was classified into 3 categories: frequency of high-sodium foods, practice of salt-reducing behavior and frequency of vegetable and fruit intake. Salt taste preference showed a significant relation to the subjects' blood pressure, i.e. subjects with a higher salt preference had higher blood pressure. Salt taste sensitivity did not show a significant relation to blood pressure. However, there was a positive correlation between salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity. Among the 3 indicators used to measure salt intake behavior, the practice of salt-reducing behavior remained significantly correlated to blood pressure. Moreover, salt-reducing behavior and salt taste preference showed a significant correlation, i.e. people who do not like salty foods tend to practice more salt-reducing behavior, leading to reduced levels in blood pressure. In a population, a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have large effects in overall prevalence of hypertension, in contrast to clinical studies where achievement of an individual's normal blood pressure is emphasized. Therefore, taste preference of the population should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs.

Studies on Salt Intake Through Eat-out Foods in Andong Area (안동 지역에서의 외식을 통한 소금 섭취 실태에 관한 연구)

  • 이혜상
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted over eat-nut foods in Andong area to measure the salt concentration and to compare the result with the optimum gustation of salt concentration in usual diets. The results were as follows: 1. Mean salt concentration of eat-nut foods was similar to the optimum salt concentration by sensory evaluation. 2. The salt intake through the menu was about twice of the recommended intake by Korean Food Research. 3. The foods with a large serving size contributed to the increase of salt intake, suggesting that the serving size needs to be adjusted. 4. It is recommended that the consumption of high salt foods needs to be reduced while increasing that of fresh fruit and vegetable in the diet behavior on eat-out foods.

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Measurement of Na intake in Korean Adult Females (우리나라 성인 여성의 Na 섭취량 측정방법의 모색)

  • 김영선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.341-349
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    • 1987
  • Dietary intakes of na include both the amount present in food materials (nondiscretionary Na intake) and the amount added during cooking and eating to increase salty taste and flavor (discretionary Na intake). In the present study, total Na intake was measured by duplicate food sample collected from each subject for 1 day, nondiscretionary Na intake was calculated by dietary intake record, optimum gustation of salt was measured of from pooled 3-day urine collection in healthy female college students, to measure Na intake more accurately and to find suitable method to estimate total Na intake. Mean values of total, discretionary and mondiscretionary Na intakes were 169.6 mEq, 46.2mEq, and 123.4mEq. respectively. Mean 24-hour urinary Na excretion was 137.9mEq., which was about 84.5% of total intake. Subjects with optimum gustation of salt equal to or higher than 0.5% had significantly higher total Na intake and urinary Na excretion compared to subjects with optimum gustation of salt lower than 5%. Total Na intake of subjects were significantly correlated with optimum gustation of salt, non-discretionary and discretionary Na intakes, and urinary Na excretion. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best estimate of total Na intake is obtained when both optimum gustation of salt and non-discredinary Na intake were used as independent variables (r=.7071). Among the equations using one independent variable, regression, equation with urinary Na excretion provides the best approximation (r=.6627) of total Na intake.

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Salt Preference and Sodium Intake among Pregnant Women (임부의 염분 기호도와 식이섭취, 소디움 섭취 실태)

  • Im, Mi Jeung;Cho, Dong Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.297-307
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was to estimate salt preference and sodium intake of pregnant women, and identify the relationship between salt preference and sodium intake. Methods: Research design was a cross sectional correlational survey with 197 pregnant women who visited outpatient clinics for antenatal care. The sodium intake levels were estimated by the amounts of sodium intake using the 24-hour recall method and sodium concentration in spot urine. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results: Sodium intake using 24-hour recall method was $3,504{\pm}1,359mg$. Sodium intake levels had statistically significant differences depending on income. The average amount of sodium in spot urine was $2,882{\pm}878mg/day$. Sodium excretion levels had statistically significant differences depending on whether participants had preexisting hypertension in their family history and Body Mass Index (BMI) pre-conception. Salt preference was $62.61{\pm}20.96$ out of 180 points. Salt preference had significant differences depending on income, parity, gestational age, BMI pre-conception and showed negative correlation with sodium quantity in spot urine. Conclusion: Sodium intake in pregnant women recommended by World Health Organization recommended is 175%. Salt preference was not significantly different between sodium intake levels, however it was negatively correlated with sodium quantity in spot urine among pregnant women.

