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Effect of Seeding Date and Fall Harvest Method on the Growth Charateristics , Forage Yield and Quality of Winter Rye (파종시기 및 가을 수확방법이 추파호밀의 생육특성 , 사초수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 김종덕;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of seeding date and fall harvest method on the growth characteristics, forage yield and quality of winter rye(Seca1e cereale L.) at the forage experimental field, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, SNU, Suweon from 5 September 1992 to 21 May 1993. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Main plots consisted of three harvests, no defoliation, cutting and grazing. Sub-plots consisted of seeding dates, early(5 September), mid(25 September) and late(l0 October). The results obtained are summari7d as follows; I . A 3-day difference in the first heading of rye was observed between no defoliation and fall grazing, while there was a 6day difference between early and late seeding dates. Therefore, the effect of seeding dates on the fist heading date of rye was larger than that of fall harvest methods. 2. CP content of rye with fall grazing was slightly higher averaged 16.5% compared with both fall cutting and no defoliated 1ye(15.6%). Mean CP content of rye at the early, mid and late seeding dates was 14.2, 14.5 and 19.1 %, respectively. 3. ADF content of rye was slightly higher with both fall cutting(29.99) and no defoliation(29.5%) than that of fall grazing(28.0%). ADF content of rye at the early, mid and late seeding dates was 30.7, 29.1 and 27.7%, respectively. Effect of fall harvest methods and seeding dates on NDF content of rye were similar to the observations made on ADF. 4. RFV and IVDMD of rye were lower with both no defoliation and fall cutting than fall grazing. but those of rye slightly increased with seeding dates progressed. 5. Dry matter yield of rye was the highest of 6,779 kg/ha with fall cutting, while the lowest yield of 6,240 kg/ha was obtained from no defoliation But no significant difference was found among the harvest methods. Dry matter yield of rye was significantly declined with later seedings. It is concluded that the highest forage yield of rye be possible from two harvest systems of fall and spring with earlier seeding rather than from one harvest system of spring.

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Effects of Vegetative Buffers on Reducing Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss of Highland Field in Korea (고랭지밭의 토양침식 저감을 위한 완충식생대의 효과)

  • Jin, Yong-Ik;Lee, Jeong-Tae;Lee, Gye-Jun;Hwang, Seon-Woong;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Park, Chang-Young;Seo, Myung-Chul;Ryu, Jong-Soo;Jeong, Jin-Cheol;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vegetative buffer to reduce runoff and soil and nutrient loss at highland agricultural area. The soil of experimental field was classified as Ungyo series (Fine, Humic Hapludults). An area of each field with lysimeter was $50m^2(width\;2.5m{\times}length\;20m)$ and was a gradient of 17%. Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) was cultivated by general management in each field. For establishing vegetative buffer, rye (Secalecereale L.), tall fescue (Festucaarundinacea Schreb) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were planted at the edge of field. Rye buffers were 1m, 2m and 4m wide. Both orchard grass and tall fescue buffers were 2m wide. Vegetative buffers were set up in September 2005 and chinese cabbage was planted in June 2006. Soil loss, runoff and nutrient loss were measured from June to August in 2006. Since the precipitation amount was heavy in July, amounts of runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss were the highest in July during this study period. In comparison with control, vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m reduced runoff by 3%, 1% and 2%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, rye 1m, rye 2m, and rye 4m reduced by 1%, 4% and 13%, respectively. Vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m showed the reducing of soil loss by 59%, 46% and 28%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, the highest reducing effect of 88% was observed in 4m treatment. Additionally, vegetative buffer reduced N, P and K losses in runoff and eroded soil which were 10 to 54%, 7 to 24% and 11 to 21%, respectively. In different widths, wider vegetative buffer showed lower loss of N, P and K in runoff and eroded soil. As a result of this study, the vegetative buffer of rye was most effective for reducing runoff and soil loss in comparisons with other plants. In addition, wider range of buffers recommended for reducing runoff and soil loss, if possible.

