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The Optimized Formulas of Rye Bread on the Sensory Properties using RSM (RSM을 적용한 관능 특성에 따른 Rye Bread의 최적 Formulas에 대한 연구)

  • Kwon Kyung-Soohn
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2004
  • The effects of water, rye flour and vital gluten on the sensory properties of bread were studied by response surface methodology and sensory evaluations. A response surface model was used to evaluate the effects observed and to determine the optimum variations for rye bread. The study included 12 combinations of the following independent variables: Water(57, 62, 67%), Rye flour(0, 10, 30, 50%), and Vital gluten(0, 1, 3, 5%). Bread quality attributes determined were specific volume, color, texture, appearance, taste, chewiness, moisture, overall. Rye bread specific volume, sensory evaluation values and Instrumental testing results were significantly affected by variety (water, rye flour and vital gluten). Rye bread with a high specific volume was produced using water 67%, rye flour 10% and vital gluten 3%. Whereas, rye breads with a high overall sensory evaluation were water 62 %, rye flour 10 % and vital gluten 5%. And Specific volume predicted and overall preference also was shown high. It was shown that the experimental design used provided information about the rye bread of variation of water, rye flour and vital gluten and can be a useful supplement to standardized and optimized formulas in rye bread making. The results suggest that water, rye flour, vital gluten can be combined in rye bread making at various levels, contributing to optimize the functional properties of rye bread. These result represents that breads loaf volume related to directly consumer preference.

Electrophoretic and Immunological Evaluation of Secalin in Rye, Triticale, and Wheat-Rye Translocation Wheat

  • Seo, Yong-Weon;Hong, Byung-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.228-233
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    • 1998
  • Seed storage proteins have been used for studying biochemical genetics and end-use quality aspects. We conducted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (1D SDS-PAGE) to evaluate different cereal crop species and Korean wheat lines for rye secalin proteins. The antisecalin antibody showed consistent specificity for rye secalin with little cross-reactivity to gliadins. Immunological cross-reactivities measured by the ELISA technique using competition assay showed significant differences of absorbance among rye, triticale, wheat-rye translocated wheat and non-translocated wheat. The absorbance values were lowest in rye followed by triticale, translocated wheat and non-translocated wheat. The ELISA for discrimination of wheat-rye translocation on the basis of antigen-antibody reactivity showed that none of the Korean wheat lines possessed 1RS and secalin proteins. The competitive ELISA experiment demonstrated specific determination for secalin that was originated from rye chromosomal parts. The result of 1D SDS-PAGE for identifying rye secalin subunits showed all three rye specific secalin protein subunits (75 KDa, 45 KDa, and 40 KDa) for rye and triticale, and 1RS specific secalins (45 KDa and 40 KDa) for 1AL/1RS and 1BL/1RS translocated wheats. All Korean wheats were lacking 1RS of rye chromosome and secalin.

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Comparative Studies of Introduced Rey ( Secale Cereale L. ) for Spring Forage Production IV. Winter-hardiliness and forage production of selected winter rye varieties under upland condiions (외국산 도입 호밀의 청예사료로서의 생산성 비교 IV. 추파호밀 품종의 전작조건에서의 내한성과 사초수량)

  • Kim, D.A.;Seo, S.;Lee, H.W.;Jo, M.H.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1987
  • These experiments were conducted at the upland of Livestock Farm, Seoul National University, Suweon to determine the growth characteristics, winter-hardiness and forage yield of selected southern and northern-types of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) in comparison with the Korean native rye over two seasons, 1977-78 and 1980-8 1. During the 1977-78 season, most southern-type rye varieties except Explorer and Abruzzi headed 2 to 6 days earlier than the Korean native rye and 6 to 10 days earlier than northerntype rye varieties Rymin and Puma, while in 1980-81 southern-type rye varieties headed 5 to 7 days earlier than the Korean native rye, therefore, the Korean native rye seemed to be medium in maturity. There were no significant differences in winter-hardiness among different rye varieties with the exception of the lowest winter survivals of Wintergrazer 70, Explorer and triticale, and Gator, Explorer and Florida Black during the 1977-78 and 1980-8 1 seasons, respectively. Southern-type rye varieties tended to yield more forage than northern-type and the Korean native rye varieties when harvest was made in the later part of April. During 1977-78 season, Vita-Graze, Elbon and Athens Abruzzi rye varieties produced significantly more forage than the Korean native rye, but in 1980-81 Wrens Abruzzi rye produced significantly more forage than the Korean native rye. Based on the results of the two seasons, southern-type rye varieties,Vita-Graze, Athens Abruzzi, Elbon and Wrens Abruzzi could be recommended as a source of green forage for livestock in April in middle-northern parts of Korea.

