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Effects of Halogenated Compounds on in vitro Fermentation Characteristics in the Rumen and Methane Emissions (할로겐 화합물의 첨가가 반추위 발효성상과 메탄생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hee-Soon;Ok, Ji-Un;Lee, Shin-Ja;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1187-1193
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of halogenated compounds on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and methane emissions. A fistulated Holstein cow of 650 kg body weight was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Five kinds of halogenated compounds (bromochloromethane (BCM), 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), 3-bromopropanesulfonic acid (BPS), chloroform (CLF), and pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) known to inhibit methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. The microbial population including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi were enumerated, and gas production including methane and fermentation characteristics were observed in vitro. The pH values ranged from 6.25 to 6.72 in all the treatments, and these showed a similar level at 48 hr. The total gas production in the treatments showed a similar pattern with C at 48 hr, whereas methane production in the treatments was lower (p<0.05) than C. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionic acid were higher (p<0.05) in the treatments than in C at 12 hr. Therefore, halogenated compounds (BCM, BES, BPS, CLF, and PMDI) inhibited in vitro methane emissions by inhibiting methanogens in the rumen. Further studies on safety are needed.

Hypoglycemic Effect of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Yacon) Extracts on Animals with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes (야콘 추출물이 Streptozotocin으로 유도된 당뇨 동물모델에서 혈당강하에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Hong-Geun;Kang, Young-Rye;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Moon, Dea-In;Seo, Min-Young;Park, Sang-Hoon;Choi, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Chang-Ryong;Kim, Sang-Hyun;Oh, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Young;Kim, Min-Gul;Chae, Soo-Wan;Kim, Ok-Jin;Lee, Hak-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.759-765
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to investigate improvements in diabetes mellitus by extracts of yacon in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fifty rats were divided into a normal group and four experimental groups. STZ (45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to induce type I diabetes in the four experimental groups. Yacon extracts were administered for 5 weeks. Forty-five ICR mice were also divided into one positive control group and four experimental groups for the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after fed yacon extract. The control group did not eat any yacon extracts, while Group 1 (GI) was fed 125 mg/kg of yacon extracts, Group 2 (GII) was fed 250 mg/kg of yacon extracts, and Group 3 (GIII) was fed 500 mg/kg of yacon extracts. After treatment for 5 weeks, blood glucose in GIII group showed decreased tendency at the 5 week. In OGTT by glucose, the glucose level of yacon treatment group in diabetic rats was significantly decreased compared to the glucose level of the control group, but there was no difference in OGTT by maltose. In ICR mice, the glucose level of the experimental group in OGTT by maltose was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The area of the islets of Langerhans was increased by yacon treatment in a dose-dependent manner on diabetic rats. Insulin concentration of the GIII group was also decreased compared to the control group, while the concentration of fructosamine, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in serum showed no difference. OGTT by glucose or maltose in ICR mice or diabetic rats, area of the Islets of Langerhans, and insulin concentration improved. Yacon treatment may be a useful therapeutic and preventive strategy for diabetes mellitus.

Effect of washing methods on the quality of freshly cut sliced Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) during storage (세척방법에 따른 신선편이 슬라이스 더덕의 저장 중 품질 특성 변화)

  • Choi, Duck-Joo;Lee, Yun-Jung;Kim, Youn-Kyeong;Kim, Mun-Ho;Choi, So-Rye;Cha, Hwan-Soo;Youn, Aye-Ree
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.751-759
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    • 2013
  • There is increasing interest in freshly cut products, that is, foods produced without washing and cutting. In this study, the quality of freshly cut sliced Deodeok was compared with that of what based on its washing methods. In bubble washing, the Deodeok rises to the water surface apace and is broken into centimeter sizes. Microbubble washing calls for the production of a great number of 0.1 mm-sized bubbles in anions-bearing water and their passing through a trumpet-shaped hole at a high pressure. To compare the product deterioration rates of the specimens, they were stored at $10^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. In the specimens washed with the control method and with hand washing, the deterioration rate was 80%; and in the specimens washed with bubble and microbubble washing, 20~30%. The L-value (an index of browning) was higher in the bubble and microbubble washing than in the control and the hand washing, which implies that browning was minimized during the storage. As for the viable cell and coliform group counts that were measured during the storage, the specimens washed with the control method showed the highest values. In contrast, the specimens washed with microbubble washing showed the lowest values. In the sensory test, the specimens washed with microbubble were highest in storage preference. In conclusion, the Deodeok that was stored after it was washed with microbubble washing was found to have had the best quality.