Effects of Incorporation of Green Manure Crops on the Growth of Watermelonand Soil Nitrate Nitrogen Concentration (풋거름작물의 토양환원이 수박의 생육 및 토양의 질산염 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Tae-Jun;Park, Jin-Myeon;Le, Seong-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.28-33
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the effects of soil incorporation of hairy vetch (HV) or ryeas a green manure on the growth and yields of watermelon and soil nitrate nitrogen in a green house.. METHODS AND RESULTS: HV and rye were cultivated for 151 days after sowing on October 30th and incorporated into soil before transplanting watermelon. The amount of N added by soil incorporation of HV and rye were 79 kg/ha and 88 kg/ha, respectively. Five different N treatments for each of HV and rye were included as follows: green manure, green manure with urea at 25%, 50%or 75%, and 100% ureafor the N recommendation rate. The growth and fruit yield of watermelon were not different among the treatments of both HV and rye. Soil nitrate N content at both HV and rye treatments decreased continuously with the lapse of days after planting (DAP) and was lowest at 75 DAP: 44 mg/kg and 52 mg/kg the for the HV and rye treatment without urea, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the N mineralized from the soil incorporated HV or rye accounts for an important portion of N available for the growth and fruit yield of watermelon. It can be suggested that the green manures, comparable to ureacould ensure the yield of watermelon, if soil nitrate N content isabove 40 mg/kg by soil incorporation of HV and rye during watermelon cultivation. However, further studies on the relationship between soil nitrate N content during cultivation periods and the fruit yield of watermelon are required.

Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide efflux of cropland soil during fallow season (휴경기간 녹비재배 농경지 토양에서 아산화질소 및 이산화탄소 배출특성)

  • Lee, Sun-Il;Kim, Gun-Yeob;Choi, Eun-Jung;Lee, Jong-Sik;Jeong, Hyun-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.386-396
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    • 2018
  • Cropland is sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide ($N_2O$) and carbon dioxide ($CO_2$). However, the contribution of the fallow season to emission of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, a field experiment encompassing three treatments was conducted to determine efflux of $N_2O$ and $CO_2$ in cropland during fallow season. The treatments were hairy vetch (H.V.), rye and control (Con.). The H.V. and rye were sown in middle October and early November, respectively. The soil $N_2O$ efflux among all three treatments in the fallow season (November-April) were $0.014-2.956mg\;N_2O\;m^{-2}{\cdot}d^{-1}$. The cumulative $N_2O$ emissions were $104.4mg\;N_2O\;m^{-2}$ for Con., $85.8mg\;N_2O\;m^{-2}$ for H.V. and $85.0mg\;N_2O\;m^{-2}$ for Rye during the fallow season. The highest $N_2O$ emissions occurred in Con., while H.V. and Rye emissions were similar. Cumulative $CO_2$ emissions were $293.1g\;CO_2\;m^{-2}$ for Con., $242.2g\;CO_2\;m^{-2}$ for H.V., $275.2g\;CO_2\;m^{-2}$ for Rye during fallow season. This study showed that soil $N_2O$ and $CO_2$ average daily emission during fallow season were 28.3% and 27.4%, respectively of the growing season. Our results indicate that $CO_2$ and $N_2O$ emissions from agricultural systems continue throughout the fallow season.

