• Title, Summary, Keyword: SOD

Search Result 2,795, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

Intragastrically Applicated CCl4-Thiopental Sodium Enhanced Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Fibrosis (Cirrhosis) in Rat: Malonedialdehyde as a Parameter of Lipid Peroxidation Correlated with Hydroxyproline as a Parameter of Collagen Synthesis (Deposition)

  • Kim, Ki-Young;Cho, Syung-Eun;Yu, Byung-Soo
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.71-78
    • /
    • 2009
  • We investigated the pathogenesis of liver tissue damage during the lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis with the observation of correlations between the parameters of collagen synthesis (and deposition) and lipid peroxidation in liver fibrosis (cirrhosis) rats. Rats were randomly divided into two groups, normal and $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. intoxicated group. And the one group was treated intragastrically with the mixture of $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. 3 times per week for 3 weeks. The liver tissue and sera were used for the measurement of hydroxyproline (HYP), malonedialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Biochemical parameters such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total-bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Additionally, the expression of collagen ${\alpha}1$(III) and $\beta$-actin mRNA was observed by RTPCR. The histological change in liver tissue was also observed by Masson's trichrome and H&E staining. Correlation analysis was carried by Spearman's rho method. All biochemical parameters except total-bilirubin were significantly higher in the $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. treated group than that of the normal group (p < 0.01). In the $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. treated group, Hyp as a parameter of collagen synthesis (deposition) and MDA as a metabolite of lipid peroxidation, were significantly elevated by 1.98 and 2.11 times higher than that of the normal group (p < 0.001) respectively. The activity of SOD in the $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. treated group is decreased significantly by 44.8% (p < 0.001). And collagen ${\alpha}1$(III) mRNA was more expressed in the $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. treated group than that of the normal group. However, the expression of $\beta$-actin mRNA is showed similar in both of groups. A good correlation was observed between the content of hyp and MDA concentration (r = 0.70, n = 40) in the two groups. And the correlation between the levels of hyp and SOD (r = -0.71, n = 25) is also reliable. However, no correlation were observed between MDA concentration and SOD (r = -0.40, n = 25) in the two groups. Elevated levels of MDA in $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. treated rats indicated enhancement of lipid peroxidation, which is accompanied by a decrease in SOD activity. Moreover, we could confirm that the parameters of collagen synthesis (and deposition) is in good correlation with the metabolite of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and the lipid peroxidation antagonizing enzyme (SOD). Hence, we propose that (1) lipid peroxidation and collagen synthesis (and deposition) could be enhanced by intragastrically application of $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. during a short terms. And (2) the intoxication of $CCl_4$-thiopental sod. could be used for monitoring of lipid peroxidation and collagen synthesis (and deposition) for test of antioxidant and antifibrotic agent.

The Effect of Metallothionein on the Activity of Enzymes Invelved in Remival of Reactive Oxygen Species

  • Go, Mun Ju;Kim, Hui Jeong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.362-366
    • /
    • 2001
  • To show the effects of metallothionein (MT) on the activity of enzymes involved in the removal of reactive oxygen species, MT has been added to the assay systems of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidase. We have used assay systems of SOD based on NADPH oxidation and nitrite formation from hydroxylammonium chloride as an assay of superoxide breakdown rate. The two assay systems showed different results at the high concentration of MT. MT showed the scavenging of superoxide in the SOD assay system in the presence and absence of SOD. MT added to the SOD assay system behaved as an activator of SOD, but apo-MT behaved as an inhibitor. When MT was added to the assay system in the presence of a fixed amount of SOD, the breakdown rate of superoxide increased. The effects of MT on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the activity of catalase and peroxidase decomposing hydrogen peroxide were evaluated. MT decreased the activities of catalase and peroxidase. We have concluded that the function of MT as an antioxidant might effect the level of superoxide scavenging and not the level of hydrogen peroxide.

