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The Analysis of Insulation Properties with Electron Collision Processes on SF6 Mixture Gases (전자충돌과정을 통한 SF6 혼합기체의 절연특성 분석)

  • So, Soon-Youl
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 2010
  • $SF_6$ gas would be used in power transformer, GIS (Gas insulated switchgear) and so on because of its electrically superior insulation and chemically stable structure. Recently, the reduction of $SF_6$ is required to avoid global warming and the researches on the dilution of $SF_6$ with other gases have been carried out. $SF_6$ mixture gases with $N_2$ and $C_xF_y$ have drawn attention to the synergy effect. However, in order to understand the mechanism of the synergy effect, it is important to analyze and evaluate properties of mixture gases quantitatively. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of synergy effect from electron collision processes and electron energy distribution by solving Boltzmann equation with propagator method. Three kinds of gases for dilution of $SF_6$ ($SF_6/N_2$, $SF_6/CF$4 and $SF_6/C_4F_8$) are considered in this simulation. On the properties of $SF_6/N_2$ mixture gas, the variation of reduced electric field was shown highly within 0%~40% mixtures of $SF_6$. And the more low-level electron energy has been distributed, the higher insulation capability has appeared.

Evaluation of a Prototype SF6 Purification System for Commercialization

  • Seo, Hai-Kyung;Lee, Jeong Eun;Kim, Kwang Sin;Kim, Kyeongsook
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2020
  • Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) uses large amount of SF6, one of the potent greenhouse gases, in electric equipment for electrical insulation. KEPCO is developing SF6 recovery and purification technology to minimize the release of SF6 into the environment, to secure certified emission reduction, and to save purchase cost of new SF6 by reusing the refined SF6. A prototype SF6 purification system using cryogenic solidification technology has been built in demonstration scale. To evaluate the feasibility of the commercialization, the system has been operated to purify large amount of used SF6 in a long-term operation and the performance has been economically evaluated. The system was stable enough for commercial operation such that it was able to purify 5.4 tons of used SF6 from power transmission equipment in 2-month operation. Over 99% of the SF6 was recovered from the used gas and the purity of the purified gas was over 99.7 vol%. The operation cost, which is the cost of refrigerant (liquid nitrogen), electricity and labor, per kilogram of purified SF6 was 6,526 KRW. Considering the price of new SF6 in Korea is about 15,000 KRW per kilogram this year, about 56% of the purchase cost can be saved.

Recovery of $SF_6$ from Gas Mixtures with Low Concentration of $SF_6$ (저농도 $SF_6$ 기체혼합물로부터 $SF_6$의 회수)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Choi, Ho-Sang;Lee, Sang-Hyup
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2011
  • This study describes the performance of PSF and PC membranes for separation and recovery of $SF_6$ from gas mixtures (10% $SF_6$/70% $N_2$/19% $O_2$/1% $CF_4$) containing low concentration of $SF_6$. The $SF_6$ concentration in retentate, recovery efficiency and selectivity of mixed gases were measured as a function of retentate flow rate and temperature. The concentration of $SF_6$ in the gas recovered from PSF and PC membrane respectively decreased with increase of retentate flow rate and increased with increase of temperature. The values of $SF_6$ concentration in retentate of PSF membrane were higher than those of PC membrane at constant experimental conditions. The maximum value of recovery efficiency of PSF and PC membranes are 95.9% and 67.8%, respectively, under 298.15 K and 150 cc/min of retentate flow rate. With the exception of $CF_4/SF_6$, the real selectivities of $N_2/SF_6$ and $O_2/SF_6$ at PSF membrane were higher than those of PC membrane.

