• Title, Summary, Keyword: SOD

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Collaborative Effect of CuZnSOD and Human AP Endonuclease against Oxidative Stress

  • Kim Young Gon
    • Proceedings of the Microbiological Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.47-50
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    • 2004
  • The defenses against free radical damage include specialized repair enzymes that correct oxidative damages in DNA, and detoxification systems such as superoxide dismutases. These defenses may be coordinated genetically as global responses. We hypothesized that the expression of the SOD and the DNA repair genes would inhibit DNA damage under oxidative stress. Therefore, the protection of E. coli mutants deficient in SOD and DNA repair genes $(sod^-\;xth^-\;and\;nfo^-)$ was demonstrated by transforming the mutant strain with a plasmid pYK9 which encoded Photobacterium leiognathi CuZnSOD and human AP endonuclease. The results show that survival rates were increased in $sod^+\;xth^-\;nfo^+$ cells compared to $sod^-\;xth^-\;ap^+,\;sod^-\;xth^-\;ap^-,\;and\;sod^+\;xth^-\;ap^-$ cells under oxidative stress generated from 0.1 mM Paraquat or 3 mM $H_2O_2$. The data suggested that, at least, SOD and DNA repair enzymes may have collaborate protection and repair of the damaged DNA. Additionally, both enzymes are required for protection against free radicals.

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Purification and Characterization of Superoxide Dismutase in Sphingomonas sp. KS 301 (Sphingomonas sp. KS 301의 Superoxide Dismutase 정제 및 특성)

  • Kang, Hee-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Hoon;Choi, Ji-Hye;Son, Seung-Yeol
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2007
  • Sphingomonas sp. KS 301, which was isolated from oil contaminated soil, was shown to have five different SODs (SODI, II, III, IV, V) which can be separated by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, and SOD III was finally purified in this study by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, Superose 12 gel filtration and Uno-Q1 ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of SOD III was 23 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and the apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be approximately 71 kDa by Superose-12 gel filtration chromatography. These data suggest that the purified SOD consists of at least two subunits. The specific activity of the SOD III was higher than Mn type or Fe type SOD of Escherichia coli by 5 fold. To determine the type of SOD III, inhibitory effects of $NaN_{3},\;H_{2}O_{2},\;KCN$ were examined. 10 mM $NaN_{3}$ was able to inhibit 56% of the SOD III activity, which indicates that this SOD is Mn type. The optimum pH of the SOD III was 7.0 and the optimum temperature was $20^{\circ}C$. N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified SOD III was most similar to those of Psudomonase ovalis and Vibrio cholerae among bacteria.

Cloning, DNA Sequence Determination, and Analysis of Growth-Associated Expression of the sodF Gene Coding for Fe- and Zn-Containing Superoxide Dismutase of Streptomyces griseus

  • Kim, Ju-Sim;Lee, Jeong-Kug
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.700-706
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    • 2000
  • Iron- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (FeZnSOD) and nickel-containing superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) are cytoplamic enzymes in Streptomyces griseus. The sodF gene coding for FeZnSOD was cloned from genomic Southern hybridization analysis with a 0.5-kb DNA probe, which was PCR-amplified with facing primers corresponding to the N-terminal amino acid of the purified FeZnSOD of S. griseus and a C-terminal region which is conserved among bacterial FeSODs and MnSODs. The sodF open reading frame (ORF) was comprised of 213 amino acid (22,430 Da), and the deduced sequence of the protein was highly homologous (86% identity) to that of FeZnSOD of Streptomyces coelicolor. The FeZnSOD expression of exponentially growing S. griseus cell was approximately doubled as the cell growth reached the early stationary phase. The growth-associated expression of FeZnSOD was mainly controlled at the transcriptional level, and the regulation was exerted through the 110 bp regulatory DNA upstream from the ATG initiation codon of the sodF gene.