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools

  • Ahn, Sohyun;Park, Seoyun;Kim, Jin Nam;Han, Sung Nim;Jeong, Soo Bin;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2013
  • Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

A Comparative Study on Optimum Gustation of Salt and Sodium Intake in Young and Middle-Aged Korean Women (한국젊은 성인 여성과 중년 여성의 짠 맛에 대한 기호도와 Na 섭취량 비교연구)

  • 김경숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.32-41
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    • 1992
  • A study was conducted to estimate Na intake in 30 young and 62 middle-aged female Koreans. For each subject, nondiscretionary Na intake was estimated from 2-day dietary records optimum gustation of salt was tested using beef broth with different salt concentra-tions. and 24-hour urinary Na excretion was measeured from pooled 2-day urine samples. Total daily Na intake was calculated from 24-hour urinary excretion and discretionary Na intake was calculated as difference between total and nondiscretionary Na intake was calculated as difference between total and nondiscretionary Na intake. Mean daily 24-hour urinary Na excretion of the young and middle-aged women was 184.6mEq and 224.6mEq. Mean values of optimum gustation of salt in young and middle-aged subjects were 0.431% and 0.489% The differences between the two groups were significant. Nodiscre-tionary Na intakes of the two groups were not significantly different, . Calculated total and discretionary Na intake of middle-aged women(245.1mEq) were significantly higher than young women(220.3mEq and 211.0mEq) were significantly higher than young women(210, 3mEq and 169, 7mEq) Percent of discretionary to total Na intake was 85.7% in middle-aged and 79.4% in young women. Age BMI urinary Na and K excretions optimum gustation of salt were signficantly correlated with blood pressure of the subjects. Results of the present study confirms the high level of sodium intake especia-lly of discretionary Na intake among Korean women.

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A Survey on the Salt Content of Kindergarten Lunch Meals and Meal Providers' Dietary Attitude to Sodium Intake in Gyeonggi-do Area (경기도지역 어린이집과 유치원 급식의 소금함량 및 유아 식사준비자의 나트륨 섭취관련 식태도 조사)

  • Kim, Jin Nam;Park, Seoyun;Ahn, Sohyun;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.478-490
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    • 2013
  • Dietary habit of excess sodium consumption is formed mainly by excessive salt intake from the younger age and this may lead to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in kindergarten meals and provide basic data on meal providers' dietary attitude to sodium intake for nutrition education. We collected data on161 food items from 16 institutions in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food items. The average salt content from lunch meals was 2.2 g, which was about daily adequate intake of sodium for children aged 3 to 5 years old. Greatest contributor to the salt content in a meal was soup and stew (47.8%). The most salty dishes were sauces and kimchi followed by stir-fried food, deep-fried food, braised food, and grilled food. The salt content was higher in soup and stew despite of low salinity, due to the large quantity per serving. The salt contents of soups and kimchi were 40.6% and 14.3%, respectively of the total salt content in dish groups. Staff members and caregivers at home who prepared food for the child showed preference for one-dish rice meal, dried fish and salted mackerel, and broth when eating soup, stew, and noodles. Caregivers showed higher sodium index score and had higher preference for processed food such as Ramen, canned food, and ham compared with staff members (p < 0.05). These results suggested that monitoring salt content of kindergarten meals and nutrition education for those prepare meals for children are needed to lower sodium intake in childhood.

A Comparative Analysis of Salt-Related Dietary Patterns According to the Sodium Intake of College Students in Busan (부산지역 대학생의 나트륨 섭취량에 따른 식생활 비교)

  • Lee, Sang Hee;Ryu, Ho Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2015
  • This study compares salt-related dietary patterns according to sodium intake. A survey was conducted with 257 college students(130 male and 127 female students) in the Busan area. Dish Frequency Questionnaire 70(DFQ 70) was used to quantitatively estimate sodium intake. A short dish frequency questionnaire(DFQ 15) was used to screen subjects with high or low- salt intake. The sodium intake of male students based on DFQ 70 was significantly higher than that of female students(p<0.05). Sodium intake has significant negative effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure(p<0.05). In the high-salt intake(HS) group, classified by DFQ 15, the number of male students was significantly higher than that of female students(p<0.01). The systolic blood pressure of the HS group was significantly higher than that of the low-salt intake(LS) group(p<0.05). Salt-related dietary behavior score and eating habit score for the HS group were significantly higher than those for the LS group(p<0.01). The sodium intake of the HS group based on DFQ 70 was significantly higher than that of the LS group(p<0.01). In these results, college students in Busan area showed high blood pressure and high sodium intake compared to Korean DRIs. The results indicate a need for various education programs to help college students practice a low-sodium diet.