Physical Properties of Silk Fibroin Films Treated with Various Plasticizers

  • Ma, Yu-Hyun;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 2005
  • Silk fibroin (SF) films were prepared using various plasticizers and their physical properties were determined. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-SF and polypropylene glycol (PPG)-SF films had tensile strengths (TS) of 23.71 MPa and 24.51 MPa, respectively, whereas the glycerol (G)-SF film had the lowest TS of 14.24 MPa. G-SF film had the highest $\%$ elongation, compared to PPG-SF and PEG-SF films. Water vapor permeability (WVP) of SF films varied with addition of plasticizers, and PEG-SF film had the lowest WVP. There was no significant difference in Hunter L value among treatments, but PEG-SF film had higher Hunter a and b values. These results suggest that SF film could be applied to food packaging and that the addition of plasticizers should improve the physical properties of SF film.

Use of Duckweed as a Protein Supplement for Breeding Ducks

  • Men, Bui Xuan;Ogle, Brian;Lindberg, Jan Erik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.866-871
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    • 2002
  • An experiment was conducted at the experimental duck farm of Cantho University to determine the effects of feeding duckweed (Lemna minor) that replaced commercial protein supplements in diets for local and Cherry Valley breeding ducks. The experiment included a total of 180 ducks, with five treatments and three replicates and six breeding ducks (one male plus five females together) per replicate, for both local and exotic Cherry Valley ducks. The five diets were fed ad libitum and were based on rice byproducts supplemented with roasted soya bean meal plus dried fishmeal at levels of 100% (SF100, control), 75 (SF75), 50 (SF50), 25 (SF25) or zero (SF0) % of the protein in the control diet, corresponding to 18, 15, 13, 10 and 8% CP in the diets for both breeds, respectively. Fresh duckweed was supplied ad libitum for all treatments. These diets were fed to local breeding ducks from 7 to 12 months of age, and to exotic breeding ducks (Cherry Valley) from 8 to 13 months of age. Total mean daily dry matter (DM) intakes were 183, 178, 176, 177 and 174 g (p<0.05) for the local ducks, and 221, 208, 215, 219 and 210 g (p<0.01) for the exotic ducks for the SF100 (control), SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 diets, respectively. Laying rates of the local ducks were 66.5, 65.2, 62.9, 63.1 and 62.3%, and of the Cherry Valley ducks 61.9, 58.4, 58.9, 59.1 and 53.5% (p<0.001) for the control (SF100), SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 treatments, respectively. Fertile egg rates were 95.6, 95.6, 97.8, 97.8 and 92.2%, and hatchabilities 89.4, 80.6, 87.2, 88.6 and 77.8% (p<0.05) for the local breed, and 97.8, 97.8, 91.1, 92.2 and 90.0% (p<0.05) and 72.8, 74.7, 75.0, 74.3 and 76.7% for the Cherry Valley ducks for diets SF100, SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0, respectively. Corresponding feed conversion ratios (dry matter basis) were 3.83, 3.82, 3.89, 4.01 and 3.96 kg feed per kg egg mass for the local ducks and 4.52, 4.56, 4.58, 4.73 and 5.02 kg feed per kg egg mass for the Cherry Valley ducks for the SF100, SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 treatments, respectively. Replacement of 100% of the protein supplement by fresh duckweed in the diets of the local laying ducks decreased the feed costs by 25% compared to the control diet.

