• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salicylate

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Effects of Salicylate on the Activity of Isoperoxidase $A_3$ from Tobacco Callus (Salicylate가 담배 미분화세포 isoperoxidase $A_3$의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이미영
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2001
  • Salicylate is involved in the induction of pathogen-related proteins and plant defense response. The effects of salicylate on the activity isoperoxidase $A_3$ from tobacco callus (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and the protection against the enzyme inactivation by salicylate in the presence of $Fe^{2+}$ were examined. About 20% and 85% activity losses of peroxidase occurred at 0.48 mM and 0.6 mM salicylate, respectively, showing that isoperoxidase $A_3$ was inactivated by salicylate. The inactivation occurred depending on pH and showed noncompetitive inhibition mode. Moreover, inactivation of the enzyme by salicylate was completely protected in the presence of $Fe^{2+}$. Apoperoxidase without heme moiety was constructed and the effects of various metal ions on the recovery of enzyme activities were investigated. More than 80% of the activity was reconstituted by the addition of $Fe^{2+}$ or hemin. However, the enzyme activity was not recovered by $Cu^{2+},\;Zn^{2+},\;Co^{2+},\;or\;Mn^{2+}$.

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Involvement of $Cu^{++}$-Catalyzed Peroxidation in Degradation of Collagen and Protective Mechanism of Sodium Salicylate on this Peroxidative Reaction ($Cu^{++}$ 촉매작용에 의한 과산화 현상이 Collagen 손상에 관여함과 Sodium Salicylate에 의한 보호 작용)

  • Kim, Yong-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 1987
  • The present study examines firstly, the inhibition of collagen gelation to explore the possible involvement of $Cu^{++}$-catalyzed peroxidation in rheumatoid arthritis and secondly, the effect of sodium salicylate on this peroxidative reaction to provide a possible explanation for its mechanism of anti-inflammatory action. Incubation of collagen obtained from rat skin with $Cu^{++}$ and $H_2O_2$ resulted in the inhibition of gelation in terms of maximal turbidity and lag phase, but either $Cu^{++}$ or $H_2O_2$ alone essentially gave no effect in the collagen gelation. In the presence of sodium salicylate the inhibited gelation of collagen induced by $Cu^{++}$ and $H_2O_2$ was reversed with the dependency of the concentration of sodium salicylate. Moreover, the rate of $H_2O_2$ decomposition by $Cu^{++}$ was accelerated by sodium salicylate and this decomposition of $H_2O_2$ was found to be saturable in terms of concentration of this drugs. Thus it can be expected that $Cu^{++}$ -catalyzed peroxidation attacks collagen resulting in change of structural or functional integrity of collagen, and sodium salicylate may act on this peroxidative process, possibly through the enhancement of catalatic action of $Cu^{++}$. From these results $Cu^{++}$-catalyzed peroxidation can be in part responsible for degradation of joint tissue in rheumatoid arthritis and sodium salicylate may exert its anti-inflammatory action by this peroxidative reaction.

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Salicylate Poisoning After Accidental Ingestion of Chinese Medicated Oil (중국산 바르는 관절약을 복용 후 발생한 살리실레이트 중독 2례)

  • Lee, Soo-Youl;Ryu, Ji-Yeong;Cho, Gyu-Chong;You, Ji-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.138-141
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    • 2007
  • Because of the ready availability of aspirin, salicylate poisoning remains a common problem in many countries. Another potential source of salicylate poisoning is medicated oil containing methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen). Methyl salicylate poses a much greater safety threat than aspirin tablets because of its liquid, concentrated form and high lipid solubility. Because of this danger, the toxic potential of medicated oil containing methyl salicylate should be fully appreciated both by physicians and by the general public. We encountered two cases of salicylate poisoning resulting from accidental ingestion of Chinese medicated oil. We report these cases along with a review of the literature.

