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Genetics of Self-fertility and Selection of Self-Fertile Lines in Rye (Secale cereale L.)

  • Heo, Hwa-Young;Hong, Byung-Hee;Seong, Rak-Chun;Ha, Yong-Woong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.343-346
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    • 2000
  • Rye breeding using F$_1$ hybrid began about 30 years ago, when cytoplasmically inherited forms of male sterility (CMS) and corresponding nuclear restorers were detected. It is very important to produce inbred lines for making hybrid lines because of strong self-incompatibility in rye. Among the 456 rye germplasms used in hybrid breeding scheme, 24 lines (5.3%) had the above 60% of self-fertility, and six lines of them were selected for their good agronomic characteristics and were used for subsequent inbreeding program. The average self-fertility of selected six lines was 78.4%, ranging from 72.2 to 99.5%. Genetic analysis for the self-fertility using $F_2$ populations showed that the segregation of self-fertile and sterile plants in F$_2$populations could be fit into 3 to 1 ratio suggesting self-fertility in rye be controlled by one major gene. The four different self-fertile lines, PI237923, 5C11, 5G5 and Florida black, had the same self-fertility gene because their F$_2$ plants showed almost the same self-fertility as their parents and showed no genetic segregation.

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Investigation of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Development of Maintainer and Restorer Lines in Rye (Secale cereale L.)

  • Heo, Hwa-Young;Hong, Byung-Hee;Seong, Rak-Chun;Park, Moon-Woong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.347-351
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    • 2000
  • Rye has been a major winter forage crop in Korea. Varietal improvement of rye has been practiced either by hybrid or population breeding systems. Hybrid breeding offers important advantages over population breeding since it is normally a cross-pollinated crop. The hybrid breeding in rye has been possible since cytoplasmically inherited forms of male sterility (CMS) and corresponding nuclear restorer genes were found. The objectives of this research were to develop the maintainer and restorer lines of Korean inbred lines and to estimate the effect of 'Pampa' type of CMS cytoplasm on yield and its related characteristics. For easy discrimination of male-sterile status of plants, anther scoring and the restore index system in which seed-setting and pollen quantity of viability were taken into account were established. High significant correlation between pollen quantity and pollen viability was found. For "Pampa" cytoplasm, four of 14 Korean inbred lines tested turned out to be a maintainer but no restorer was found. But for "235b" CMS cytoplasm, seven inbred lines acted as complete restorers. The Korean inbred rye lines acted mainly as maintainers in "Pampa" cytoplasm but acted mainly as restorer in "235b" cytoplasm. The 'Pampa' cytoplasm inducing male sterility reduced cohn length and plant height and increased the number of tiller, so forage yield and grain yield were enhanced. However, heading date was slightly delayed compared to the normal cytoplasm.elayed compared to the normal cytoplasm.

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Growth , Yield and Quality of Rice Cultivated on paddy Soils as After Crop of Fodder Rye under Heavy Application of Animal Manures (답리작 호맥재배시 가축분시용이 후작 벼의 생육 및 수량과 미질에 미치는 영향)

  • 진현주;김정갑;조영무;곽정훈;신재순;이혁호
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.338-342
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    • 1996
  • Fodder rye(cv. Coolgrazer) was cultivated on paddy soils under different application rates of animal manures (CM=cow manures mixed with sawdust, SM=swine manure mixed with sawdust) during 1994-1995. Rice crop (CV. Geumo) was transplanted in the same plots after fodder rye. The effects of cattle manure application on the yield performance of rye and their influence to growth, yields and quality of rice were evaluated. Fodder rye produced larger plant growth and higher silage yield in the cattle manure application than in the chemical feltilizer (CF). Dry matter yields of rye silage were 3.08 ton(CF), 4.23 ton(CM) and 6.03 ton/ha(SM), respedively. Under heavy application of cattle manures plant height, number of tillers and grains per panicle were increased, but 1,000 grains weight and total yields of rice were decreased. Yields of brown rice were 5.20 ton(CF), 5.15 ton (CM) and 4.95 ton/ha(SM), respectively. Higher concentration of amylose was found in the heavy application of cattle manures. Amylose contents of rice were 16.8%(CF), 19.1%(CM) and 19.4%(SM).

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Studies on in vivo Nitrate Reduction in Rye (Secale cereale L.) Seedlings Treated with 2,4-Dinitrophenol II. Effect of 2,4-Dinitrophenol on in vivo Nitrate Reductase Activity in the Roots of Rye Seedlings (2,4-Dinitrophenol을 처리한 호밀(Secale cereale L.) 유식물의 질산염 환원에 관한 연구 II. 호밀 유식물 뿌리의 질산염 환원효소 활성에 대한 2,4-Dinitrophenol의 영향)

  • 조규찬
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 1991
  • This work was carried out to determined the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol(DNP) on in vivo nitrate reductase activity in the root of 6 day old rye (Secale cereale L.) seedlings. The nitrate reductase activity in the roots of 6 day old rye seedlings pretreated with 0.5 mM DNP was higher than that of the control group in all the experimental conditions. The optimal concentration of KNO3 for maximum nitrate reductase activity was 10 mM in both control and treated group. The nitrate reductase activity in the treatment of 10 mM KNO3 gradually increased for 4 h in both groups, and then maintained constantly. The nitrate reductase activity occurred per hour was highest at 1 h in both groups, while it was declined by large degrees as time goes on. The daily pattern of nitrate reductase activity was gradually decreased in both groups with the passage of day. The optimal pH for this experiment and a previous paper (Kwon et al., 1991), it was determined that the nitrate reductase activity in both roots and shoots of rye seedlings was increased by the treatment of 0.5 mM DNP, and particulary in both groups, the nitrate reductase activity in the roots of rye seedlings was higher than that in shoots of them.

