• Title, Summary, Keyword: SONET

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An Analysis of Packet over SONET/SDH for the Next Generation Internet (차세대 인터넷 구축을 위한 Packet over SONET/SDH 기술의 분석)

  • 박준현;홍석원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 1999
  • This paper explains tile IP over SONET/SDH that becomes nowadays one of the compelling candidates for building tile next generation IP backbone networks. First we introduce the protocol stack and tile related protocols of IP over SONET/SDH and explain the new scrambling technique using 1+X$^{43}$ scrambler since the legacy scrambler could be vulnerable by malicious users. And we compare tile IP over SONET/SDH with the IP over ATM that has long been a strong candidate for future IP backbone networks and we recommend that the optimal choice for the IP backbone should lie considered based on the merits and demerits of each technology.

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Traffic Grooming Algorithm for minimizing the number of SONET ADM in the WDM Ring Network (WDM 링에서 SONET ADM 수 최소화를 위한 트래픽 grooming 알고리즘)

  • 윤승진;노선식;김수현;김영천
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.172-175
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, we propose new algorithm to minimize the total cost of overall system in WDM ring networks. The cost of system includes the number of SONET ADMs as well as the number of wavelength. As optical technologies and WDM components are developed, the dominant cost of system is the number of SONET ADMs which is electronic equipment. To reduce the number of SONET ADMs in nonuniform traffic, we propose two algorithms one is the algorithm to construct full circles as many as possible to minimize gaps by cutting and combining the connections. The other is the algorithm to groom circles Into a wavelength to share the maximum number of nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to conventional algorithm in nonuniform traffic

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Balancing Inter-Ring Loads on SONET Dual-Ring without Demand Splitting

  • Lee, Chae-Y.;Moon, Jung-H.
    • IE interfaces
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 1996
  • In the survivability and simplicity aspect, SONET Self-healing Ring(SHR) is one of the most important schemes for the high-speed telecommunication networks. Since the ring capacity requirement is defined by the largest STS-1 cross-section in the ring, load balancing is the key issue in the design of SONET SHR. Recently, most of the research on load balancing problem have been concentrated on the SONET single-ring case. However, in certain applications, multiple-ring configuration is necessary because of the geographical limitations or the need for extra bandwidth. In this paper, the load balancing problem for SONET dual-ring is considered by assuming symmetric inter-ring demands. We present a linear programming based formulation of the problem. Initial solution and improvement procedures are presented, which solves the routing and interconnection between the two rings for each demand. Computational experiments are performed on various size of networks with randomly generated demand sets. Results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in both the solution quality and the computational time requirement. The average error bound of the solutions obtained is 0.26% of the optimum.

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Next Generation SONET/SDH (차세대 SONET/SDH 기술 동향)

  • Lavells Brian;Shim Jae-Kyung
    • 한국정보통신설비학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2004
  • 정보 통신 네트워크 기술은 최근 10여년에 걸쳐 비약적인 발전을 하였다. 특히 광전송 분야는 음성 및 데이터 통합에 의한 시장 요구로 인하여 많은 진화를 하고 있다. 이 글에서는 SONET/SDH가 차세대 솔루션으로 진화하는 데 있어서 필요 기술을 서술하였다.

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Economic Analysis of SONET/WDM UPSR and BLSR Ring Networks Using Traffic Grooming (트래픽 그루밍을 이용한 SONET/WDM 단방향, 양방향 링 네트워크의 경제성 분석)

  • Kang, Donghan;Park, Sungsoo
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.213-223
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    • 2004
  • We consider the traffic grooming problem for the design of SONET/WDM(Synchronous Optical NETwork/Wavelength Division Multiplexing) ring networks. Given a physical network with ring topology and a set of traffic demands between pairs of nodes, we are to obtain a stack of rings with the objective of minimizing the number of ADMs installed at the nodes. This problem arises when a single ring capacity is not large enough to accommodate all the demands. As a solution method, an efficient algorithm based on the branch-and-price approach has been reported in the literature for the problem in which only unidirecional path switched ring (UPSR) was considered. In this study, we suggest integer programming models and the algorithms based on the same approach as the above one, considering two-fiber bidirectional line switched ring(BLSR/2), and BLSR/4 additionally. Using the results, we compare the number of required ADMs for all types of the ring architecture.

Traffic Grooming Algorithm for Minimizing the Number of SONET ADMs in WDM Ring Networks (WDM 링에서 SONET ADM 수를 최소화하기 위한 트래픽 그루밍 알고리즘)

  • 노선식;윤승진;김영천
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.25 no.5B
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    • pp.956-965
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we propose an efficient traffic grooming algorithm to minimize to number of SONET ADMs which is the dominant cost of system in high speed optical ring networks. It is an optimal traffic grooming algorithm to be applied to both unidirectional ring and bi-directional ring under both uniform traffic and nonuniform traffic. The proposed traffic grooming algorithm consists of two subalgorithms : one is the algorithm to construct full connection-rings as many as possible to minimize gaps by cutting the connections and using redirection method, and the other is the algorithm to groom connection-rings into a wavelength to maximize the number of shared nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to conventional algorithm under various network conditions.

