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In vivo Study of the Renal Protective Effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens against Streptozotocin-induced Oxidative Stress (스트렙토조토신 유발 당뇨 쥐의 산화스트레스에 대한 매생이 추출물의 신장 보호 효과)

  • Nam, Mi-Hyun;Koo, Yun-Chang;Hong, Chung-Oui;Yang, Sung-Yong;Kim, Se-Wook;Jung, Hye-Lim;Lee, Hwa;Kim, Ji-Yeon;Han, Ah-Ram;Son, Won-Rak;Pyo, Min-Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.641-647
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of Capsosiphon fulvescens extract (CFE) and its active compound, pheophorbide A (PhA), on diabetic kidney failure. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). After a week, the rats were orally administered CFE (4 and 20 mg/kg BW) or PhA (0.2 mg/kg BW) once a day for 9 weeks. After scarification, renal tissue samples were collected for biochemical and histochemical analyses. Our study showed that the treatment with CFE and PhA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation level and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (p<0.05), but it increased glutathione level and the activities of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the renal tissues (p<0.05). The CFE- and PhA-treated rats with DM showed improved histochemical appearance and decreased abnormal glycogen accumulation. Therefore, we suggest that PhA-containing CFE could exert renal protective effects against STZ-induced oxidative stress.

Antioxidative, Antimicrobial and Anticytotoxic Activities of Seungmagalgeuntang and Fermented Seungmagalgeuntang (승마갈근탕과 발효 승마갈근탕에 의한 항산화, 항미생물 및 항세포독성 효과)

  • In, Jae Pyung;Shin, Jung Mi;Hur, Sun Jin;Lee, Si Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.980-988
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    • 2014
  • Seungmagalgeuntang (SG) is broadly used in traditional Oriental medicine especially in Korea, China, and Japan, for its many pharmacological effects. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anticytotoxic activities of SG and fermented seungmagalgeuntang (FSG). DPPH radical scavenging activities of SG and FSG were 70% and 74%, respectively, which increased slightly by fermentation. Nitrite scavenging activities were strongly altered at pH 1.2, (36.4% in SG and 38.3% in FSG) by addition of $200{\mu}g/g$. Superoxide dismutase-like activities were from 21.5% to 23.3% at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, and the highest value were observed in FSG. Total flavonoid contents of SG and FSG were 47.1 and $52.1{\mu}g/L$, respectively which shows an increase upon fermentation. In the antimicrobial activity test, $MIC_{50}$ values of SG and FSG were $800{\mu}g/mL$ for Candida albicans and 3,200 and $1,600{\mu}g/mL$ for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Antibacterial effects were higher in FSG compared to SG. Anticytotoxic cadmium toxicities ranged from 63.5% to 76.1% at $10{\mu}g/mL$ of SG and FSG, and the highest value was observed in FSG. In the sensory evaluation, color, flavor, and overall preference values were higher in FSG.

Protective Effects of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Leaves Fermented with Hericium erinaceum Mycelium against Oxidative Modification of Biological Macromolecules and Cell Death (노루궁뎅이 버섯균사체를 이용한 비타민나무 발효물이 생체고분자의 산화적 변형과 세포사멸에 미치는 보호 영향)

