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The relationship between catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease (가와사키병의 관상동맥 이상과 catechol-O-methyltransferase 유전자의 단일염기다형성)

  • Lee, Hyo Jin;Lee, Myung Sook;Kim, Ji Sook;Kim, Eun Ryoung;Kang, Sung Wook;Kim, Soo Kang;Chung, Joo Ho;Yoon, Kyung Lim;Han, Mi Young;Cha, Seong Ho
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Many gene polymorphisms are associated with coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease. Catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT) plays an important role in the metabolism of catecholamines, catechol estrogen, and catechol drugs. Polymorphisms of the COMT gene are reported to be associated with myocardial infarction and coronary artery abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between COMT gene polymorphisms and coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease patients. Methods : One hundred and one Korean children with Kawasaki disease and 306 healthy Korean control subjects were enrolled in this study. The polymorphisms of the COMT gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results : There were no differences in the genotype and allelic frequency of the rs4680 and rs769224 polymorphic sites between Kawasaki disease and control subjects. Further, no significant difference was found in the rs4680 polymorphism between patients with coronary artery abnormalities and patients without coronary artery abnormalities (codominant P=0.32, dominant P=0.74, recessive P=0.13). However, the distribution of the rs769224 polymorphism was significantly different between patients with coronary artery abnormalities and patients without coronary artery abnormalities (codominant P= 0.0077, dominant P=0.0021, recessive P=0.16). Conclusion : Our results indicate that the polymorphisms of the rs769224 gene might be related to the development of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.

Association Analysis of MUC5AC Promoter Polymorphism with Asthma (MUC5AC 프로모터의 유전자 다형성과 천식과의 연관성)

  • Han, Seon-Sook;Sung, Ji Hyun;Lee, Mi-Eun;Lee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Sung Joon;Kim, Woo Jin
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 2007
  • Background: Airway mucus hypersecretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and is associated with the induction of MUC5AC expression in airway secretion. The MUC5AC gene is highly polymorphic; however, there are few studies about the association between the polymorphisms of the MUC5AC gene and asthma susceptibility or asthma phenotypes. We have investigated the association of MUC5AC promoter polymorphisms with the risk of asthma and asthma phenotypes. Methods: We determined the genotypes of the MUC5AC promoter (-1274G>A) in 78 asthma patients and in 78 age, sex-matched control individuals in the Korean population. Genomic DNAs from blood were analyzed by PCR and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) determination. We examined $FEV_1$, total eosinophil count, serum IgE level, $PC_{20}$ and the presence of atopy (by a skin test) in asthma patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was $47.7{\pm}16.1$ years and 38.5% were men, and the mean $FEV_1$ was $84.4{\pm}22.3%$ of predicted in the asthma patients. The -1274G>A polymorphism of the MUC5AC promoter in asthma patients was not significantly different as compared with normal individuals (GG 57.7%, AG 34.6% and AA 7.7% in asthma patients vs. GG 56.4%, AG 38.5% and AA 5.1% in control subject, p = 0.752, Cod). Several clinical parameters in asthma patients such as $FEV_1$, total eosinophil count, serum IgE level, $PC_{20}$ and the presence of atopy, were not associated with the -1274G>A polymorphism of the MUC5AC promoter. Conclusion: The -1274G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency of the MUC5AC promoter was not associated with asthma in a Korean population.

Comparision of PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, Amplication Refractory Mutation System(ARMS) in Leu72Met Polymorphism of Ghrelin Gene (Ghrelin 유전자의 Leu72Met 다형성 분석에서 PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP, Amplication Refractory Mutation System(ARMS)의 비교분석)

  • Kang, Ju Sung;Kim, Se Rim;Kim, Sun Young;Joo, Chan Uhng;Cho, Soo Chul;Hwang, Pyoung Han
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.10
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    • pp.1068-1075
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The role of ghrelin, which promotes the secretion of growth hormone, was not well known until now. Recently it was found that the mutation of ghrelin gene is related to obesity and diabetes. This study is to find the screening method that can easily and effectively detect the polymorphism of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene of obesity patients and apply it to clinical usage. Methods : We compared PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and ARMS methodologies for analyzing of the polymorphism of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene of obesity children, and also studied the merits and demerits of these methodologies. Results : In this study, we were able to find out the band of peculiar allele of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene using PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and ARMS analyses. The polymorphism of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene determined by all above methodologies was in complete agreement. Compared to the PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP, ARMS analysis is simple, inexpensive and also consume less time. It is very sensitive to analyze the polymorphism and easy to understand the results of test. Conclusion : Though PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and ARMS analyses were sensitive to analyze the polymorphism of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene, ARMS analysis appears to be more efficient than PCR-RFLP and PCR-SSCP. Therefore, we conclude that ARMS analysis is suitable to analyze the polymorphism of Leu72Met in ghrelin gene for large quantity of specimens.

