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Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Flat Sediment, Muan, Chonnam, Korea (전남 무안 갯벌 퇴적물에 관한 광물학적 및 생지화학적 연구)

  • Park, Byung-No;Lee, Je-Hyun;Oh, Jong-Min;Lee, Seuug-Hee;Han, Ji-Hee;Kim, Yu-Mi;Seo, Hyun-Hee;Roh, Yul
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2007
  • While sedimentological researches on Western coastal tidal flats of Korea have been much pelformed previously, mineralogical and biogeochemical studies are beginning to be studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate mineralogical characteritics of the inter-tidal flat sediments and to explore phase transformation of iron(oxyhydr)oxides and biomineralization by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from the inter-tidal flat sediments from Muan, Jeollanam-do, Korea. Inter-tidal flat sediment samples were collected in Chungkye-myun and Haeje-myun, Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do. Particle size analyses were performed using the pipette method and sedimentation method. The separates including sand, silt and clay fractions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffiaction (XRD). After enriching the metal-.educing bacteria from the into,-tidal flat sediments, the bacteria were used to study phase transformation of the synthesized iron (oxyhydr)oxides and iron biomineralization using lactate or glucose as the electron donors and Fe(III)-containing iron oxides as the electron accepters. Mineralogical studies showed that the sediments of tidal flats in Chung]rye-myun and Haeje-myun consist of quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, kaolinite and illite. Biogeochemical researches showed that the metal-reducing bacteria enriched from the inter-tidal flat sediments reduced reddish brown akaganeite and mineralized nanometer-sized black magnetite. The bacteria also reduced the reddish brown ferrihydrite into black amorphous phases and reduced the yellowish goethite into greenish with formation of nm-sized phases. These results indicate that microbial Fe(III) reduction may play one of important roles in iron and carbon biogeochemistry as well as iron biomineralization in subsurface environments.

Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

Relationships between Eating Behavior, Dietary Self-Efficacy, and Nutrition Knowledge of Elementary School Students by Food Service Type in Gangwon Province (강원지역 초등학생들의 급식유형(도시형, 농어촌형 및 도서벽지형) 별식행동과 식이자기효능감 및 영양지식과의 관계)

  • Won, Hyang-Rye;Shin, Gi-Beum
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.638-646
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to find a relationship between eating behavior, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge by comparing these items in elementary school students according to food service type. The survey was made through a questionnaire from 759 students in the 6th grade of elementary school in 39 Gangwon Province. The average score of eating behaviors according to food service type was highest for urban type, followed by agri-fishery type, and finally remote island and country type, for the questions asking about the application of nutrition knowledge and the frequency of eating out. The average score of nutrition knowledge according to food service type showed significant differences for the questions about eating snacks before going to sleep and weight increase as well as calorie comparisons between foods. For the correlation of eating behavior, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge, the agri-fishery type showed positive in all of the three items with significant differences. In the remote island and country type, there was a positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary self-efficacy, and between eating behavior and dietary self-efficacy. However, there was no significant difference of correlation between nutrition knowledge and eating behavior. In order to confirm the predictable variables for eating behavior, a regression analysis was made by injecting variables in every stage with independent variables of dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge, which showed a significant relationship with eating behavior. The results showed that, in the urban type, dietary self-efficacy and nutrition knowledge affected the eating behavior and, in the agriculture type and the remote island and country type, only dietary self-efficacy affected the eating behavior.

Protein Fractionation of Whole Crop Silages, and Effect of Borate-phosphate Buffer Extraction on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics, Gas Production and Degradation (사료작물 사일리지의 단백질 분획 및 Borate-phosphate Buffer 추출이 In vitro 발효성상, Gas 발생 그리고 분해율에 미치는 효과)