  • Kim, Seung-Sub;Kyeong, Inn-Goo;Lee, Mi-La;Kim, Dong-Goo;Shin, Ji-Young;Yang, Jin-Yi;Lee, Gwang-Ho;Eum, Won-Sik;Kang, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2015
  • In this study, hot water extract from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves fermented with Hericium erinaceum mycelium (SBT-HE) was assessed for protection against oxidative modification of biological macromolecules and cell death. Antioxidant activity of SBT-HE was evaluated based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. SBT-HE showed 65.06% DPPH radical scavenging activity at $500{\mu}g/mL$, 98.83% ABTS radical scavenging activity at $50{\mu}g/mL$, and 44.03% peroxyl radical scavenging activity at $100{\mu}g/mL$. SBT-HE significantly inhibited DNA strand breakage induced by peroxyl radical. SBT-HE also prevented peroxyl radical-mediated human serum albumin modification. SBT-HE effectively inhibited $H_2O_2$-induced cell death and significantly increased cell survival by 21.59% at $100{\mu}g/mL$. SBT-HE also reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in $H_2O_2$-treated cells. The results suggest that SBT-HE can contribute to antioxidant activity and protect cells from oxidative stress-induced cell injury.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Coffee Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Defense System in Broiler Chickens (사료 내 항산화원으로서 커피박 첨가가 닭의 사양성적, 혈액생화학성상 및 항산화 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Young-Hyun;Kang, Sun-Young;Jang, In-Surk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.223-232
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    • 2012
  • The effects of dietary supplementation of dried coffee meal (CM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, the weights of immune-related organs, and the antioxidant defense system in broiler chicks were examined. A total of 162, 3-day-old male broiler chickens were assigned to three dietary groups: control group (CON), control diet added with 0.5% CM (CM0.5), and control diet added with 1.0% CM (CM1.0). In vitro antioxidant activity test, coffee extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in radical scavenging activity. Dietary addition of 0.5 and 1.0% of CM did not have negative effects on growth performance and feed conversion during the experimental periods, whereas dietary CM significantly (P<0.05) increased the relative weight of thymus without changes in the other organ weights. In addition, birds fed the diet supplemented with CM (0.5 and 1.0%) significantly increased blood albumin without affecting other components including glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol compared with those fed control diet. In antioxidant defense system, the specific activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of glutathione in the small intestine and liver were not affected by dietary supplementation of CM. However, hepatic lipid peroxidation in birds fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% CM was significantly (P<0.05) decreased compared with that in control birds. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of CM(0.5~1.0%) has potential for use as a natural antioxidant source without negative effect on growth performance in broiler chickens.

Dietary effects of black bean fermented by Monascus pilosus on body weight, serum lipid profiles and activities of hepatic antioxidative enzymes in mice fed high fat diets (Monascus Pilosus로 발효시킨 검정콩 첨가 식이가 고지방식이 마우스의 체중과 혈청 지방함량 및 간 조직 항산화계 효소활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Soon-Dong;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Mee-Jung;Lee, In-Ae;Choi, Jongkeun;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2013
  • The anti-obesity effects of fermented black bean were tested with mice fed a high fat diet for seven weeks. Body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio (FER) in the high fat diet control (HC) group were markedly higher, compared with those of the normal control (NC) group, but were significantly lower in the 2% black bean powder supplemented high fat diet (BB) group and 2% black bean powder fermented by M. pilosus supplemented high fat diet (BBM) group, compared with those of the HC group. Food intake in the HC and BB groups was significantly lower than that of the NC and BBM groups. Water intake in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. On the other hand, relative liver and kidney weight in the HC group was lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, whereas epididymal fat weight in the HC group was markedly higher than that of the NC group, it was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. Meanwhile, hepatic GSH in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was slightly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. Although hepatic LPO in the HC group was dramatically higher than that of the NC group, it was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, serum TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol in the HC group was significantly higher than that of the NC group, but was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. On the contrary, HDL-cholesterol in the HC group was significantly lower than that of the NC group, but was higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In addition, activity of XOR D type in the HC group was lower than that of the NC group, but was slightly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the NC group. Activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, such as SOD, GPX, and GST in the HC group were significantly lower than those of the NC group, but were significantly higher in the BB and BBM groups, compared with those of the HC group. In addition, serum ALT activity in the HC and BB groups was higher than that of the NC group, but was significantly lower in the BB and BBM groups, compared with that of the HC group. In histopathological findings, hepatic fat accumulation in the HC group was higher than that of the NC group, but was lower in the BBM group, compared with that of the HC and BB groups. In particular, antiobese, hypolipidemic, and antifatty liver effect of black bean powder fermented by M. pilosus was specifically higher than that of non-fermented steamed black bean. In conclusion, the constituents of black bean fermented by Monascus pilosus have been proven to not only inhibit obesity and hyperlipidemia but also decrease hepatic fat accumulation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Four months of magnetized water supplementation improves glycemic control, antioxidant status, and cellualr DNA damage in db/db mice (제2형 당뇨 모델 db/db 마우스에서 4개월의 자화수 섭취 후 혈당, 항산화 상태 및 세포 DNA 손상 개선 효과)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Kang, Myung-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Water is magnetically charged upon contact with a magnet. Although magnetic water products have been promoted since the 1930's, they have not received wide acceptance since their effectiveness is still in question; however, some have reported their therapeutic effects on the body, especially the digestive, nervous, and urinary systems. Methods: In this study, the effect of magnetized water on glycemic control of 14 diabetic mice (CB57BK/KsJ-db/db) in comparison with 10 control mice (CB57BK/KsJ-db/+(db/+)) was investigated. Seven diabetic control (DMC) mice and seven diabetic mice + magnetized water (DM+MW) were kept for 16 weeks, followed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Weekly blood glucose was measured from tail veins. Blood obtained from heart puncture was used for HbA1c analysis. Results: Blood glucose level showed a significant difference starting from the $10^{th}$ week of study ($496.1{\pm}10.2mg/dl$ in DMC vs. $437.9{\pm}76.9mg/dl$ in DM+MW). Blood glucose followed by IPGTT showed no significant difference between groups at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, although glucose level at 180 min was significantly reduced in DM+MW mice. Plasma insulin level in DM+MW groups was only 39.5% of that of DMC groups ($5.97{\pm}1.69ng/ml$ in DMC vs. $2.36{\pm}0.94ng/ml$ in DM+MW). Levels of HbA1c were 12.4% and 9.7% in DMC and DM+MW groups, respectively. Conclusion: These results show the promising therapeutic effect of magnetized water in regulating blood glucose homeostasis; however, long-term supplementation or mechanistic study is necessary.

