• Title/Summary/Keyword: Salicornia herbacea

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Effects of Salicornia herbacea L. Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Metabolites in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (함초 첨가식이가 당뇨 유발 흰쥐의 혈당 및 지질대사물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Wha
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to examine the effects of Salicornia herbacea L. (glasswort: GW) on the plasma blood glucose and lipid metabolites in diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-220g by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ) dissolved in a citrate buffer into the tail vein at a dose of 45 mg/kg of body weight. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93 recommended diet and the experimental groups were fed a modified diet containing 10% and 20% of glasswort powder for 4 weeks. The experimental groups were divided into 6 groups which consisted of normal (N)-control group, N-GW 10% and N-GW 20% treated groups, STZ-control, STZ-GW 10% and STZ-GW 20% treated groups. The rats' body weights, aminotransferase activities and hematocrit (Hct) values were measured, along with plasma levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA). The non-diabetic rats gained weight, while the diabetic rats lost weight. There were significant differences between the control group and the diabetic groups in the weight of the kidney, liver and pancreas. Asparate aminotransferase activity was lower in the non-diabetic control group compared to diabetic experimental groups, even though the difference was not significant. The plasma protein of N-GW 20% group was lower among all experimental groups but it was not significantly different. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-GW 10% group and STZ-GW 20% group were significantly lower than for the diabetic-control group. There were no significant difference of cholesterol levels among diabetic groups. The normal rats of 20% glasswort group in FFA and TG levels showed significant changes among all groups. These results exhibited dose related effect of glasswort and it may contain antihypoglycemic compounds.

Quality Characteristics of Salicornia herbacea L. Extract Added Brown Sauce (함초 추출액을 첨가한 브라운 소스의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ja-Kyoung;Hahm, Moon-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2013
  • This study performed physicochemical characteristics and sensory tests on brown sauce with different Salicornia herbacea L. (saltwort) content to find the best brown sauce recipe with saltwort. Moisture content increased with greater saltwort extract content. There was significant (p<0.001) pH difference with saltwort content. There was also significant (p<0.001) sweetness difference in the samples and sweetness increased with greater saltwort content. Viscosity measured at $20^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$ was significantly (p<0.001) lower with greater saltwort content. The brightness of brown sauce containing saltwort extracts significantly (p<0.001) increased with greater saltwort content and its redness and yellowness usually decreased. SPS4 with the greatest saltwort content showed the highest value of 4.25% and DPPH radical removal increased significantly (p<0.001) with greater saltwort content. In the sensory test, the color value was lowest at 4.82 with BSL1 and the flavor value was lowest at 5.00 with BSL0, the control group. The taste and the flavor values were highest with BSL2 with 2% saltwort content. Overall acceptance was highest with BSL3, the brown sauce with 3% saltwort content, at 6.09. As a result, it was concluded that the brown sauce with 3% saltwort content was most suitable. Therefore, this study concluded that saltwort with various functions could be used for food and may be used to replace salt and have other functions in brown sauce, a popular sauce consumed in Korea.

Anti-cancer effects of Salicornia herbacea extract in OVCAR-3 cells by induction of apoptosis pathway (함초 추출물의 세포사멸 유도에 의한 난소암세포에서 항암 효과)

  • La, Yu Ri;Lee, You Rim;Lee, Dong Seok;Kim, Soo Hwan;Lee, Hyeong Seon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2021
  • This study investigated the anti-cancer effects of Salicornia herbacea L. fractions in human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3). S. herbacea powder was extracted with 95% EtOH and sequentially fractionated with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, butanol, and H2O. Further, the growth inhibitory effects of the six fractions were determined using the MTS assay. The DCM fraction dramatically decreased cell viability. Similarly, the cell cycle was arrested at the subG1 phase in DCM-treated cells. To confirm apoptosis, the cells were stained with annexin V/FITC-PI solution. Total, early, and late apoptotic cells were significantly increased in the DCM fraction. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was reduced, whereas the pro-apoptotic factors Bax and Bak were increased in DCM fraction-treated cells. These results indicated that the DCM fraction in S. herbacea exhibited strong apoptotic effects through the p53-dependent signaling pathway.