  • Shinekhuu, Judder;Jin, Guang-Lin;Ji, Byung-Ju;Li, Xiangzi;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Ku;Song, Man-Kang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2009
  • Protein fractionation was evaluated from whole crop silages of rye (RS), wheat (WS), triticale (TS), oat (OS), barley (BS), and rice straw silage (RSS), and in vitro trial was carried out to examine the effect of silage and extraction of soluble protein on fermentation characteristics, total gas production and degradation. Soluble protein of silages was extracted with borate-phosphate buffer, and fermentation characteristics, gas production and degradation of silages were estimated by incubating anaerobically the mixed solution of strained rumen fluid and artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) containing dried and ground silages placed in nylon bag at $39^{\circ}C$ up to 48h. Soluble protein (SP) content was lowest for RSS as 2.11% in total CP compared to those for other silages. Highest A fraction (NPN) was observed from RS (74.33% of total CP) while those from TS and RSS were relatively low (48%). B2 fraction was relatively higher for RS, RSS and WS than for TS and BS. $B_3$ fraction was lowest in WS among silages. C fraction (27.07) in RSS was higher than in other silages (1.40~9.93%). pH in incubation solution was increased (P<0.01~P<0.001) for extracted silages up to 12h but decreased (P<0.01) at 48h for non-extracted ones. Contents of ammonia-N (P<0.001) and total VFA (P<0.01~P<0.001) were higher for non-extracted silages than for extracted ones. Acetate proportion was increased (P<0.001) in buffer extracted silages while those of propionate and butyrate were decreased (P<0.001) up to 24h incubation. Increased (P<0.001) total gas production was obtained from non-extracted silages up to 12h while gas production was increased (P<0.01) in extracted ones thereafter. In vitro degradation of dry matter and CP was increased (P<0.001) in non-extracted silages but that of neutral detergent fiber was increased (P<0.001) in extracted ones without difference among silages. Difference in mean values of degradability for each silage prior to- and post extraction with borate buffer, however, was not found among silages. It may be concluded that high NPN content of silages may reduce the protein availability in silages and borate buffer soluble components in silages can stimulate the early stage of fermentation.

Effects of Dietary Fats and Oils On the Growth and Serum Cholesterol Content of Rats and Chicks (섭취(攝取) 지방(脂肪)의 종류(種類)가 흰쥐와 병아리의 성장(成長) 및 혈청(血淸) Cholesterol 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Kiw-Rye;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 1976
  • A series of experiment was carried out to study the effect of commonly used dietary fat or oils on the growth, feed efficiency, nutrient utilizability, nitrogen retention and serum cholesterol of rats and chicks fed various fat or oils at the level of 10% during 12 weeks of experimentation. Fat and oils used in this experiment were also analyzed for the composition of some fatty acids. The main observations made are as follows: 1. All groups received fat or oils gained more body weight than unsupplemented control group except chicks fed fish oil and rapeseed oil although no statistical significance was found between treatments. It was found that body weight gain achieved by the rats fed soybean oil, rapeseed oil, animal fat or corn oil was much greater than other group and that achieved by the chicks fed corn oil and animal fat was greater than other vegetable oil groups, although no statistical significance was found among treatments. 2. Feed intake data indicated that corn oil group of both rats and chicks consumed considerably more feed than other groups. Whereas feed intake of fish oil groups was the lowest among the experimental animals indicating that fish oil might contain unfavorable compound that depresses the palatability. In feed efficiency, soybean oil group of rats and corn oil group of chicks were significantly better than other experimental groups. In general, addition of fat or oils in the diet improved feed effeciency of diet. 3. Nutrient utiIizabiIity and nitrogen retention data showed that fat in the experimental diet containing 10% fat or oils was absorbed better than crude fat in control diet. It was also found that there was no significant difference in nitrogen retention among treatment. 4. Liver fat content of rapeseed oil group was much higher than that of control group and other group. It was also noticed that feeding more polyunsaturated fatty acids resulted in higher content of Iiver fat. 5. Present data indicated that serum cholesterol content of rapeseed oil and sesame oil group of rat was the higher than that of control group. Serum cholesterol content of animal fat group of chicks was higher than other group. It was interesting to note that serum cholesterol content of chicken was higher than that of rats?regardless of the kind of oils received. 6. Analytical data revealed that fatty acid composition of vegetable oil was composed mainly of oleic acid and linoleic acid, whereas animal fat and fish oil were composed of saturated fatty acid such as, myristic and palmitic acid. It should be mentionted that the perilla oil contained a very large amount of linolenic acid (58.4%) comparing with that in order vegetable oils. Little arachidonic acid was detected in vegetable oil, whereas none in animal fat and. fish oil.

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