Quality Characteristics and Evaluation of Physiological Activities of Moju Made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (헛개나무를 이용한 모주의 품질 특성 및 생리활성(in vivo) 효능 검증)

  • Park, Yeon-Hee;Yu, Ok-Kyeong;Bae, Cho-Rong;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1599-1606
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its physiological effects on ICR mice. According to the sensory score, we selected Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. among Moju made with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Compared to Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. had higher proportions of moisture (86.77 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (11.86 g/100 g). The mean values of the physicochemical analyses were as follows: pH 4.91, acidity 0.28, $^{\circ}Brix$ 12.63, reducing sugar 68.97, alcohol content 0.1, alcohol density 0.998. Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. did not have effects on DPPH radical scavenging activity; however, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher than that of Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb. For assessing physiological activities, 4-week-old male ICR mice were divided into six groups (n=10): normal control group (NC), ethanol-administered group (EC), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCL), EC plus high-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCH), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDL), and EC plus high-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDH). Serum triglyceride (TG) level was reduced by 11.17% and 19.61% in the MDL and MDH groups, respectively, compared to the EC group. Serum total-cholesterol levels of MDL and MDH groups were significantly lower as compared to the EC group. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the MDL and MDH groups were significantly higher than those of the EC group. Liver TG levels were significantly reduced in the MCL and MDL groups. From these results, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. demonstrated antioxidant activity and reduction of hyperlipidemia markers. Therefore, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. can serve as a non-alcoholic beverage and functional food source.

Ameliorative effect of onion (Allium Cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloid-β-induced cognitive dysfunction via mitochondrial activation (미토콘드리아 활성화를 통한 양파(Allium Cepa L.) 과육 및 과피의 Amyloid-β 유도성 인지손상에 대한 개선효과)

  • Park, Seon Kyeong;Lee, Uk;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Shin, Eun Jin;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.263-273
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    • 2020
  • In this study, in order to confirm the ameliorative effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) flesh and peel on amyloidbeta (Aβ)-induced cognitive dysfunction, we evaluated their in vitro neuroprotection and in vivo cognitive functions. As the result of in vitro neuroprotection, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion flesh (EOF) on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity was similar to that of the ethyl acetate fraction of onion peel (EOP). In the behavioral tests, the EOF and EOP effectively improved the Aβ-induced learning and memory impairments. For this reason, it could be concluded that the EOF and EOP improved the antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, oxidized glutathione/total glutathione, and malondialdehyde) in brain tissue. In addition, the EOF and EOP effectively activated mitochondrial functions by protecting the mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP, mitochondria-mediated protein (BAX and cytochrome c), and caspase 3/7 activities. The EOF and EOP also improved the cholinergic system (acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine). Therefore, we suggest that onion could be used for management of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction.