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Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Forage Yield and Quality of Winter Rye

  • Kim, J.D.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, C.N.;Kim, C.H.;Kim, D.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.997-1002
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this experiment was to determine agronomic characteristics, and forge yield and quality responses of rye variety to location and year for a double-cropping system in South Korea. Five forage rye varieties ('Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select', '9909', 'Homill22', 'Danko') were evaluated for forage quality and yields during the two growing years (the First year; 2001-2002, and the Second year; 2002-2003) at two locations (the central and southern zone). The heading date of rye in the central zone (Cheonan) was 15 April, and that of the southern zone (Daegu) was 10 April. The heading dates of 'Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select' and '9909' were earlier than those of the others. Although the five varieties had resistance to foliar diseases and insects, these had less lodging resistance. Dry matter (DM) content, DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields had significant differences among rye varieties. DM and TDN yields of the rye varieties at the second year were higher than the first year in the central zone. In the southern zone, DM and TDN yields at the first year were lower than the second year. 'Jlee select' and '9909' had higher DM and TDN yields than the other varieties in both location and year except the first year of the central zone (p<0.001). The crude protein (CP) contents of rye grown in Cheonan were higher than Daegu. The CP content of 'Danko' variety was highest among tested varieties. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were greater for the varieties grown in Cheonan and in the second year. The ADF and NDF contents of 'Danko' were lowest, while 'Danko' in TDN and relative feed value (RFV) was highest among rye varieties. Our study showed that there are differences in forage production and quality from location to location, year to year and variety to variety. Therefore, forage quality and forage production are an important factor for screening forage rye varieties. Early maturing varieties should be recommended as high-yielding forage in a double-cropping system because their production of forage was greatest early in the season.

EFFECT OF NEUTRON AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GERMINATION OF DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID RYE SEEDS (중성자 및 감마선의 조사가 이배체 및 사배체 호맥의 종자의 발아 및 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • YIM, Kyong Bin
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 1963
  • YIM, Kyong Bin (Coll. of Agriulture, Seoul National University) Effect of neutron and gamma irradiation on the germination of diploid and tetraploid rye seeds. Kor. Jour. Bot. VI(3):6-14, 1964. Tetraploid rye, Secale cereale 4x, was more tolerant to fast nuetron than diploid rye. Root growth was more suppressed than was seedling height in both diploid and tetraploid rye. A stimmulative effect on the dry weight of the shoot could be observed at very low doses of irradiation. It was the fact that the lower the moisture content of the seeds, the higher the radiosensitivity. Concerning seedling height growth, the effectiveness ratio of N/X equalled about 20.0 in diploid rye and about 18.2 in tettraploid rye, when the 50% dose ratios is used for this quotient calculaiton.

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Effects of Teatment Level and Seasons of Slurry on Productivity of Rye (Secale cereale L.) (액상구비의 시용시기와 시용수준이 호밀 (Secale cereale L.) 의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 육완방;차용복;금종성;이종민;한영근
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 1997
  • This study was wnducte to investigate the effects of treatment level and seasons of sluny hm bovine feces on the productivity of rye, N efficiency and improvement of soil fertility under the Korean climate condition. The results obtained fiom this study summarized as follows ; 1. The highest dry matter yield of rye was obtained in the partial fertilization of sluny in spring or autumn. There is no differences of dry matter yield between spring and autumn application. 2. With increasing the amount of slurry-N, the dry matter yield of rye was signigicantly increased up to 100Kg sluny Nha. As the level of slurry-N rises above about 100Kg N/ha, the maximal yield of dry matter was unchanged or declined. 3. As the level of sluny fertilization rises, the crude protein content of rye increases significantly. However the contents of crude protein was less affected by the application seasons. 4. The amount of nitrogen which produced 6om rye is dependent upon the level of slurry-N. The highest nitrogen yield of rye was obtained by the partial fertilization of sluny-N. 5. The season or amount of slurry treatments did not affect the organic matter content in soil. N-content in soil was the lowest by the partial fertilization of slurry in spring or autumn. However, N-content was increased with the higher level of sluny-N.