Effect of Seeding Method and Mixing Ratio on the Quality and Productivity of Rye-Hairy Vetch Mixture (파종방법 및 혼파비율이 호밀-헤어리베치 혼파시 사료가치 및 생산성 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, J.G.;Yoon, S.H.;Chung, E.S.;Lim, Y.C.;Seo, S.;Seo, J.H.;Kim, S.J.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2002
  • Hairy vetch(Vicia villosa Roth) which is legume fur winter cover crop can supply nitrogen for companion crop and soil. The purpose of this study was to improve the forage quality and productivity using forage crop and hairy vetch in winter season fer three years. The results of this experiments were summarized as follows. Plant height of rye was decreased but hairy vetch was increased. The heading stage of rye did not show difference among the treatments. The content of dry mater(DM) was decreased with increased ratio of hairy vetch/rye but it did not show significant difference between seeding methods. Crude protein(CP) content tended to increase in mixture plots. Acid detergent fiber(ADF) and NDF(neutral detergent fiber) content of mixture plots were lower than that of rye mono-cultivated. In vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) and TDN(total digestible nutrient) content were showed inverted tendency. The highest DM yield was in rye mono-cultivated, but it was similar between mono-cultivated and mixture I (P<0.05). In the CP yield, it did not show the significant difference between rye mono-culture and mixture I . The content of total nitrogen in soil showed slight increase as 0.06∼0.08%. Conclusively, mixture I showed equal or superior productivity and quality comparing with rye mono-cultivated, mixture I would be recommended to produce higher yield and to conserve soil environment.

Effects of Maturity at Harvest and Wilting Days on Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage

  • Kim, J.G.;Chung, E.S.;Seo, S.;Ham, J.S.;Kang, W.S.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1233-1237
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    • 2001
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of maturity at harvest and wilting days on the quality of round baled rye (Secale cereale L.) silage. This study was a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement in a split plot design with 3 replicates. The main plot was 3 harvesting dates at the stage of boot (20 Apr.), heading (29 Apr.) and flowering (14 May). The subplot was wilting day : 0 (unwilted), 0.5 and 1 day (0, 1, and 2 days at boot stage). Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of rye silage were significantly greater than those of rye before ensiling, but crude protein (CP) content and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were vice versa. Buffering capacity (BC) of rye harvested at flowering stage was decreased from 264 to 202 meq/kg at 1 day wilting, however, it was increased when harvested at boot or heading stage. The pH in wilted silage was the highest while that of flowering stage was the lowest. Water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of wilting rye was lower than that of unwilted, and the lowest at late harvesting stage. All plots had minimal WSC content for silage fermentation. Wilting treatment and delayed harvesting date caused an increase in dry matter (DM) content of round bale silage. The content of ammonia-N expressed as a portion of total N showed negative correlation with DM content. High quality silage according to ammonia-N content could be obtained from mid-harvest with wilting. There were highly significant differences in each organic acid between harvesting dates and wilting periods. Acetic and butyric acid contents were increased with delayed harvesting and prolonged wilting period, the lactic acid content, however, was decreased. This study demonstrated that harvest of rye from heading to flowering stage with wilting would be a recommendable method for making high quality rye silage using round bale system.

Weed Occurrence as Influenced by Living Mulch, Soil Incorporation and Cutting Treatment of Rye in Organic Soybean Field (호밀 리빙멀치, 토양환원, 예취처리가 유기농 콩밭 잡초 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Byung-Mo;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Oh, Young-Ju;Lee, Sang-Bum;Kang, Chung-Kil;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Lee, Jong-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.164-170
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    • 2010
  • In organic agriculture, cover crops are used for weed control. Cover crops inhibited weed germination or growth by allelopathy or shading effects. In this study, we used rye as cover crop to control weed in organic soybean field. The main treatment was rye using method such as living mulch, incorporating and mowing. Sub-treatment was rye planting density and soybean planting density. One month after soybean sowing, weed emergency and growth had been highly suppressed by rye in all treatments. Living mulch treatment was the best effective way to control the weed about 92%, and mowing treatment was the second about 75% compare to control. The weed control efficiency between rye planting densities was similar during one month. Soybean planting density treatment was same result as rye planting density. As a result of this experiment, we recommend rye as living mulch in one row planting.