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Functional Characteristics of Cytoplasmic and Periplasmic Photobacterium leiognathi CuZnSOD (PSOD) in Escherichia coli SOD Double Mutants (Escherichia coli SOD 이중 돌연변이체내에서 세포질과 Periplasm에 분포하는 Photobacterium leiognathi CuZnSOD(PSOD)의 기능적 특성)

  • Kim, Young-Gon;Yang, Mi-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 1994
  • Protective effects on subcellular localization of Photobacterium leiognathi CuZnSOD(PSOD) were examined in Escherichia coli SOD mutant cells on the treatment of paraquat, heat shock $(37^{\circ}C{\to}42^{\circ}C{\to})$, hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfatem respectively. The physiological characteristics of the periplasmic and cytoplasmic PSOD localized differently are dependent on the conditions in this experiment. Cells expressing SOD periplasmically in the treatments of paraquat and $H_2O_2$ respectively were somewhat better protective effects cells expressiong SOD cytoplasmically at comparable level and SOD expression level showed, the most consistently important variable. However, this was reversed in the treatments of heat shock and $CuSO_4$, respectively.

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Superoxide Dismutase-like Activity of Apple Juice Mixed with Some Fruits and Vegetables (몇가지 과실, 채소류를 혼합한 사과주스의 SOD 유사활성)

  • Hong, Hee-Do;Kang, Nam-Kil;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1484-1487
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    • 1998
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activities of sixteen kinds of fruits, vegetable juice and commercial concentrates were measured by pyrogallol autoxidation method. The changes in SOD-like activity by heat treatment and the increase in SOD-like activity of apple juice mixed with fruits and vegetables were investigated. SOD-like activity of broccoli juice was 41.7%, the highest value among tested sample. SOD-like activities of strawberry juice, carrot concentrate, kiwi juice, radish juice and apple juice were 30.2, 30.0, 27.6, 26.7, 24.1 and 14.6%, respectively. SOD-like activity was increased generally after heat treatment at $95^{\circ}C$ until 20 min. SOD-like activity of apple juice was increased $20{\sim}35%$ by mixing with 20% of carrot concentrate, kiwi juice, strawberry juice, broccoli juice, respectively and particularly was increased 48% by mixing with 20% of raddish juice.

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Transgenic Tomato Plants That Overexpress Superoxide Dismutase in Fruits (토마토 과실에서 Superoxide Dismutase를 고발현하는 형질전환 식물체)

  • Park, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Haeng-Soon;Kwon, Suk-Yoon;Choi, Kwan-Sam;Kwak, Sang-Soo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2002
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress in plants. We have developed transgenic tomato plants overexpressing a cassava SOD in fruits. Three transgenic tomato plants (one from cv. Pink forcer and two from cv. Koko) using a new vector system, ASOp :: . mSOD1/pBI101, harboring ascorbate oxidase promoter (ASOp) expressing dominantly in cucumber fruits, CuZnSOD cDNA (mSOD1) isolated from cultured cells of cassava, and nptll gene as a selectable marker were successfully developed. SOD specific activity (units/mg protein) in transgenic fruits of both cultivars was increased with maturation of the fruits. SOD specific activity of well-mature fruits in transgenic Pink forcer and Koko showed approximately 1.6 and 2.2 times higher than control fruits, respectively. The strength of SOD isoenzyme bands well reflected the SOD activity during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that SOD gene was properly introduced into tomato fruits in a fruit-dominant expression manner by ASO promoter.

Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase (EC-SOD) Transgenic Mice: Possible Animal Model for Various Skin Changes

  • Kim, Sung-Hyun;Kim, Myoung-Ok;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Ryoo, Zae-Young
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2006
  • We have generated transgenic mice that expressed mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) in their skin. In particular, the expression plasmid DNA containing human keratin K14 promoter was used to direct the keratinocyte-specific transcription of the transgene. To compare intron-dependent and intron-independent gene expression, we constructed two vectors. The vector B, which contains the rabbit -globin intron 2, was not effective for mouse EC-SOD overexpression. The EC-SOD transcript was detected in the skin, as determined by Northern blot analysis. Furthermore, EC-SOD protein was detected in the skin tissue, as demonstrated by Western blot analysis. To evaluate the expression levels of EC-SOD in various tissues, we purified EC-SOD from the skin, lungs, brain, kidneys, livers, and spleen of transgenic mice and measured its activities. EC-SOD activities in the transgenic mice skin were approximately 7 fold higher than in wild-type mice. These results suggest that the mouse overexpressing vector not only induces keratinocyte-specific expression of EC-SOD, but also expresses successfully functional EC-SOD. Thus, these transgenic mice appeared to be useful for the expression of the EC-SOD gene and subsequent analysis of various skin changes, such as erythema, inflamation, photoaging, and skin tumors.