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조.만생 사초용 호밀의 파종 및 수확시기에 관한 연구 II. 파종 및 수확시기별 수량 및 사료가치 ( Studies on the Seeding and Harvesting Dates of Early and Late Maturing Varieties of Forage Rye II. Yield and nutritive value influenced by seeding and harvesting

  • 권찬호;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.316-323
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    • 1994
  • In order to reduce the problems from the presence of rye crop residues in maize establishment and yield, and also to improve the growth, productivity and nutritive value of rye(Seca1e cereal L.). an experiment was canied out to determine the variety effect of rye on the forage production system and the eft'ect of seeding and harvesting dates on the production and quality of rye. 'This experiment was conducted at the forage testing field of S.N.U., Suweon, from September 1986 to May 1989. Heading date of an early maturing rye variety, Wintermore. was earlier 10 days than that of a late maturing rye variety, Kodiak. A 15-days delay in the seeding dates of early and late maturing varieties of rye tended to delay the heading dates of the rye varieties for 3 and 4 days, respectively. Dry matter and in vitro digestible dry matter yields were markedly increased with earlier seeding date. Before 20 April, the DM and IVDDM yeilds of an early maturing rye variety, Winterrnore. were higher than those of a late maturing rye variety, Kodiak. However, no such a trend was found between the early and late maturing varieties of rye after 27 April. Less than 35% of ADF was recorded until the harvesting dates of 13 and 27 p r i l for early and late maturing rye varieties, respectively, but less than 46% of NDF was maintained until the harvesting drtte of 13 April for botg varieties. Based on the results obtained from this experiment. it may be concluded that the most desirable forage production from corn-rye double cropping system is to advance the seeding time of rye toward the first 10 days of September as well as harvesting time toward the first heading stage with an early maturing rye variety.

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Effect of Sowing Rate of Mixture on the Growth Chracteristics, Forage Yield and Quality of Rye and Rape (호밀과 유채의 혼파비율이 생육특성, 사초수량 및 영양소 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 권응기;김병완;성경일;김창주
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 1996
  • Rye(Secale cereale L.) shows lower dry matter yield and nutrient content when it was harvested before wintering. This study was conducted to investigate how effect forage rape(Brassicu napus Subsp oleifera), which carries early maturity and can be harvested before wintering, on the increase of the forage yield and nutrient content when rye was sown mixed with the rape. Optimum sowing rate of the rye/rape mixture was also pursued in this study. The five treatment of rye single, rape single, ryel20+rape 1Okg/ha, rye84+rape 7kg/ha and rye60+rape 5kg/ha were sown on 2 September 1989. Rape single plot was cut one time(l9 November 1989) and the other plots were cuted two times(19 November 1989 and 20 May 1990). In botanical composition of the mixtures, rape recorded dominant ratio with 64~69% at the autumn cut. The rye84+rape 7kg/ha mixture plot marked the highest dry matter yield with 4.46t/ha among all the experimental plot at the autumn cut(P<0.05). In year total yield of dry matter(t/ha), rye single, rape single, rye120+rape IOkg/ha, rye84+rape 7kg/ha and rye60+rape 5kg/ha marked 13.6, 4.1, 12.7, 12.9 and 11.8, respectively. In crude protein content, the rye single plot was 17.2% at the autumn cut on the other hand the mixture plots showed increasing tendency with 18.0~19.9%. In crude fiber content, the mixture plots were remarkably lower than rye single plot. In year total yield of crude protein, rye84+rape 7kg/ha mixture plot showed the highest yield with 1.6lt/ha among all the experimental plots. Ratio of crude protein yield to crude fiber yield, rye84+rape 7kg/ha tended to be higher than the other mixture plots. It is confirmed that the rye/rape mixture can produce more forage than the rye single cropping when they are harvested in late autumn, besides the mixture forage contains higher crude protein than that rye single forage. It can be said that the rydrape mixture is more useful than the rye single cropping, and optimum sowing rate of the mixture is 84kg/ha of rye+7kg/ha of rape.

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Application of lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality in different stages of rye forage - an in-vitro approach

  • Choi, Ki-Choon;Srigopalram, Srisesharam;Ilavenil, Soundharrajan;Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam;Park, Hyung-Su;Jung, Jeong Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.283-283
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    • 2017
  • The objective of the present study is to analyze the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) effects on rye silage fermentation at different stages. Different stages (Booting, Heading, Flowering, and Late flowering stage) of rye were collected from the National livestock farm, National Institute of Animal Science, South Korea. Rye sample was inculcated with lactic acid bacteria and incubated at the anaerobic condition for three months. The nutrient profile such as crude protein (CP), Acid detergent fibre, Neutral detergent fibre and total digestibility nutrients were increased in both control and LAB inculcated samples at all the stages of rye forage. The pH of rye silage was reduced at both stages by LAB inoculation as compared with control. The lactate content was increased in all stages of rye sample by LAB. The acetate concentration and butyrate was reduced in LAB inoculated rye sample. However, acetate concentration was slightly high in LAB inculcated rye at heading and late flowering stage. The LAB population was greater in LAB inoculated rye sample as compared with control sample. However, the massive population was noted in booting stage of rye than the other stages. It indicates the inoculated LAB is the main reason for increasing fermentation quality in the sample through pH reduction by lactate production. Overall results suggest that the isolated lactic acid bacterium is the potent strain that could be suitable for rye forage fermentation at different stages.