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Effects of Salicylate and Glucose on Biodegradation of Phenanthrene by Burkholderia cepacia PM07

  • LEE DAE SUNG;LEE MIN WOO;WOO SEUNG HAN;PARK JONG MOON
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.859-865
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    • 2005
  • The stimulatory effects of exogenous salicylate as a pathway inducer on phenanthrene biodegradation were investigated using Burkholderia cepacia PM07. The phenanthrene degradation rate was greatly enhanced by increasing the salicylate additions, and the maximum rate was 19.6 mg $I^{-1}\;d^{-1}$ with the addition of 200 mg $I^{-1}$ of salicylate, 3.5 times higher than that (5.6 mg $I^{-1}\;d^{-1}$) without the addition of salicylate. The degradation rate was decreased at higher concentrations of salicylate (above 500 mg$I^{-1}$), and cell growth was significantly inhibited. The phenanthrene degradation was not affected by increasing glucose up to 2 g $I^{-1}$, although dramatic microbial growth was obtained. The stimulatory effect of exogenous salicylate decreased in the presence of glucose. After the addition of 200 mg $I^{-1}$ of salicylate, approximately $60\%$ of the initial phenanthrene (50 mg $I^{-1}$) was degraded after 96 h. However, with extra addition of 200 mg $I^{-1}$ of glucose, the phenanthrene degradation rate decreased, and only $18.5\%$ of the initial phenanthrene was degraded.

Sodium Salicylate Activates p38MAPK Though a Specific-Sensing Mechanism, Distinct from Pathways Used by Oxidative Stress, Heat Shock, and Hyperosmotic Stress

  • Kim, Jung-Mo;Oh, Su-Young;Kim, Min-Young;Seo, Myoung-Suk;Kang, Chi-Duk;Park, Hye-Gyeong;Kang, Ho-Sung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.241-248
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    • 2003
  • Sodium salicylate, a plant stress hormone that plays an important role(s) in defenses against pathogenic microbial and herbivore attack, has been shown to induce a variety of cell responses such as anti-inflammation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in animal cells. p38MAPK plays a critical role(s) in the cell regulation by sodium salicylate. However, the signal pathway for sodium salicylate-induced p38MAPK activation is yet unclear. In this study, we show that although sodium salicylate enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a general ROS scavenger, did not prevent sodium salicylate-induced p38MAPK, indicating ROS-independent activation of p38MAPK by sodium salicylate. Sodium salicylate-activated p38MAPK appeared to be very rapidly down-regulated 2 min after removal of sodium salicylate. Interestingly, sodium salicylate-pretreated cells remained fully responsive to re-induction of p38MAPK activity by a second sodium salicylate stimulation or by other stresses, $H_2O$$_2$ and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), thereby indicating that sodium salicylate does not exhibit both homologous and heterologous desensitization. In contrast, pre-exposure to MeJA, $H_2O$$_2$, heat shock, or hyperosmotic stress reduced the responsiveness to subsequent homologous stimulation. Sodium salicylate was able to activate p38MAPK in cells desensitized by other heterologous p38MAPK activators. These results indicate that there is a sensing mechanism highly specific to sodium salicylate for activation of p38MAPK, distinct trom pathways used by other stressors such as MeJA, $H_2O$$_2$ heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress.

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Salicylate Can Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periosteum-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Salicylate가 성체줄기세포의 골분화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Bo Gyu;Lee, A ram;Lee, Bo Young;Shim, Sungbo;Moon, Dong kyu;Hwang, Sun-Chul;Byun, June-Ho;Woo, Dong Kyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1455-1460
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    • 2018
  • Due to a rapidly expanding aging population, the incidence of degenerative bone disease has increased, and efforts to handle the issue using regenerative medicine have become more important. In order to control various bone diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, regenerative medicine utilizing adult stem cells has been extensively studied. And it is now clear that the mitochondrial energy metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, is important for the process of stem cell differentiation. Interestingly, a recent study reported that salicylate promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by regulating the expression of $PGC-1{\alpha}$ in murine cells. However, the possible effects of salicylate on osteogenic differentiation through increased mitochondrial biogenesis in stem cells remain unknown. Thus, here we investigated whether salicylate could influence osteogenic differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis of periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells (POMSCs). We found that salicylate treatments of POMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, a well-known early marker of bone cell differentiation. In addition, we observed that mitochondrial mass was increased by salicylate treatments in POMSCs. Together, these results indicate that salicylate can enhance osteogenic differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in POMSCs. Therefore, the findings in this study suggest that small molecules augmenting mitochondrial function such as salicylate can be a novel modulator for osteogenic differentiation and regenerative medicine.

In Vitro Uptake of Salicylate by Human Red Blood Cells

  • Kim, Chone-Kook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 1979
  • Distribution and binding properties of sodium salicylate the human red blood cells were studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of tonicity and hemolysis on the steady state level of the drug within the human red blood cells were accounted for in this study. When the washed cells were suspended in normal saline solution, the drug was so rapidly permeated into red cells. Since the pH of the system forces nearly complete ionization of the drug, ionic diffusion through aqueous pores is thought to be the mode of salicylate transport. Human red cell binding capacity and association constant for salicylate were estimated. This work supports the view that the red cells act asan important reservior of salicylate.