  • PDF

False Positive SOD Activity of Bifidobacterium spp. Grown in MRS Medium

  • Chang, Woo-Suk;So, Jae-Seong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.8 no.4
    • /
    • pp.305-309
    • /
    • 1998
  • The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of seven Bifidobacterium spp. strains was examined by an indirect SOD assay method. Some Bifidobacterium spp. showed significant levels of SOD activity. However, we could not observe any significant differences between anaerobic and aerobic cultures. Furthermore, although several Bifidobacterium spp. exhibited some degree of tolerance to paraquat which produces superoxide radicals, the apparent SOD activity of these strains was not correlated with their resistance to paraquat. In addition, when we added increasing amounts of manganese or iron to MRS medium which had been prepared without either of the metal ions, the apparent SOD activity of cell free extracts (CFEs) was increased with increasing concentration of both metal ions. To our surprise, the heat-denatured CFEs also showed nearly identical correlative patterns. Based on these results, the apparent SOD activity was likely due to a nonenzymatic dismutation. These results strongly suggest that high concentration of divalent metal ions ($Mn^{2+}$, $Fe^{2+}$) in MRS medium result in nonenzymatic dismutation which can lead to false positive SOD activities in Bifidobacerium spp.

  • PDF

Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Protein in Diabetes

  • Kim, Chul Han
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
    • /
    • v.40 no.5
    • /
    • pp.517-521
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The formation of ROS induces oxidative stress and activates oxidative damage-inducing genes in cells. No research has been published on oxidative damage-related extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protein levels in human diabetic skin. We investigated the expression of EC-SOD in diabetic skin compared with normal skin tissue in vivo. Methods The expression of EC-SOD protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 diabetic skin tissue samples and 6 normal skin samples. Immunohistochemical staining was also carried out to confirm the EC-SOD expression level in the 6 diabetic skin tissue samples. Results The western blotting showed significantly lower EC-SOD protein expression in the diabetic skin tissue than in the normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination of EC-SOD protein expression supported the western blotting analysis. Conclusions Diabetic skin tissues express a relatively small amount of EC-SOD protein and may not be protected against oxidative stress. We believe that EC-SOD is related to the altered metabolic state in diabetic skin, which elevates ROS production.

Standardized Sod Production Using Box Seeding (상자파종에 의한 규격화된 잔디의 생산)

  • 구자형;김태일;전대우;최종명
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
    • /
    • v.9 no.3
    • /
    • pp.187-198
    • /
    • 1995
  • The objective of this research was to produce sod by box seeding for zoysiagrass or by vegetative propagation for zoysiagrass and manilagrass.1 Various ratio of peatmoss to sand(v /v) were prepared to find idea[ medium for fast and light weight sod production. Then, the days required for sod formation, the effect of growth regulators on the growth of turfgrass, and the various storage methods for winter keeping of sods were also investigated. 1.The mixed medium of sand and peatmoss(v /v, 1 : 2) showed more biomass production than that of sand. 2.In comparison of seeding rate of zoysiagrass, the amount of log /$m^2$ was most effective in the fast and dense sod formation. The amount of 20g /$m^2$ also showed fast sod formation. But, it resulted in weak plant and less tillering. During April to June, about 100 days were required to form sod with seeding rate of 5g /$m^2$ regardless of seeding time. Whereas 80 days were required to form sod in the rate log /$m^2$, which was 20 days shorter than that of 5g /$m^2$. 3.More than 85% of shoots in sod stored in field or plastic house during the winter time resumed the growth in good appearance after transplanting. The whole covering of ground with sod resulted in less weeds and faster formation of lawn. 4.Vegetative propagation of manilagrass showed about 7 to 15 days faster formation of sod than that of zoysiagrass. Application of GA increased shoot growth and BA increased the total number of tillering. However, the effects of the combined application of GA and BA were negligable.

