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Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Flat Sediment, Muan, Chonnam, Korea (전남 무안 갯벌 퇴적물에 관한 광물학적 및 생지화학적 연구)

  • Park, Byung-No;Lee, Je-Hyun;Oh, Jong-Min;Lee, Seuug-Hee;Han, Ji-Hee;Kim, Yu-Mi;Seo, Hyun-Hee;Roh, Yul
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2007
  • While sedimentological researches on Western coastal tidal flats of Korea have been much pelformed previously, mineralogical and biogeochemical studies are beginning to be studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate mineralogical characteritics of the inter-tidal flat sediments and to explore phase transformation of iron(oxyhydr)oxides and biomineralization by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from the inter-tidal flat sediments from Muan, Jeollanam-do, Korea. Inter-tidal flat sediment samples were collected in Chungkye-myun and Haeje-myun, Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do. Particle size analyses were performed using the pipette method and sedimentation method. The separates including sand, silt and clay fractions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffiaction (XRD). After enriching the metal-.educing bacteria from the into,-tidal flat sediments, the bacteria were used to study phase transformation of the synthesized iron (oxyhydr)oxides and iron biomineralization using lactate or glucose as the electron donors and Fe(III)-containing iron oxides as the electron accepters. Mineralogical studies showed that the sediments of tidal flats in Chung]rye-myun and Haeje-myun consist of quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, kaolinite and illite. Biogeochemical researches showed that the metal-reducing bacteria enriched from the inter-tidal flat sediments reduced reddish brown akaganeite and mineralized nanometer-sized black magnetite. The bacteria also reduced the reddish brown ferrihydrite into black amorphous phases and reduced the yellowish goethite into greenish with formation of nm-sized phases. These results indicate that microbial Fe(III) reduction may play one of important roles in iron and carbon biogeochemistry as well as iron biomineralization in subsurface environments.

Relationships between Eating Behavior, Dietary Self-Efficacy, and Nutrition Knowledge of Elementary School Students by Food Service Type in Gangwon Province (강원지역 초등학생들의 급식유형(도시형, 농어촌형 및 도서벽지형) 별식행동과 식이자기효능감 및 영양지식과의 관계)

  • Won, Hyang-Rye;Shin, Gi-Beum
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.638-646
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to find a relationship between eating behavior, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge by comparing these items in elementary school students according to food service type. The survey was made through a questionnaire from 759 students in the 6th grade of elementary school in 39 Gangwon Province. The average score of eating behaviors according to food service type was highest for urban type, followed by agri-fishery type, and finally remote island and country type, for the questions asking about the application of nutrition knowledge and the frequency of eating out. The average score of nutrition knowledge according to food service type showed significant differences for the questions about eating snacks before going to sleep and weight increase as well as calorie comparisons between foods. For the correlation of eating behavior, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge, the agri-fishery type showed positive in all of the three items with significant differences. In the remote island and country type, there was a positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary self-efficacy, and between eating behavior and dietary self-efficacy. However, there was no significant difference of correlation between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior. In order to confirm the predictable variables for eating behavior, a regression analysis was made by injecting variables in every stage with independent variables of dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge, which showed a significant relationship with eating behavior. The results showed that, in the urban type, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge affected the eating behavior and, in the agriculture type and the remote island and country type, only dietary self-efficacy affected the eating behavior.