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FPGA Implementation of a Pointer Interpreter for SDH/SONET Network Synchronization (SDH와 SONET망의 동기화를 위한 포인터 해석기의 FPGA 구현)

  • 이상훈;박남천;신위재
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 2004
  • This paper describes FPGA implementation of a pointer interpreter which can support a synchronization of SDH(or SONET)-based transmission network. The pointer interpreter consists of a pointer-word extractor and a pointer-word interpreter The pointer-word extractor which is composed of mod-6480 counter, shift register and pointer synchronizing block, finds out the H1 and H2 pointer word from a 51.84 Mb/s AU-3/STS-1 data frame and then performs the synchronizing with a 6.48 Mb/s by dividing them in 8. Based on the extracted pointer word, pointer-word interpreter analyzes pointer states such LOP, AIS and NORM according to pointer state-transition algorithm. It consists of a majority vote, a pointer word valid/invalid check, a pointer justification, and a pointer state check. The simulation results of Xilinx Virtex XCV200PQ240 FPGA chip shows the exact pointer word extraction and correct decision of pointer status based on extracted pointer word. The proposed pointer interpreter is suitable for pointer interpretation of 155 Mb/s STM-1/STS-3 frame.

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Balancing Loads on SONET Rings without Demand Splitting

  • Lee, Chae-Y.;Chang, Seon-G.
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 1996
  • The Self Healing Ring (SHR) is one of the most Intriguing schemes which provide survivability for telecommunication networks. To design a cost effective SONET ring it is necessary to consider load balancing problems by which the link capacity is determined. The load balancing problem in SONET ring when demand splitting is not allowed is considered in this paper. An efficient algorithm is presented which provides the best solution starting from various Initial solutions. The initial solution is obtained by routing ell demands such that no demands pass through an are In the ring. The proposed algorithm iteratively improves the Initial solution by examining each demand and selecting the maximum load are in its path. The demand whose maximum arc load is biggest is selected to be routed in opposite direction. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent both in the solution quality and in the computational time requirement. The average error bound of the algorithm is 0.11% of the optimum and compared to dual-ascent approach which has good computational results than other heuristics.

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A Heuristic Approach to Steiner Ring Problem

  • Lee, Chae-Y.;Rhee, Doug-W.
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.255-263
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    • 1996
  • Optical fiber systems play an essential role In today's telecommunications networks. The recently standardized SONET technology has made a ring structure the preferred architecture for inter-city communication networks. In designing a SONET with ring structure, we consider inserting optional cites, which are not necessary in constructing the SONET, but cost-effective in connecting essential nodes in the ring. This problem is modeled as Steiner ring problem. Efficient heuristic procedures are developed based on the procedures for the traveling salesman problem. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent compared to the optimal solution. The error bound by the proposed method is 2 - 6% in experimented problems.

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Technological Trend of Signal Transmission Based on Optical Transport Hierarchy (OTH 기반 신호 전송기술 동향)

  • Lee, H.J.;Cho, H.W.;Shin, J.Y.;Ko, J.S.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 2006
  • 트래픽의 급격한 증가와 함께 백본을 구성하는 광전송망은 비동기식(PDH) 기반에서동기식(SDH/SONET) 기반으로 발전하여 왔으며, 최근에는 파장분할다중화(WDM) 기술을 적용한 장비가 보급되면서 광전송망을 구성하는 필수 기술로 자리잡고 있다. WDM 기술 적용에 따라 현존하는 SDH/SONET 망과 연동시 유지보수가 되지 않는 등WDM 기술에 SDH/SONET 망을 직접 수용하는 데 어려움이 있어, 이를 해소할 수 있는 새로운 개념의 광전송계위(OTH)의 필요성이 대두되어 관련 기술을 개발하여 표준화가 이루어졌다. OTH 기술의 도입으로 WDM 기반 전송망과 기존 전송망과의 연동이 원활하게 이루어져 유지보수 및 운영상의 문제점을 해소할 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 기존의 다양한 신호 트래픽과 새로운 서비스 등장에 따른 트래픽 수용 및 전송이 가능하게되었다. 이 논문에서는 WDM 기반의 고속 전송에 필수적인 OTH 신호 전송을 위한 핵심 기술에 관해 분석하고 나아가 관련 기술개발 동향에 대해 기술한다.