Effects of Ojeoksangamibang on the Lipid Metabolism, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rat Fed High Fat Diet (오적산가미방(五積散加味方)이 고지방식이 유도 비만쥐의 지질대사, 항산화계 및 전염증성 cytokine 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Park, Won-Hyung;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.23-40
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was designed to examine the effects of extracts of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidation and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and was investigated on hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Male rats weighing $182.39{\pm}4.71g$ were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and 36 rats(above 400 g) were divided into 4 groups. Each of 9 rats was divided a control group and experimental groups. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) extracts(100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of proinflmmatory cytokines, anti-oxidative activity and $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, Apo-E and leptin gene expression. Results: 1. Concentration of plasma free fatty(FFA) showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma triglyceride(TG) showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 2. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma low density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol showed a Significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol showed a significant increment in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group. 3. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. Concentration of liver TG showed a significant decrement in all Ojeoksangamibang groups than that of control group. 4. Concentration of plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. 5. The values of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) activity showed a significant increment in all Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 6. The values of plasma aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity showed no significant different in all treatment group. 7. Concentration of plasma $interleukin(IL)-1{beta}$ showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma IL-6 showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. Concentration of plasma tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}(TNF-{\alpha})$ a siginifant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. However the concentration of plasma IL-10 in the 300 mg/kg Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant increment than that of control group. 9. In the analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), gene expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B and Apo-E in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a lower expression than that of control group. However the gene expression of leptin showed no difference in the treatment groups. 10. The ratio of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, and Apo-E per ${\beta}-actin$ expression in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant decrement than that of control group. However The ratio of leptin expression per ${\beta}-actin$ expression showed no significant difference among all the treatment groups. Conclusions: According to above results, in lowering lipid effect, anti-oxidation and control of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) gives effect.

Studies on Soil Conservation Effects of the Straw-mat Mulchings (I) - Vegetation Establishment and Erosion Control Effects - (볏짚거적덮기공의 사방효과(砂防効果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) - 사면지피조성(斜面地被造成) 및 침식방지(浸蝕防止) 효과(効果) -)

  • Woo, Bo Myong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.67-78
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    • 1971
  • The measures of contour-terracing with sod has been executed as a major measures for hillside erosion control works for a long time in Korea. It is, however, recognized that pair terracings make a new slope-face having the more steeper degree of slope between the upper and the lower terraces on hillsides and it also does not contribute for establishing the natural vegetation-cover by penetration of pioneer seeds on the slope faces or cut-faces of hillsides. The study was therefore conducted in connection with the above problems on the cut-face having slope of $40^{\circ}$ and 1.6 meter in slope length with clay soils. Plot allocation for the experiment consists of 3 kinds of 3 replica plots having each $1.6m^2$ of slope area, i. e., the control plot with direct seeding on slopes only ($T_1$), the covering plot with the straw-mats after seeding on slopes ($T_2$) and the seeding plot after covering with the straw-mats. ($T_3$). The main results obtained may be summarized as follows : 1. Effects of the straw-mat mulchings on surface soil loss control:-The total amount of soil losses from each treatments are measured as 4,651 gr from $T_1$, 163 gr. from $T_2$ and 2,891 gr. from $T_3$ treatment respectively. (Refer to table No. 2, 3 and 4). In short, it is recognized that effect of $T_2$ treatment is compared as 28.5 times than that of $T_1$ treatment and 17.7 times than that of $T_3$ treatment respectively. Effect of $T_3$ treatment compared with $T_1$ treatment is also such recognizable as 1.6 times in control of surface soil losses on a slope face. 2. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on soil moisture content on slopes; -Average per cent of surface soil moisture content by treatments show as 21.60 at the $T_1$, 23.04 at the $T_2$ and 22.21 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively and that of subsurface soil moisture content by treatment show as 23.81 at the $T_1$, 26.16 at the $T_2$ and 24.81 at the $T_3$ treatment respectively. The variance of soil moisture content by treatments was highly significant (Refer table No. 7, 8 and 9). 3. Effect of the straw-mat mulchings on vegetation establishment;-Average numbers of germination by treatments are counted as 237 Nos. at the $T_1$, 246 Nos. at the $T_2$ and 262 Nos. at the $T_3$ treatment plots and the vegetation coverage on ground was almost same as about 90% of covers in all treatments. This effect is more or less lower than that of surface soil erosion control. 4. Regarding the effect on surface soil erosion control, the straw-mat mulchings would be effective as a new measures for control of soil erosion on erosion susceptible lands such slope-faced bare-lands as cut-fill faces, mass-movement faces and bare hillsides.

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