Anti-Proliferative Effect of Polysaccharides from Salicornia herbacea on Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells

  • Ryu, Deok-Seon;Kim, Seon-Hee;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1482-1489
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of polysaccharides from Salicornia herbacea on HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Crude polysaccharides from S. herbacea (CS) were prepared by extraction with hot steam water, and fine polysaccharides from S. herbacea (PS) were obtained through further size exclusion chromatography. The anti-proliferative effect of CS and PS were measured using the MTS assay, apoptosis analysis, cell cycle analysis, and RT-PCR. HT-29 cells were treated with CS or PS at different dosages (0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg $ml^{-1}$) for 24 or 48 h. CS and PS inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis of cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis after Annexin V-FITC and PI staining revealed that treatment with CS or PS increased total apoptotic death of cells to 24.99% or 91.59%, respectively, in comparison with the control (13.51 %). PS increased early apoptotic death substantially - up to 12 times more than the control. Treatment with CS or PS resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of the G2/M cell population of the cell cycle as determined by flow cytometry. G2/M arrest was induced significantly with the highest concentration (4 mg $ml^{-1}$) of PS. RT-PCR was performed to study the correlation between G2/M arrest and transcription of cell cycle control genes. The anti-proliferative activity of CS and PS was accompanied by inhibition of cyclin B1, and Cdc 2 mRNA. Moreover, both CS and PS induced expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and the Cdk inhibitor p21. These results suggest that polysaccharides from S. herbacea have anti-cancer activity in human colon cancer cells.

Isolation and Identification of Antioxidative Compounds in Fermented Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Juice (함초발효액으로부터 항산화 활성 물질의 분리 및 동정)

  • Cho, Jeong-Yong;Park, Sun-Young;Shin, Mi-Jeong;Gao, Tian-Cheng;Moon, Jae-Hak;Ham, Kyung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.1137-1142
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    • 2010
  • The chloroform layer of fermented glasswort (Salicornia herbacea) juice was found to have higher radical-scavenging activity than the other layers by the assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ($ABTS^+$) radicals. Two antioxidative compounds were isolated and purified from the chloroform layer by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography using the guided assay of DPPH radical scavenging. Based on mass spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance, the isolated compounds were identified as cirsiumaldehyde (1) and chrysoeriol (2). This is the first study to report the presence of those compounds in fermented glasswort juice. Compound 2 showed higher radical-scavenging activity than 1.

Characteristics and Stability of Violet Red Pigment Extracted from Salicornia herbacea L. (퉁퉁마디(Salicornia herbacea L.)에서 추출한 적자색 색소의 특성 및 안정성)

  • Lee, Young-Jae;Park, In-Bae;Kim, Hae-Seop;Shin, Gung-Won;Park, Jeong-Wook;Jo, Yeong-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.885-891
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    • 2009
  • To examine stability of a violet red pigment in a Salicornia herbacea L., several tests for pH, sugar, organic acid, ascorbic acid, amino acid, salt and temperature effect were carried out. A violet red pigment in Salicornia herbacea L. was the most stable in the range of pH 4 to 6. Each of the violet red pigments in Salicornia herbacea L. added with different amounts of sugar showed higher retention rate according to storage time than those of the control group. After 10 days of storage, especially the retention rate of the experimentals with 0.5 M sucrose was higher than the controls by about 11.1% while fructose, maltose, glucose and galactose were less higher in order. Also, adding organic acid reduced retention rate of the experimentals over the controls irrespective of sort and concentration of organic acid; also, the retention rate of the experiment with 0.5 M organic acid, the highest amount of all, reduced radically to 13.1 to 15.9% after 10 days storage. The retention rate of the experimentals added 1,000 ppm ascorbic acid and thio urea respectively after 10 days was 48.4%, which is higher than the controls by around 23.1%. As to amino acid, treatment on the pigment with aspartic acid 50 mM marked the highest retention rate of 41.5% and treatment with 2.0 M NaCl showed 31.6% retention rate, which was higher than the controls. While low temperature like $5^{\circ}C$ and $25^{\circ}C$ kept the stability of the pigment in storage, as temperature increased the stability of the pigment dropped rapidly.

Characteristics of Growth and Germination of Salicornia herbacea L. for the Soil salinity and Manure Condition (토양염분.시비 조건에 따른 퉁퉁마디 생장 및 발아 특성)

  • Jo, Yeong-Cheol;Lee, Kyeong-Sik;Chon, Song-Mi;Byun, Do-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.100-108
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the cultivation condition of soil salinity, manure and to find out the cultivation capability of Salicornia herbacea. The optimal growth condition of soil salinity was between 1% and 4%. The growth of groups for fertilization was significantly better than control group. Salicornia herbacea grew very up from 7 kg/l0a to 9 kg/l0a for N, 12 kg/l0a for P and the K-fertilizer group was better than control group but there was not significantly different among the conditions of K-concentration. The germination was good from $0{\textperthousand}\;to\;5{\textperthousand}$ for salinity, from $20^{\circ}C\;to\;30^{\circ}C$ for temperature. On the experiment cultivation, the production by hill seeding was $5.40{\sim}5.90 kg/m^2$ and was significantly higher than the yield by broadcast sowing which was $4.01{\sim}4.20 kg/m^2$. The production by hill seeding was 2.7 times than natural production and the production by broadcast sowing 1.9 times.