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The Effect of Physicochemical Properties of Salicylate Analogs on Binding to Bovine Serum Albumin (살리실산 유사체류의 물성이 우혈청 알부민 결합에 미치는 영향)

  • Yong, Chul-Soon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 1993
  • The protein binding of salicylate analogs has been investigated by equilibrium dialysis. A series of binding experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of physicochemical properties of salicylate analogs on the binding with bovine serum albumin. Attempts to correlate affinity constants with capacity factor, steric factor and Hammett ${\sigma}$ values suggested hydrophobic forces to be involved in the binding of salicylate analogs. Steric factor contributes to binding process partly, whereas electronic interaction appears to be insignificant.

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Degradation of Salicylic Acid by Free and Immobilized Cells of Pseudomonas sp. Strain NGK1

  • Patil, Neelakanteshwar-K.;Sharanagouda, U.;Niazi, Javed-H.;Kim, Chi-Kyung;Karegoudar, Timmanagouda-B.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2003
  • A Pseudomonas sp. strain NGK1 (NCIM 5120) capable of utilizing salicylate was immobilized in alginate and polyurethane foam (PUF). The degradation rate of salicylate by freely suspended cells was compared with the degradation rate by immobilized cells. In an initial 20 and 40 mM salicylate, free cells ($2{\times}10^{11}\;cfu\;ml^{-1}$) degraded to 16 and 14 mM, alginate-entrapped cells degraded to 18 and 26 mM, and PUF-entrapped cells degraded to 20 and 32 mM salicylate, respectively, in batch cultures. The alginate-and PUF-entrapped cells were used in repeated batch and continuous culture systems. The efficiency of both the immobilized systems f3r the degradation of salicylate was compared. It has been observed that the PUF-entrapped cells could be reused for more than 20 cycles whereas alginate-entrapped cells could be reused for a maximum of only 12 cycles, after which a decrease in degradation rat was observed with the initial 20 and 40 mM salicylate. The continuous degradation of sallcylate by freely suspended cells showed a negligible degradation rate of salicylate when compared with immobilized cells. With the immobilized cells in both alginate and polyurethane foam, the degradation rate increased with an increase in the dilution rate up to $2\;h^{-1}$ for 20 mM, and $1.5\;h^{-1}$ for 40 mM salicylate. The results revealed that PUF-entrapped cells were more efficient for the degradation of salicylate than alginate-entrapped cells and freely suspended cells.

Therapeutic Effects of Extract of Uncariae Ramulis and Testudinis Plastrum on Cochlear Morphologic Change Induced by Salicylate Ototoxicity (귀판 합 조구등 추출액이 살리실산 나트륨으로 유발된 와우의 형태학적 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha Mi-Kyung;Ku Young-Hui;Choi In-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2004
  • Background and Objectives: Tinnitus is on the increase due to the increase in the elderly population, industrial pollution and noise pollution. This symptom is especially marked in patients with a hearing problem and the relationship between cause, mechanism and treatment is poorly understood. The characteristics of tinnitus and other hearing problems are well brought out using an animal model with salicylate ototoxicity. Therapeutic effects of Uncariae Ramulis and Testudinis Plastrum were expected in tinnitus and hearing problems; therefore we experimented on an animal model with salicylate ototoxicity. Salicylate is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs, although it has been recognized that salicylate induces hearing loss and tinnitus reversibly. The purpose of this study was to find the therapeutic effects of this by the morphologic study using salicylate ototoxicity. Materials and Methods : Twelve healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: normal, control and sample. The sample group was treated with the extract of Uncariae Ramulis and Testudinis Plastrum (1cc/100g, once a day for 6 days). Then, to induce the salicylate ototoxicity in the control and sample groups, rats were injected intraperitoneally with sodium salicylate (500mg/kg). We observed the morphologic changes in the cochlea of the rats every 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours after injection. Results : The outer hair cells showed marked changes. Vacuolization formed in the cuticular plate and the endoplasm of the control group. The endoplasm and the cuticular plates of the sample group after 2 hours were similar to the control group, but the cuticular plates of the sample group observed after 3, 4 and 5 hours were not similar. Conclusions : The results suggest that an extract of Uncariae Ramulis and Testudinis Plastrum has therapeutic effects on an animal model with salicylate ototoxicity.

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