Effect of Seed Blending Rates Between Rye and Barley on Forage Production and Quality in Daejon Area (대전지역에서 호밀과 보리의 파종비율이 건물수량 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, In-Duk;Lee, Hyung-Suk;Shin, Yeun-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.289-294
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was conducted at college of Agriculture and Life Science in Chungnam National University from September, 2004 to June, 2007 in order to evaluate the mixture possibility between barley and rye in the area of Daejeon. Rye (cultivar; Koolgrazer) and barley (cultivar; Daeyeon Bori) were set for the experiment. The experiment was arranged in four treatments: R100 (rye 100%), R60 + B40(rye 60% + barley 40%), R50% + B50% (rye 50% + barley 50%), and R40% + B60% (rye 40% + barley 60%). The experiment was repeated three times in the randomized complete block. The average dry matter (DM) yield for three years of R100 weighed 9,282 kg and its DM yield was higher than any other DM yield. The higher the barley seed rates are, the lower the DM yield is (p<0.05). As the barley seed rates increased 40%, 50%, and 60% respectively, its vegetative percentage tended to increase 30%, 41%, and 47%, but the barley vegetative percentage against its seed rates did bring forth somewhat low results. Compared with R100, the contents of crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) got higher as the barley seed rates became higher, while the contents of NDF, ADF, cellulose, and lignin were lower (p<0.05). Compared with R100, the yields of crude protein dry matter (CPDM) and digestible dry matter (DDM) showed lower in the any mixed barley (p<0.05). Thus, in case of using barley mixed with rye in the area of Daejeon, it seems to be quite difficult, unless the supply of high-productive barley variety is followed, to enhance the yields of DM, CPDM, and DDM.

Effect of the Double Cropping at High Altitude Area Which was Cultivated Suitable Forage Crop (고랭지에 적합한 사료작물 2모작 작부체계에 관한 연구)

  • 한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to increase the utility and productivity of forage crops at high altitued areas. For that purpose, 21 cultivars of corn and 2 cultivars of rye were cultivated for 3 years using a randomized block designed with 3 replications. The results obtained were as follows. 1. In the Taekwallyong area (800m above sea level) which has a short frostless period, all the seeding and harvest of corn must be finished within about 135 days between mid May, the time of the last frost, and late September, the time of the first frost 2. It was relatively safe for the early maturity cultivar(ll0days) and the medium maturity cultivar(l20days), compared to the late maturity cultivar(l30days) which might have had the possibility of an overlapping period between the time of harvest and the first frost in high altitude areas 3. The productivity of forage corn, which is the most efficient crop for capturing solar energy, varied significantly with the climate circumstances but the productivity of Taekwallyong showed similar results of 19 M/T/ha, compared with 20 M/T/ha in Suwon from the '96-'98 study 4. Rye could be cultivated in high altitude areas and when corn was raised as a second crop after rye in the same year, it was possible to increase the productivity of dry matter yield by 20% through double cropping(P < 0.05). (Key words : Cropping system, Corn, Rye, Forage production)

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Development of tetraploid rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivar in Korea

  • Ku, Ja Hwan;Han, Ouk Kyu;Ahn, Jong Woong;Kweon, Soon Jong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.75-75
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    • 2017
  • Rye is cultivated on about 30,000ha domestically for forage and green-manure production in Korea. 'Daegokgreen' has been developed as a good quality rye cultivar for forage and green-manure, which was doubled-chromosome by colchicine treatment of diploid rye cultivar 'Gogu' in 2010. By the colchicine treatment with 0.05% for 12 hours at $2^{nd}$ leaf stage of 'Gogu', 31 tetraploid plants were obtained and they produced 2,470 seeds with 135 spikes. There was 4.4 in the number of spikes per plant, 18.3 in grain number per spike, and 37.6 g in the1,000-grain weight. The heading date of 'Daegokgreen' was April 11, which was two days later on average compared with 'Gogu'. The biomass (fresh weight) of 'Daegokgreen' was 3,701kg, which was similar to 'Gogu'. The average crude protein content of 'Daegokgreen' was 8.9%, which was 1.0% point higher than 'Gogu'. 'Daegokgreen' was found to be strong resistant to winter-kill and can be adapted to before maize cultivation.

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