  • PDF

Effect of Copper Ion on Oxygen Damage in Superoxide Dismutase-Deficient Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

  • Lee, Jeong-Ki;Kim, Ji-Myon;Kim, Su-Won;Nam, Doo-Hyun;Yong, Chul-Soon;Huh, Keun
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.178-182
    • /
    • 1996
  • Using superoxide dismutase (SOD)-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oxidative stresses induced by 0.1 mM of copper ion $(Cu^{++})$ was studied. In aerobic culture condition, yeasts lacking MnSOD (mitochondrial SOD) showed more significant growth retardation than CuZnSOD (cytoplasmic SOD)-deficient yeasts. However, not so big differences in growth pattern of those mutants compared withwild type were observed under anaerobic condition. It was found that, under aerobic condition, the supplementation of 0.1 mM copper ioh:(Cu") into culture medium caused the remarkable increase of CuZnSOD but not so significant change in MnSOD. It was also observed that catalase activities appeared to be relatively high in the presence of copper ion in spite of the remarkable reduction of glutathion peroxidase in CuZnSOD-deficient yeasts, but the slight increments of catalase and glutathion peroxidase were detected in MnSOD-deficient strains. It implies that the lack of cytoplasmic SOD could be compensated mainly by catalase. However, these phenomena resulted in the significantincrease of cellular lipid peroxides content in CuZnSOD-deficient yeasts and the slight increment of lipid peroxides in MNSOD-deficient cells. In anaerobic cultivation supplementing copper ion, the cellular enzyme activities of catalase and glutathion peroxidase in SOD-deficient yeasts were slightly increased without any significant changes of lipid peroxides in cell membrane. It suggests that a little amount of free radicals generated by copper ion under anaerobic condition could be sufficiently overcome by catalase as well as glutathion peroxidase.dase.

  • PDF

Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms in Inflamed Gingiva (염증성 치은에서 superoxide dismutase isoform의 발현에 대한 연구)

  • Na, Hei-Jin;Kim, Ok-Su;Park, Byung-Ju
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.36 no.1
    • /
    • pp.97-112
    • /
    • 2006
  • 유리 라디칼과 활성 산소종, 산화방지제 간의 불균형이 염증성 구강내 질환의 발생과 진행에 있어 중요한 역할을 한다는 주장이 제기되었고 최근에는 만성 염증성 치주질환에서도 산화에 의한 소실이 관찰되었다. 다양한 내적인 항산화 방어 기전 중 superoxide dismutase 가 $O_2$$H_2O_2$로 효과적으로 전환시킴으로써 활성산소종에 대한 일차적인 방어를 맡고 있다. 현재까지 인간에서 발견된 superoxide dismutase 는 cytoplasmic copper-zinc SOD와 mitochondrial manganase SOD, extracellular SOD의 3가지 아형이다. 이번 연구는 만성 치주질환을 가전 환자의 치주조직에서 효소 항산화제인 SOD의 발현정도를 알아봄으로써 질환조직 내의 산화자극 정도를 평가해 보고자하였다. 전남대학교 치주과에 내원한 33명의 만성 치주질환자와 20명 의 임상적으로 건강한 대상으로부터 조직을 얻어 Cu/Zn-SOD와 Mn-SOD, EC-SOD를 이용한 면역조직화학 염색을 시행하였다. 임상적 소견과 조직학적 소견이 일치하지 않아 조직학적 소견을 기준으로 건강한 조직, 경도, 중등도, 중도 치주질환 조직으로 그룹을 나누고 완전한 상피와 결합조직을 가진 27개의 표본에 대한 분석을 시행하였다. 치주질환 조직에서 건강한 조직에 비해 Cu/Zn-SOD가 상피의 기저층과 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현되고 Mn-SOD는 염증이 증가함에 따라 크게 상피의 과립증과 각화층, 그리고 상피에 근접한 결합조직에서 발현됨으로써 활성산소종이 치주조직 파괴에 관여한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 세 아형 모두 혈관주위에서 발현되었고 특히 EC-SOD는 작은 모세혈관주위에서만 발현되었으나 염증에 의해 혈관벽이 두꺼워지고 혈관 수가 증가한 곳에서 뚜렷하게 염색되었다. 이번 연구는 염증성 치주조직내 증가된 SOD의 활성이 치주질환자의 산화자극 정도와 관련되어 있음을 시사하였다.