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Effect of Chemical Drying Agents on the Field Drying Rate of Alfalfa and Rye Hay (Alfalfa와 호밀에 있어서 속성 건초조제를 위한 건조제 처리효과)

  • Seo, Sung;Kim, Jong-Geun;Chung, Eui-Soo;Kang, Woo-Sung;Yang, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 1998
  • A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of chemical drying agents at mowing on the field drying rate of alfalfa (cv. Vernal) and rye (cv. Koolgrazer) for hastening hay manuf8cture. In alfalfa; chemicals ($K_2CO_3$ 2% $K_2CO_3$ 3% $Na_2CO_3$ 2% $CaCO_3$, 2% $K_2CO_3$2% + $Na_2CO_3$, 1% only water spray and control) were treated at early bloom stage in 1995. Chemicals ($K_2CO_3$, 2%, $Na_2CO_3$, 2% $CaCO_3$, 2% and control) were applicated at different harvest stages (early heading, heading and bloom) in rye, 1996. The drying rate of alfalfa by $K_2CO_3$ treatment among chemicals was higher than control, and the duration of field dry was shortened by one day with $K_2CO_3$ application, but there was no difference in drying efficiency between $K_2CO_3$ 2% and $K_2CO_3$ 3%. In rye, however, no moisture reduction by chemicals was observed. The days required for field dry were 6, 4, and 3 days at warly heading heading and bloom stage respectively; regardless of chemical drying agents and conbol. The nutritive value of rye hay with chemicals at baling was very slightly higher than control, but there was no significant difference. Also, no difference of hay quality was found among drying agents. In conclusion, $K_2CO_3$can enhance the field drying rate of alfalfa hay, but the drying efficiency was not high, particularly in rye hay. Harvesting at early heading to heading stage was desirable for manufacture of high quality rye hay.

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Establishment of suitable rice cultivar in relation to improvement soil physical and chemical properties on paddy field

  • Jo, Won-Sam;Kim, Kyung-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 2017
  • Rice has important role as a primary food resource in especially the Asia, Korea, China, India, Indonesia and Japan. After development and increasingly using artificial chemical fertilizer, rice is getting high quality and quantity to satisfy ever-increasing people. On the other hand, the earth environment is more polluted each day. Nowadays consumers are looking for the organic crops or foods that were grown with eco-friendly method and in pure farmland. With the immergence of this trend, it is time to development environmentally-friendly agriculture. One of the methods is growing green manure crops in winter or spring on the fields. For this reasons, growing rye and Italian ryegrass are useful to use green manure to enhance rice production without chemical fertilizers and make the property of the soil eco-friendly. To know how improve the quality and quantity of rice with green manures, rye and Italian ryegrass, first the characteristics of green manure corps were measured. Dry matter yields of the rye and Italian ryegrass were 2.21 and $1.81t\;Ha^{-1}$. And the percentages of the dry matter were 28 and 32%. And, analyzed mineral components in rye and Italian ryegrass were nitrogen, organic matter, $P_2O_5$, CaO, $C_2O$ and MgO. Specially, the percentages of the organic matter and the CaO between rye and Italian ryegrass have difference appreciably. the height of the rice on the Italian ryegrass-fertilized field was the highest among the variant fields. The height of the rice on the non-fertilized field was the lowest. Yield of the Italian ryegrass-, rye- and non-fertilized rice are 805.2, 639.9 and $415.3kg\;10a^{-1}$. At the result, Italian ryegrass is the most effective green manure among the 3 treated-fertilized.

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Effects of Liquid Pig Manure on Yield and Nutrition Supply of Green Manure Crops in Jeju

  • Kang, Ho-Jun;Yang, Sang-Ho;Kim, Yu-Kyoung;Jwa, Chang-Sook;Moon, Bong-Chun;Moon, Chae-Ran;Ko, Bok-Hee;Jung, Dae-Cheun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.731-735
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    • 2015
  • The effects of liquid pig manure (LPM) on the yield and nutrient supply of green manure crops, such as hairy vetch alone and hairy vetch + rye mixture, were investigated. We used three treatments: no-fertilizer (NF); LPM, $4.0t10a^{-1}$ ($N-P_2O_5-K_2O=4.0-0.024-4.0kg10a^{-1}$); and chemical fertilizer (CF; $N-P_2O_5-K_2O=4.0-0-4.0kg10a^{-1}$). The green manure crops, namely, Vicia villosa Roth. (hairy vetch) and Secale cereale L. (rye). were sown on March 11 and harvested on June 24, 2014. Yield of green manure crops significantly increased in hairy vetch + rye mixture plot compared with the hairy vetch alone plot. In hairy vetch alone plot, yield of green manure crops was increased by application of LPM and CF, but there were no significant differences. Yield of green manure crops in hairy vetch + rye fresh mixture plot significantly increased by the LPM and CF treatments, but no difference was noted between the LPM and CF treatments. Nitrogen supply by the green manure crops was higher in hairy vetch + rye mixture plot than hairy vetch alone plot. However, there was no significant difference. Phosphorus and potassium supply significantly increased in hairy vetch + rye mixture plot compared with hairy vetch alone plot. By treating LPM and CF, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium supply were higher than those in no fertilizer. In conclusion, LPM could replace CF. When planting green manure crops, the hairy vetch + rye mixture was more effective than hairy vetch alone to effectively use green manure crops.