The Effect of Liquid Pig Manure on Yield of Several Forage Crops and Soil Chemical Properties (돈분액비 시용이 동·하계 사료작물의 수량 및 토양의 화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Kwang-Min;Lee, Sang-Bok;Back, Nam-Hyun;Yang, Chang-Hyu;Shin, Pyung;Lee, Kyeong-Bo;Park, Ki-Hoon;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.323-331
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Liquid pig manure(LPM) is a useful resource if it is sufficiently fermented and utilized in the agriculture; it provides nutrients to soils, circulates organic materials and replaces chemical fertilizers(CF) with reasonable costs. Currently, there are not many trials in paddy field to continuously cultivate the crops in winter and summer season using LPM. METHODS AND RESULTS: When cultivating winter forage crops (Whole-crop-barley(WCB), Rye, Triticale, Italian ryegrass(IRG)) and summer feed corns in the rice field, CF was treated with $N-P_2O_5-K_2O$(winter forage crops: 120-100-100kg/ha, summer feed corn: 200-150-150 kg/ha), and subsequently, growth, yields, feed values and chemical properties of soil were investigated. LPM-applied areas in both winter and summer forage crops showed higher plant lengths and tillers than those of CF-applied areas, but the yield in CF-applied areas was higher than that of LPM-applied areas under continuous application of 2 years. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber(NDF), acid detergent fiber(ADF) and total digestion nutrient(TDN) in feed values showed almost similar results between LPM and CF-applied areas. EC, organic matter, available phosphate and exchangeable cations of soils after the experiment increased in LPM applied areas, and especially, the contents of available phosphate and exchangeable sodium were high. CONCLUSION(S): Considering the above results, it was concluded that if LPM are properly utilized for continuous winter and summer cultivation of feed crops at paddy field, the cultivation costs could be decreased and be helpful to the stable production of domestic feeds.

Study on the legal system alignment of Invention Promotion Act and Its Relationship with the Framework Act on Intellectual Property (발명진흥법 법체계 정비와 지식재산 기본법의 관계에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Si-Yeol;Kim, Hwa-Rye
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.280-291
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    • 2016
  • The Invention Promotion act is one of the acts that have been frequently revised. Such frequent revisions have been pointed out as a major cause of the recent ongoing discussion on the alignment of the Invention Promotion Act. For proper alignment of the Act, diversified perspectives and issues have been discussed. Of them, the talk considering the effect of the 2011 Framework Act on Intellectual Property establishment on the Invention Promotion Act has received increasing attention. In this situation, this paper examined the relationship between the Framework Act and Invention Act with special focus on the relationship between the framework-formed law and an individual act that has existed prior to such a framework act. Based on this analysis, this study examined the alignment goal of the Invention Act. In addition, by studying the relationship between the recently-established framework act and the individual act along with revision case examples thereof, this paper aimed to produce a standard reflecting the legal reality. This study assumed that, although it is difficult to recognize any formal superiority in the Framework Act on Intellectual Property in the present South Korean legal regime, some practical superiority or practical supremacy is still deemed to be acknowledged. Under this assumption, it was found in this study that the Invention Promotion Act would also need to be managed in an appropriate relationship with the Framework Act within the range of such an attitude. Moreover, the structure would need to be reorganized. As discussed partially at the practical level, however, the Invention Promotion Act is an execution act of the Framework Act on Intellectual Property. Furthermore, it is inappropriate to seek to converge the full structures completely, given the limitations of the South Korean legal regime and the fairness balance with other legal cases. It is deemed that, although the provisions of the Framework Act on Intellectual property should be considered at the practical level, the Invention Promotion Act will need to be respected for its legislative purpose in itself.