Copper, Zinc-Superoxide Dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) Gene During Embryogenesis of Bombyx mori: Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression

  • Hong, Sun-Mee;Kang, Seok-Woo;Goo, Tae-Won;Kim, Nam-Soon;Lee, Jin-Sung;Nho, Si-Kab
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-30
    • /
    • 2006
  • BmCu/Zn SOD was isolated from early embryo of Bombyx mori using microarray analysis. The BmCu/Zn SOD gene was observed during the early embryonic stage with the strongest signal found at the unfertilizaion, fertilization and blastoderm stages. The BmCu/Zn SOD gene encodes a protein of 154 amino acids with a calculated Mr of 15 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of BmCu/Zn SOD indicated that the residues that form on the Cu/Zn binding site are conserved and that the sequence is a 60% identity to that of M. domestica. In a phylogenetic tree, Bm SOD was also close to Drosophila SODs rather than other insect SODs. The BmCu/Zn SOD gene exists as a single copy in the genome. Transcripts of BmCu/Zn SOD cDNA were identified by northern blot analysis. The expression of the BmCu/Zn SOD gene was observed weakly in most of larvae, pre-pupae, pupae and adult tissues. Also, the BmCu/Zn SOD gene was observed in early embryonic stage. Although the roles of SODs remains to be further elucidated, the high expression of BmCu/Zn SOD gene at before 24 h post fertilization suggests that this gene is of general importance during early embryogenesis in the Bombyx mod.

Growth and Utility of Rhodiola sachalinensis in Baekdu Mountain II. Activities of Superoxide Dismutase in Portions of the Seedlings (백두산 자생참돌꽃의 생육과 이용 II. 유식물의 부위별 superoxide dismutase 활성)

  • So, Sang-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.349-354
    • /
    • 2008
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were investigated from the portions of shoots and roots in accordance with developmental stage and in response to environmental stress and antioxidants using Rhodiola-seedlings. The rates of SOD activities were revealed highly at the portion of roots and its tip of seedlings in the latter stages rather than the initial stages. SOD activities of seedlings in the initial stages treated with sodium chloride and cadmium as environmental stressors showed the decrease by 15 and 30% with respect to the control, respectively. However, in spite of stressor-treatments, the activities in the roots were increased according to the growth period showing a maximum rate of up to 45%. Also, SOD activities of the seedling treated with ascorbic acid as a antioxidant were increased by 46% of control value, but this was similar to the rate revealed in the presence of stressors. These results suggest that SOD activities in Rhodiola-seedlings may be related with the important defence-system against injurious environments.

Tumor-Suppressing Effects of Saponin-SOD in Nude Mice (Saponin-SOD가 SNUC-4 Cell에 의해 유발편 대장암 Nude Mice의 암 성장 억제 효과)

  • 박수진;강명화
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.338-342
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study was performed to measure the antioxidant effects of red ginseng extracts which antioxidation had been promoted through enzyme hydrolysis. In order to observe their tumor-suppressing effects, an anti-cancer medicine and Saponin-SOD, which was a highly antioxidant beverage made from red ginseng saponin adding SOD-like rice (with embryo buds) extracts, were administered to nude mice with large intestine cancer induced. There was a significant increase in the content of phenolic compounds as the enzyme was added. The red ginseng extracts showed a high electron-donating ability with the passage of time. The electron-donating ability was particularly high in the enzyme-treated red ginseng extract, and also observed as high in Saponin-SOD. The lipid-peroxide generation was inhibited depending on the concentration of Saponin-SOD added; the addition of 0.625% Saponin-SOD served to decrease the inhibition level up to 65% compared with the case of no addition (100%). As a result, it could be assumed that Saponin-SOD would strongly inhibit the oxidation of ghost membrane. After the cancer was induced in nude mice through the injection of SNUC-4 cell, there was a significant inhibition in the growth of tumors in nude mice into which Saponin-SOD were injected; the growth of tumors was gradually decreasing with the passage of time after the cancer induction. In particular, when Saponin-SOD was administered together with an anti-cancer medicine, the synergic effect was observed. In conclusion, Saponin-SOD, when used with an anti-cancer medicine, is expected to reduce the amount of free radical and lipid peroxide, which are known to cause harmful effects occurring from the internal application of medicine.

  • PDF