Analysis of Genetic Characteristics and Probability of Individual Discrimination in Korean Indigenous Chicken Brands by Microsatellite Marker (MS 마커를 이용한 토종닭 브랜드의 유전적 특성 및 개체 식별력 분석)

  • Suh, Sangwon;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Kim, Jae-Hwan;Choi, Seong-Bok;Kim, Young-Sin;Kim, Hyun;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Lim, Hyun-Tae;Cho, Jae-Hyeon;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2013
  • Microsatellite markers have been a useful genetic tool in determining diversity, relationships and individual discrimination studies of livestock. The level of genetic diversity, relationships among two Korean indigenous chicken brand populations (Woorimatdag: WR, Hanhyup3: HH) as well as two pure populations (White Leghorn: WL, Rhode Island Red: RIR) were analyzed, based on 26 MS markers. A total of 191 distinct alleles were observed across the four chicken populations, and 47 (24.6%) of these alleles were unique to only one population. The mean $H_{Exp}$ and PIC were estimated as 0.667 and 0.630. Nei's $D_A$ genetic distance and factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) showed that the four populations represented four distinct groups. However, the genetic distance between each Korean indigenous chicken brand (WR, HH) and the pure population (WL, RIR) were threefold that among the WR and HH. For the STRUCTURE analyses, the most appropriate number of clusters for modeling the data was determined to be three. The expected probabilities of identity among genotypes of random individuals (PI) were calculated as $1.17{\times}10^{-49}$ (All 26 markers) and $1.14{\times}10^{-15}$, $7.33{\times}10^{-20}$ (9, 12 with the highest PI value, respectively). The results indicated that the brand chicken breed traceability system employing the own highest PI value 9 to 12 markers, and might be applicable to individual identification of Korean indigenous chicken brand.

Current Status of Cattle Genome Sequencing and Analysis using Next Generation Sequencing (차세대유전체해독 기법을 이용한 소 유전체 해독 연구현황)

  • Choi, Jung-Woo;Chai, Han-Ha;Yu, Dayeong;Lee, Kyung-Tai;Cho, Yong-Min;Lim, Dajeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2015
  • Thanks to recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, diverse livestock species have been dissected at the genome-wide sequence level. As for cattle, there are currently four Korean indigenous breeds registered with the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju Heugu. These native genetic resources were recently whole-genome resequenced using various NGS technologies, providing enormous single nucleotide polymorphism information across the genomes. The NGS application further provided biological such that Korean native cattle are genetically distant from some cattle breeds of European origins. In addition, the NGS technology was successfully applied to detect structural variations, particularly copy number variations that were usually difficult to identify at the genome-wide level with reasonable accuracy. Despite the success, those recent studies also showed an inherent limitation in sequencing only a representative individual of each breed. To elucidate the biological implications of the sequenced data, further confirmatory studies should be followed by sequencing or validating the population of each breed. Because NGS sequencing prices have consistently dropped, various population genomic theories can now be applied to the sequencing data obtained from the population of each breed of interest. There are still few such population studies available for the Korean native cattle breeds, but this situation will soon be improved with the recent initiative for NGS sequencing of diverse native livestock resources, including the Korean native cattle breeds.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Exploring the 5'-Regions of Estrogen Receptor-${\alpha}$ Gene and Association With Reproduction Performance and Milk Yield in Hanwoo and Holstein Dairy Cattle (Estrogen Receptor-${\alpha}$ 유전자 5' 영역의 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism의 탐색과 한우와 Holstein에서 번식능력 및 산유능력과의 관계)