Effects of Perceived Stress, Sleep, and Depression on Resilience of Female Nurses in Rotating Shift and Daytime Fixed Work Schedules (순환교대근무와 주간고정근무 여성 간호사의 회복탄력성에 대한 스트레스, 수면, 우울증의 영향)

  • Jeong, Ju Li;Kwon, Hyuk Min;Kim, Tae Hyung;Choi, Mal Rye;Eun, Hun Jeong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.111-124
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Healthy sleep is important and can have a positive effect on resilience. The aim of the present study was to compare the differences in resilience between two group nurses in rotating shift and daytime fixed work schedules and to investigate stress perception, coping factors, social and psychological health, and sleep factors that may affect resilience. Methods: A total of 400 female nurses having rotating shift and daytime fixed work schedules at two hospitals was surveyed from June 12, 2017 to June 12, 2018. All participants completed perceived stress scale (PSS), stress coping short form (Brief COPE), psycho-social wellbeing Index short form (PWI-SF) or general health questionnaire-18 (GHQ-18), center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D), STAI-X-1 in state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), insomnia severity index (ISI), Conner Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Independent t-test, paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were applied to the results of the final 373 questionnaires of 400 nurses in two general hospitals. Results: Comparing the variable statistics between the two groups of rotating shift and daytime fixed work nurses, showed statistically significant differences in all variables except perceived stress, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Factors that had a significant correlation with resilience were stress coping strategies, depression, and insomnia severity (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, larger positive reframing1 (β = 0.206, p < 0.001), severe less depression (β = -3.45, p < 0.001), and higher psychosocial health (β = 0.193, p < 0.001). As acceptance coping2 increased (β = 0.129, p < 0.05), as daytime sleepiness decreased (β = -1.17, p < 0.05), and as active coping2 increased (β = 0.118, p < 0.05), as the positive reframing2 increases (β = 0.110, p < 0.05), the resilience increased. Conclusion: This study, it was found that resilience was higher in daytime fixed workers than in shift workers. In addition, specific stress coping strategies, psycho-social health, sleep, and depression factors were associated with resilience.

A Clinical Study of Hospitalized Infants 28 to 90 Days of Age with Fever without Source (원인 없는 열로 입원한 생후 28일에서 90일 사이 영아들에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Rye, Min Hyuk;Noh, Yn Il;Lee, Seong Hun;Lee, Sun Young;Hur, Nam Jin;Lee, Dong Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features of hospitalized infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source and to analyze those of young febrile infants using risk criteria for serious bacterial infection. Methods : The clinical features of 131 infants 28~90 days of age admitted to the Ulsan Dong-Kang General Hospital Pediatric Department because of fever(temperature ${\geq}38^{\circ}C$ rectally) without source, from January 2000 to December 2000, were investigated by retrospective chart review. The clinical features of 131 febrile infants were analyzed using Rochester criteria. Results : Among 131 cases, there were 60 cases(45.8%) of urinary tract infection, 33 cases (25.2%) of aseptic meningitis, 2 cases(1.5%) of bacteremia and 36 cases(27.5%) of no specific diagnosis. Among 131 cases, there were 57 cases(43.5%) in low risk group and 74 cases(56.5%) in not low risk one by Rochester criteria. A significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infection, aseptic meningitis and no specific diagnosis was not found between both groups. Male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1. Sex ratio between both groups was not significantly different. Most febrile infant were noted in spring(35.1%) and the summer(36.7%). The peak incidence of aseptic meningitis was noted in May and June. The fever subsided mostly within 48~72 hours after administering antimicrobial agents(61.8~83.2%). A significant difference in duration of fever after administering antimicrobial agents was not found between both groups. Conclusion : A selected group of low risk infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source can be managed as outpatients provided that a thorough initial evaluation is performed, that parents can reliably monitor their infant closely at home and that careful follow up can be assured. Because bag collected specimens were more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture result, a suprapubic or catheter obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants 28~90 days of age. The further prospective study on evaluation and management of young febrile infant should be performed in our hospital.