Effect of Dietary Streptococcus faecium on the Performances and the Changes of Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (Streptococcus faecium의 급여가 육계의 성장과 장내 세균총 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, K.S.;Chee, K.M.;Lee, S.J.;Cho, S.K.;Kim, S.S.;Lee, W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.97-119
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    • 1991
  • Effect of Streptococcus faecium(SF) and an antibiotic, Colistin(Col), supplemented to diets singly or in combination, on the performances and changes of intestinal population of microflora of broiler chicks studied. A total of 252, day-old chicks(Arbor Acre) of mixed sex(M:F=1:1) were alloted into six groups. A diet with no Col and SF was referred as a control diet. The basal diets were added with two levels of SF, 0.04 and 0.08%, singly or in combination with Col 10ppm Another diet was prepared by adding only Col 10 ppm. Numbers of the microorganism in diets added with SF 0.04% and 0.08% were 7$\times$10$^{4}$ and 1.4$\times$10$^{5}$ /g diet respectively The diets consisting of corn and soybean meal as major ingredients were fed for a period of seven weeks . During the feeding trial, fresh excreta were sampled at the end of every week in a sterilized condition to count microbial changes from each dietary group. Microbial changes of large intestine were also measured from nine birds sacrificed at the end of the 4th and 7th weeks each time per dietary group. Excreta from all the groups were also collected quantitatively at the end of 3rd and 6th weeks to measure digestibility of the diets, At the end of 7th week, nine birds from each group were also sacrificed to measure weight changes of gastrointestinal tracts . Average body weight gains of broilers fed the diets added with SF 0.08% (2.37kg) or SF 0. 08%+col 10ppm(2.34kg) were significantly larger than that of the control(2.18kg). The weight gains of the other groups were not statistically different from that of the control Feed/gain ratios of the supplemental groups were better than that of control (P<0.05) except that of birds fed the diet added only with SF 0.04%. Digestibilities of nutrients such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and total carbohydrates were not altered by the consumption of the diets added with SF and/or Col throughout the whole feeding period. As expected, the numbers of Streptococci in the excreta from birds fed diets added with SF increased significantly with a statistical difference between groups with SF 0.04% and SF 0.08% most of the time. However. addition of Colistin to the diets supplemented with SF did not give any effects on the number of the microorganism. Numbers of coliforms in the excreta were apparently reduced by feeding the diets added with SF and/or Col(P<0.05). There were, however, no additive effects observed between the two feed additives in this regard when supplementing Col to the SF diets. Distributions of intestinal microflora exhibited exactly the same pattern as those of the excreta. Length of small intestine of the birds fed diets added with SF 0.08% with or without Col 10 ppm became significantly longer with a range of about 10% than those of the birds fed diets without SF. However, the empty weight of the small inestine of the former group was lighter than that of control These changes resulted in a significant reduction in weight/unit length of the intestine of the birds fed diets supplemented with Col and SF singly or in combination. In overall conclusion, diet added with SF 0.08% appeared most effective in improving broiler performances. Colistin added at a level of 10ppm was not beneficial at all in itself or in combination with SF in terms of broiler performances or changes of intestinal microflora population. The efficacy of SF and Col could be attributed to the changes of wall thickness of the small intestine.

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V-t Characteristics and 50% Flash-over Voltage of $SF_{6}-N_{2}$ Mixtures for Lightening Impulse Voltage ($SF_{6}-N_{2}$ 혼합가스에서 뇌충격전압에 의한 50[50%] Flash over 전압 및 V-t 특성)

  • 김정달;송원표;김동의
    • The Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 1993
  • In this paper, we studied the 50% flashover voltage of lightening impulse which affect the most serious damages on the insulation of the electric power network system. Also its V -t characteristics and corona process phenomena of pure $SF_6, N_2, SF_6-N_2$mixtures under the circumstances of nonuniform field gap are researched. Comparing the characteristics of pure $SF_6$ with that of $SF_6, N_2$mixtures, we discussed that breakdown processes and $SF_6, N_2$ mixture's application to economics.As a results, 50% flashover voltage of $SF_6$ 50% - $N_2$ 50% for impulse voltage is higher then that of 80% of pure SF6, measured data and calculated data by equal area law are almost equal from the points of view of V-t characteristics. Therefore, it has been known that $SF_6$ 50% - $N_2$ 50% mixtures can be used as an economic constitution gas of pure $SF_6$, it is verified that corona processes from Lichtenberg figure.