  • Yeom, Gyu-Tae;Jeon, Hyang-A;Park, Hae-Geum;Kim, Young Sin;Kim, Hyun;Kim, Jae Hwan;Seong, Hwan-Hoo;Cho, Young Moo;Cho, Jae-Hyeon;Ko, Yeoung-Gyu
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted for SNPs in the 5'-regions of estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ (ESR-${\alpha}$), and association with calving interval (CI), service per conception (SPC) and 305 days milk yield in Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle. The genetic improvement was incurred low reproduction performance. The objective of this study was to investigate connections between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of Estrogen receptor-${\alpha}$ (ESR-${\alpha}$) with reproduction performance (calving interval, service per conception, and 305 d milk yield) in Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle. Hanwoo and Holstein blood samples were collected from 183 and 124 dam of breeding farms and DNA was extracted. Primer design was based on NCBI GenBank (Accession No. AY340579). The PCR-RFLP method with Bgl I was used to genotype the cattle. The result showed two variants of the ESR-${\alpha}$ gene. The Bgl I cut the 492 bp amplification product into 322 bp and 170 bp fragments for allele G, while allele A remained uncut, resulting in two restriction fragments for homozygote G/G and three fragments for heterozygote A/G. We found two of different genotypes in these breeds, A/G and G/G. In Hanwoo, the A/G genotype frequency was 0.13, and G/G was 0.87. The CI of A/G was $382.18{\pm}10.03$ days, and G/G was $381.69{\pm}5.22$ days. The SPC of A/G was $1.62{\pm}0.16$, and G/G was $1.32{\pm}0.04$. While CI showed no significance difference, SPC exhibited significant difference (p<0.05). In Holstein cattle, the frequency of genotype A/G was 0.02 and G/G was 0.98. The 305 days milk yield of A/G was $7,253.00{\pm}936.00kg$ and of G/G was $8,747.51{\pm}204.88kg$, showing no significant difference.

Association Analysis between (AAT)n Repeats in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene and Schizophrenia in a Korean Population (한국인에서 조현병과 Cannabinoid Receptor 1 유전자의 삼핵산 반복서열의 연합에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Won;Roh, Yang-Ho;Kim, Min-Jea;Kim, Chea-Ri;Park, Byung-Lae;Bae, Joon Seol;Shin, Hyoung Doo;Choi, Ihn-Geun;Han, Sang-Woo;Hwang, Jaeuk;Woo, Sung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2014
  • Objectives Previous studies suggest that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene could be an important candidate gene for schizophrenia. According to linkage studies, this gene is located on chromosome 6q14-q15, which is known to harbor the schizophrenia susceptibility locus (locus 5, SCZ5, OMIM 803175). The pharmacological agent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (${\Delta}$-9-THC) seems to elicit the symptoms of schizophrenia. The association between CNR1 polymorphisms and schizophrenia is actively being investigated, and some studies have linked the AAT-trinucleotide repeats in CNR1 to the onset of schizophrenia. In this study, we have investigated the association between the AAT-trinucleotide repeats in CNR1 and schizophrenia by studying schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals from Korea. Methods DNA was extracted from the blood samples of 394 control subjects and 337 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria). After polymerase chain reaction amplification, a logistic regression analysis, with age and gender as the covariates, was performed to study the variations in the AAT-repeat polymorphisms between the two groups. Results In total, 8 types of trinucleotide repeats were identified, each containing 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 repeats, respectively. $(AAT)_{13}$ allele was most frequently observed, with a frequency of 33.6% and 31.6% in the patient and control groups, respectively. The frequency of the other repeat alleles in the patient group (in the decreasing order) was as follows : $(AAT)_{13}$ 33.6%, $(AAT)_{14}$ 21.6%, $(AAT)_{12}$ 18.5%, and $(AAT)_{7}$ 11.1%. The frequency of the repeat alleles in the control group (in the decreasing order) was as follows : $(AAT)_{13}$ 31.6%, $(AAT)_{14}$ 24.5%, $(AAT)_{12}$ 17.2%, and $(AAT)_{7}$ 11.6%. However, there were no significant differences in the AAT-repeat polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene between the patient group and the control group. Conclusions Although our study revealed no significant association of the AAT-repeat polymorphism of the CNR1 gene with schizophrenia, it will serve as a good reference for future studies designed to examine the cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Association of the RORA Gene Polymorphism and Seasonal Variations in Mood and Behavior (RORA 유전자 다형성과 기분 및 행동의 계절성 변동의 연관성)