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Effects of Dietary Fats and Oils On the Growth and Serum Cholesterol Content of Rats and Chicks (섭취(攝取) 지방(脂肪)의 종류(種類)가 흰쥐와 병아리의 성장(成長) 및 혈청(血淸) Cholesterol 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Kiw-Rye;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 1976
  • A series of experiment was carried out to study the effect of commonly used dietary fat or oils on the growth, feed efficiency, nutrient utilizability, nitrogen retention and serum cholesterol of rats and chicks fed various fat or oils at the level of 10% during 12 weeks of experimentation. Fat and oils used in this experiment were also analyzed for the composition of some fatty acids. The main observations made are as follows: 1. All groups received fat or oils gained more body weight than unsupplemented control group except chicks fed fish oil and rapeseed oil although no statistical significance was found between treatments. It was found that body weight gain achieved by the rats fed soybean oil, rapeseed oil, animal fat or corn oil was much greater than other group and that achieved by the chicks fed corn oil and animal fat was greater than other vegetable oil groups, although no statistical significance was found among treatments. 2. Feed intake data indicated that corn oil group of both rats and chicks consumed considerably more feed than other groups. Whereas feed intake of fish oil groups was the lowest among the experimental animals indicating that fish oil might contain unfavorable compound that depresses the palatability. In feed efficiency, soybean oil group of rats and corn oil group of chicks were significantly better than other experimental groups. In general, addition of fat or oils in the diet improved feed effeciency of diet. 3. Nutrient utiIizabiIity and nitrogen retention data showed that fat in the experimental diet containing 10% fat or oils was absorbed better than crude fat in control diet. It was also found that there was no significant difference in nitrogen retention among treatment. 4. Liver fat content of rapeseed oil group was much higher than that of control group and other group. It was also noticed that feeding more polyunsaturated fatty acids resulted in higher content of Iiver fat. 5. Present data indicated that serum cholesterol content of rapeseed oil and sesame oil group of rat was the higher than that of control group. Serum cholesterol content of animal fat group of chicks was higher than other group. It was interesting to note that serum cholesterol content of chicken was higher than that of rats?regardless of the kind of oils received. 6. Analytical data revealed that fatty acid composition of vegetable oil was composed mainly of oleic acid and linoleic acid, whereas animal fat and fish oil were composed of saturated fatty acid such as, myristic and palmitic acid. It should be mentionted that the perilla oil contained a very large amount of linolenic acid (58.4%) comparing with that in order vegetable oils. Little arachidonic acid was detected in vegetable oil, whereas none in animal fat and. fish oil.

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Protein Fractionation of Whole Crop Silages, and Effect of Borate-phosphate Buffer Extraction on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics, Gas Production and Degradation (사료작물 사일리지의 단백질 분획 및 Borate-phosphate Buffer 추출이 In vitro 발효성상, Gas 발생 그리고 분해율에 미치는 효과)

  • Shinekhuu, Judder;Jin, Guang-Lin;Ji, Byung-Ju;Li, Xiangzi;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Ku;Song, Man-Kang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2009
  • Protein fractionation was evaluated from whole crop silages of rye (RS), wheat (WS), triticale (TS), oat (OS), barley (BS), and rice straw silage (RSS), and in vitro trial was carried out to examine the effect of silage and extraction of soluble protein on fermentation characteristics, total gas production and degradation. Soluble protein of silages was extracted with borate-phosphate buffer, and fermentation characteristics, gas production and degradation of silages were estimated by incubating anaerobically the mixed solution of strained rumen fluid and artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) containing dried and ground silages placed in nylon bag at $39^{\circ}C$ up to 48h. Soluble protein (SP) content was lowest for RSS as 2.11% in total CP compared to those for other silages. Highest A fraction (NPN) was observed from RS (74.33% of total CP) while those from TS and RSS were relatively low (48%). B2 fraction was relatively higher for RS, RSS and WS than for TS and BS. $B_3$ fraction was lowest in WS among silages. C fraction (27.07) in RSS was higher than in other silages (1.40~9.93%). pH in incubation solution was increased (P<0.01~P<0.001) for extracted silages up to 12h but decreased (P<0.01) at 48h for non-extracted ones. Contents of ammonia-N (P<0.001) and total VFA (P<0.01~P<0.001) were higher for non-extracted silages than for extracted ones. Acetate proportion was increased (P<0.001) in buffer extracted silages while those of propionate and butyrate were decreased (P<0.001) up to 24h incubation. Increased (P<0.001) total gas production was obtained from non-extracted silages up to 12h while gas production was increased (P<0.01) in extracted ones thereafter. In vitro degradation of dry matter and CP was increased (P<0.001) in non-extracted silages but that of neutral detergent fiber was increased (P<0.001) in extracted ones without difference among silages. Difference in mean values of degradability for each silage prior to- and post extraction with borate buffer, however, was not found among silages. It may be concluded that high NPN content of silages may reduce the protein availability in silages and borate buffer soluble components in silages can stimulate the early stage of fermentation.

Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.