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Trends and Characteristics in SF6 Emission Reduction Technology of Electrical Equipment (전력설비에서의 SF6 저감기술 동향 및 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Yeah-Won;Kim, Jeong-Man;Park, Sang-Hyuk;Lee, Moon-Gu
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.269-278
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    • 2013
  • Sulfur hexafloride($SF_6$) emission to atmosphere is lower than $CO_2$, but $SF_6$ GWP is 22,800 times lager than $CO_2$. In recent years as restriction of $non-CO_2$ gas has been greatly reinforced, development of environment-friendly technology with $SF_6$ removal is becoming to main issue. This study shows that $SF_6$ used insulator electrical equipment has emission characteristics during the each phase(maintenance, use, diposal), and analyzed $SF_6$ emission reduction technology related phase. The major technology applies maintenance and disposal step is that improvment of gas recovery rate($85{\rightarrow}99%$), manufacturing catalysts, internal inspection of circuit breaker using endoscopy. Using those technolgies can reduce $SF_6$ emission in atmosphere.

Separation of $SF_6$ from $SF_6/N_2$ Mixtures Using Polymeric Membranes (고분자 분리막을 이용하여 $SF_6/N_2$ 혼합 기체에서 $SF_6$ 분리)

  • Ko, Young-deok;Lee, Hyung-Keun;Hong, Seong-Uk
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.72-76
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    • 2012
  • $SF_6$ has an extremely high global worming potential (GWP). Therefore, there has been an effort to reduce the use of $SF_6$ and its emission into atmosphere. One possible solution for minimizing the use of $SF_6$ in electrical equipments is utilization of gas mixtures such as $SF_6/N_2$. The $SF_6$ concentration in the gas mixture varies from 10 to 60%. However, when the apparatus is repaired or dismantled, we have to recover $SF_6$ from the gas mixture. Since the boiling point of $SF_6$is low (${\sim}-60^{\circ}C$), the liquefaction method is difficult to apply. One possible alternative is the membrane separation technology. In this study, we investigated the $SF_6$ and $N_2$ permeation properties of 5 polymeric membranes. For example, permeability of $N_2$ in BOPP membrane at $25^{\circ}C$was 0.19 barrer, whereas that of $SF_6$ was only 0.0012 barrer, resulting in the selectivity of 158. An upper bound for $SF_6/N_2$ gas pair was suggested for the first time with n = -1.33 and k = 160 (barrer).

Insulation Characteristics of $SF_6/N_2$ and $SF_6/N_2/Co_2$ Mixture Gases in Non-Uniform Fields (불평등전계하에서의 $SF_6/N_2$$SF_6/N_2/Co_2$ 혼합가스의 절연 특성)

  • Park, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Tae;Heo, Guk-Bum;Seo, Ho-Joon;Rhie, Dong-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.470-471
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    • 2007
  • 환경친화적 가스절연기기의 개발을 위해 $SF_6/N_2$와 완충기체와의 혼합가스에 관한 연구가 주목받고 있다. 본 논문에서는 GIS 설계에 있어 기초가 되는 준평등전계 하에서의 가스 절연특성을 검토하기 위하여 순 SF6, N2, CO2 이들이 혼합된 2종 및 3종 혼합가스에 대해 가스압력 0.6MPa 이하에서 상용교류전압을 인가하여 실험에 의해 그 부분방전특성과 절연특성을 조사하였다. 특히 실용 전력기기의 경우 금속이물질 등의 혼입에 의해 기기 내에서 불평동전계가 형성되어 부분방전을 거쳐 절연파괴에 이르는 가능성이 있으므로 본 연구에서는 불평등전계하의 절연특성을 검토하였다. 실험 결과 SF6/N2 2종 혼합 가스에 비하여 SF6/N2/CO2 3종 혼합 가스의 교류 절연 특성이 향상됨을 확인하였으며 이상의 결과로부터 교류 절연 파괴 특성만을 고려하였을 경우 SF6/N2/CO2 3종 혼합 가스가 SF6 대체 혼합가스로써 타당성을 확인하였다.

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