CHIP promotes the degradation of mutant SOD1 by reducing its interaction with VCP and S6/S6' subunits of 26S proteasome

  • Choi, Jin-Sun;Lee, Do-Hee
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2010
  • Previously we showed that CHIP, a co-chaperone of Hsp70 and E3 ubiquitin ligase, can promote the degradation of mutant SOD1 linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) via a mechanism not involving SOD1 ubiquitylation. Here we present evidence that CHIP functions in the interaction of mutant SOD1 with 26S proteasomes. Bag-1, a coupling factor between molecular chaperones and the proteasomes, formed a complex with SOD1 in an hsp70-dependent manner but had no direct effect on the degradation of mutant SOD1. Instead, Bag-1 stimulated interaction between CHIP and the proteasome-associated protein VCP (p97), which do not associate normally. Over-expressed CHIP interfered with the association between mutant SOD1 and VCP. Conversely, the binding of CHIP to mutant SOD1 was inhibited by VCP, implying that the chaperone complex and proteolytic machinery are competing for the common substrates. Finally we observed that mutant SOD1 strongly associated with the 19S complex of proteasomes and CHIP over-expression specifically reduced the interaction between S6/S6' ATPase subunits and mutant SOD1. These results suggest that CHIP, together with ubiquitin-binding proteins such as Bag-1 and VCP, promotes the degradation of mutant SOD1 by facilitating its translocation from ATPase subunits of 19S complex to the 20S core particle.

Induction of Iron Superoxide Dismutase by Paraquat and Iron in Vitreoscilla $C_1$ (Vitreoscilla $C_1$에서 paraquat와 Iron에 의한 Iron Superoxide Dismutase의 유도)

  • 박기인
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.517-521
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    • 2003
  • Superoxide dismutase which is metalloenzyme that decomposes superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Vitreoscilla has FeSOD. Expression of FeSOD to paraquat was largely constitutive. This suggests that the basal level of FeSOD is sufficient to provide protection against superoxide generated during normal aerobic metabolism. Induction of SOD by iron supports that insertion of the active site metal into the corresponding apoprotein. The effect of paraquat on induction by iron seemed that iron brought the synergism effect in SOD activity with paraquat. It suggests that the relief of growth inhibition is due to protection against the lethality of O$_2$afforded by the elevated SOD. There may be control of FeSOD activity posttranslationally. Posttranslation control of enzyme function is particularly feasible for a metalloenzyme, for which conversion of apo- to holoenzyme may be the rate-limiting or regulatory step.

Screening of Korean Medicinal and Food Plants with Antioxidant Activity (한국 약용 및 식용식물들의 항산화성 식물탐색)

  • Chung, Il-Min;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Ahn, Joung-Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 1998
  • Sixty medicinal and food plants native to Korea were mainly selected with old traditional habit and antioxidant activity was investigated. The 80% EtOH extracts of sixty medicinal and food plants were screened for antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was measured by the TBA (Thiobarbituric acid), DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), SOD (superoxide dismutase) which was evaluated by the nitro blue tetrazolium(NBT) reduction method. Among sixty plants, black Glycine max(87. 3%) and Solanum nigrum (80.6%) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity by TBA and DPPH methods, respectively. Also, 10 species extracts including black Glycine max showed the high activity value in these two methods. The SOD characteristics on black Glycine max seed extracts which showed the highest SOD activity (53.5%) exhibited four major SODs; two Cu/ZnSODs and two FeSODs. However, Adenophaora vertidllata which showed lowest SOD value (10.4%) had only Cu/Zn SOD. No varietal differences in the high SOD value were detected in the Cu/Zn SOD isozyme patterns.

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