Molecular Isolation and Characterization of the 2CysPrx Gene from Salicornia herbacea (퉁퉁마디로부터 2CysPrx 유전자 분리 및 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Suk-Kyu;Chung, Sang Ok;Na, Gil-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.810-820
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    • 2016
  • This study is focused on the investigation of the genes which are induced by various stresses of the halophyte Salicornia herbacea. One of the factors influencing in the germination of Salicornia herbacea is salt stress. The highest germination rate was found in the condition without NaCl, and the upper limit of the NaCl concentration for the germination of Salicornia herbacea was 7%. The optimal temperature of $20^{\circ}C$showed a germination rate of 98%. Among genes induced by stress the 2CysPrx gene was cloned and analyzed for this study. The 2CysPrx gene has two cysteine conserved residues and is composed of 275 amino acids with molecular weight of 30.1kDa. The 2CysPrx gene appeared to be one copy in the genome and consists of 6 introns and 7 exons. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the highest transcription rate induced by NaCl and $H_2O_2$ appeared to be at the concentration of 3.5% NaCl and 40mM $H_2O_2$, respectively. The amount of transcript induced by high temperature($40^{\circ}C$) and $75{\mu}M$ of ABA was respectively highest. The gene at low temperature ($4^{\circ}C$) appeared not to be expressed. We are conducting to clone other peroxyredoxin genes induced by various environmental stresses.

Anti-diabetic Activity of Polysaccharide from Salicornia herbacea (함초 다당체의 항당뇨 활성)

  • Kim, Seon-Hee;Ryu, Deok-Seon;Lee, Mi-Young;Kim, Ki-Hoon;Kim, Yong-Ho;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2008
  • The present study investigated the effect of physiologically active polysaccharide (SP1) isolated from Salicornia herbacea on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups which were normal control group (NC), diabetic control group (DC), diabetic CSP group (DCSP), and diabetic SP1 group (DSP1). Animals were administrated with 2% experimental drinks for 6 weeks. The levels of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in the serum were measured before and after intake of test compounds. The levels of glucose and triglyceride in the DSP1 were significantly lower than those in the DC by 25% and 20%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in the DSP1 were similar to those in the DC. These results suggest that SP1 substantially exhibit anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertriglyceridemic activity in diabetic rats. Therefore SP1 is believed to show remarkable anti-diabetic effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Immunomodulating Activity of Salicornia herbacea Extract (함초 추출물의 마우스 면역 증강 활성)

  • Ryu, Deok-Seon;Kim, Seon-Hee;Lee, Dong-Seok
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2008
  • Immunomodulating effect of Salicornia herbacea extract on the mouse splenocytes was investigated. Crude S. herbacea polysaccharide extract (CSP) and other kinds of fine S. herbacea polysaccharides (SPI and SPII) were prepared from S. herbacea by hot water extraction and further ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. In vitro experiment, the mouse splenocytes and separated T cells were treated with CSP, SPI or SPII (0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg/ml). In vivo experiment, three different S. herbacea extracts were orally administrated everyday for one week. For the basic data, body weight and physiological parameters such as organ weight and spleen index were observed. The proliferation of the cells was used as an index for immunemodulating activity and the effect of proliferation was evaluated using MTS assay. The CSP, SPI and SPII directly induced the proliferation of splenocytes and separated T cells in a dose-dependent manner. In results, the proliferation was more increased in the SPI and SPII treated cells than in the CSP treated cells. The best proliferation was shown in the splenocytes cultured with SPI at the concentration of 4 mg/ml for 24 hr. The proliferation of splenocytes and separated T-cells was higher (3.2 and 3.5 times, respectively) than the control. Moreover, when the mouse splenocytes were treated with mitogen, the efficient proliferation was shown in the splenocytes cultured with SPI. In conclusion, polysaccharides from S. herbacea showed a substantial immunomodulating activity in the mouse immune cells.