  • Kim, Hae-In;So, Soo-Jung;Yang, Hee Jung;Song, Hyun Mi;Moon, Joung Ho;Yoon, Ho-Kyoung;Kang, Seung-Gul;Park, Young-Min;Lee, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Leen;Lee, Heon-Jeong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Several evidence has been suggested that the circadian gene variants contribute to the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder. In this study, we aimed to investigate the polymorphism in RORA (Retinoid-related orphan receptor A) gene in relation to seasonal variations among healthy young adults in Seoul, Korea. Methods: A total of 507 young healthy adult subjects were recruited by advertisement. Seasonal variations were assessed by the Seasonality Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Single-nucleotide polymorphism in the RORA rs11071547 gene was genotyped by PCR in 507 individuals. Considering summer type as confounding factor, we conducted analysis 478 subjects except 29 subjects of summer type. The Chi-square test was conducted to compare differences between groups of seasonals and non-seasonals. Association between genotypes and Global Seasonality Score (GSS) were tested using ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance). Results: In this sample, the prevalence of SAD was 12.1% (winter type 9.3%, summer type 2.8%). There is no significant difference in genotyping distribution of RORA rs11071547 between groups of seasonals and non-seasonals. Global seasonality score (GSS) and scores of all subscales except body weight and appetite were not significantly different between the group with C allele homozygote and the group with T allele homozygote and heterozygote (p-value 0.138). Scores of body weight and appetite were significantly higher in group with C allele homozygotes. Conclusion: These results suggest that RORA gene polymorphism play a role in seasonal variations in appetite and body weight and is associated with susceptibility to seasonal affective disorder in some degree in the population studied.

Association between SNPs on equine chromosomes 3 and body conformation of 12 month of age in Jeju crossbred horses (Jeju crossbred에서 3번 염색체 단일염기변이와 12개월령 체형과의 연관관계)

  • Kim, Nam-Young;Choi, Jung-Woo;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Baek, Kwang-Soo;Son, Jun-Kyu;Shin, Sang-Min;Woo, Jae-Hoon;Park, Seol-Hwa;Hong, Hyun-Jun;Kim, Su-Yeon;Yang, Young-Hoon
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.227-233
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the equine chromosomes (ECA) 3 for the body conformations of 12 month of age in Jeju crossbred (Jeju horses ${\times}$ Thoroughbred). A total of 199 Jeju crossbred horse samples were obtained from the National Institute of Subtropical Livestock Research Institute for this study. To correctly estimate the body conformations, we measured thirteen elements relevant to the body conformation such as body weight, wither height, body length for all the 199 horses at 12 month of age. Furthermore, all the horses were genotyped using four SNPs including the BIEC2-808466, BIEC2-808543, BIEC2-808967, BIEC2-809370, of which genomic coordinates range approximately from 105.1Mbp to 110 Mbp in the ECA3. For the phenotypic data sets, the average body weight was $193.7{\pm}24.5kg$ and the height was $124.5{\pm}4.0cm$. As for the genotypic data, the miner allele frequencies of the SNPs were shown to be varied from 0.01 to 0.291. Using the phenotypic and genotypic data sets, analysis of covariance was performed to find any association between those SNP genotypes and body conformations, using year of birth, month of birth, sex, and parity as the covariance components. The result showed that alternative genotypes in the BIEC2-808967 and BIEC2-809370 SNPs were significantly associated with the body length (P<0.05) and the wither height (P<0.05) respectively in the Jeju crossbred horses. Therefore, it is estimated that there are significant associations in the body conformation of 12 month of age of Jeju crossbred for those two SNPs used in this study.

Current status and prospects of molecular marker development for systematic breeding program in citrus (감귤 분자육종을 위한 분자표지 개발 현황 및 전망)

  • Kim, Ho Bang;Kim, Jae Joon;Oh, Chang Jae;Yun, Su-Hyun;Song, Kwan Jeong
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2016
  • Citrus is an economically important fruit crop widely growing worldwide. However, citrus production largely depends on natural hybrid selection and bud sport mutation. Unique botanical features including long juvenility, polyembryony, and QTL that controls major agronomic traits can hinder the development of superior variety by conventional breeding. Diverse factors including drastic changes of citrus production environment due to global warming and changes in market trends require systematic molecular breeding program for early selection of elite candidates with target traits, sustainable production of high quality fruits, cultivar diversification, and cost-effective breeding. Since the construction of the first genetic linkage map using isozymes, citrus scientists have constructed linkage maps using various DNA-based markers and developed molecular markers related to biotic and abiotic stresses, polyembryony, fruit coloration, seedlessness, male sterility, acidless, morphology, fruit quality, seed number, yield, early fruit setting traits, and QTL mapping on genetic maps. Genes closely related to CTV resistance and flesh color have been cloned. SSR markers for identifying zygotic and nucellar individuals will contribute to cost-effective breeding. The two high quality citrus reference genomes recently released are being efficiently used for genomics-based molecular breeding such as construction of reference linkage/physical maps and comparative genome mapping. In the near future, the development of DNA molecular markers tightly linked to various agronomic traits and the cloning of useful and/or variant genes will be accelerated through comparative genome analysis using citrus core collection and genome-wide approaches such as genotyping-by-sequencing and genome wide association study.