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Studies on the Seeding and Harvesting Dates of Early and late Maturing Varieties of Forage Rye I. Yield and nutritive value influenced by seeding dates (조 , 만생 사초용 호밀의 파종 및 수확시기에 관한 연구 I. 파종시기별 수량 및 사료가치)

  • 권찬호;김동암
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.246-252
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    • 1992
  • In order to reduce the problems from overlapping between rye harvest and maize seeding dates, and also to improve the growth, productivity and nutritive value of rye (Secale cereale L.), an experiment was carried out to determine the variety effect of rye on the forage production system, and seeding date effect on the yield and quality of rye. The experiment was conducted in the forage testing field of S.N.U., Suweon, from September 1988 to May 1989. The dry matter and in vitro digestible dry matter yields of rye harvested 14 April were 5.2 t and 4.6 t/ha with an early maturing rye variety, Winter more, but 3.1 t and 2.8 t/ha were obtained with a late maturing rye variety, Kodiak. When seeding date was delayed, a significant decrease in dry matter yield was observed. ADF and NDF contents, and IVDMD of an early maturing rye, Winter more, harvested 14 April were 25.6, 44.8 and 81.9 %, but those of a late maturing rye, Kodiak, were 21.1, 39.5 and 88.9 %, respectively. ADF and NDF contents of rye were increased as the seeding date was delayed, but ail forage ryes from different seeding dates as well as varieties were recorded as the 1st grade proposed by market hay grades. The dry matter and in vitro digestible dry matter yields of rye harvested at 80 %heading stage were significantly decreased as delayed seeding date, but no significant differences were found between early and late maturing varieties. No differences in ADF and NDF contents, and IVDMD of the rye harvested at 80% heading stage were found among the treatments, but all forage ryes were evaluated as the 4 th grade proposed by market hay grades.

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Reaction of Global Collection of Rye (Secale cereale L.) to Tan Spot and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Races in South Dakota

  • Abdullah, Sidrat;Sehgal, Sunish K.;Glover, Karl D.;Ali, Shaukat
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.229-237
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    • 2017
  • Rye (Secale cereale L.) serves as an alternative host of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (PTR) the cause of tan spot on wheat. Rye is cultivated as a forage or cover crop and overlaps with a significant portion of wheat acreage in the U.S. northern Great Plains; however, it is not known whether the rye crop influences the evolution of PTR races. We evaluated a global collection of 211 rye accessions against tan spot and assessed the diversity in PTR population on rye in South Dakota. All the rye genotypes were inoculated with PTR races 1 and 5, and infiltrated with Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB, at seedling stage. We observed 21% of the genotypes exhibited susceptibility to race 1, whereas, 39% were susceptible to race 5. All 211 accessions were insensitive to both the Ptr toxins. It indicates that though rye exhibits diversity in reaction to tan spot, it lacks Ptr ToxA and ToxB sensitivity genes. This suggests that unknown toxins or other factors can lead to PTR establishment in rye. We characterized the race structure of 103 PTR isolates recovered from rye in South Dakota. Only 22% of the isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene and were identified as race 1 based on their phenotypic reaction on the differential set. The remaining 80 isolates were noted to be race 4. Our results show that races 1 and 4 are prevalent on rye in South Dakota with a higher frequency of race 4, suggesting a minimal role of rye in the disease epidemiology.

Yield and Quality of Forage Mixture as Affected by Maturity of Rye Cultivar and Oat-Rye Seeding Rate (호밀품종의 조만성과 연맥-호밀의 파종량이 혼파사초의 수량과 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, H.J.;Park, H.S.;Kim, S.G.;Kim, D.A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.239-250
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    • 2002
  • Evaluation works of oat in mixture with rye on forage yield have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine yield and quality of forage mixture as affected by maturity of rye cultivar and oat-rye seeding rate at Suweon from 1999 to 2000. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Main plots consisted of maturity of rye. such as early(cv. Koolgrazer) and late(cv. Kodiak)maturing cultivars. Sub-plots consisted of seeding rate (T1: Oat 2000 and rye 0kg/ha, Ts: Oat 150 and rye 40kg/ha, T3: Oat100 and rye 80kg/ha, T4: Oat50 and rye 120kg/ha. and T5: Oat0 and rye 160kg/ha). Crude protein(CP) content of oat-rye mixture harvested in the fall was not influenced by maturity of rye cultivar, but that of oat-rye mixture was increased from 13.6 to 19.3% as the seeding rate of rye increased(P<0.05), however, maturity of rye cultivar significantly affected CP content of oat-rye mixture in the spring(P<0.01). Acid detergent fiber(ADF) content of oat-rye mixture harvested in the spring was not significantly affected by rye cultivar, but the ADF was decreased from 27.8 to 20.7% as the seeding rate of rye increased(P$<$0.01). When rye was harveste in the spring, ADF content of late maturing cultivar 'Kodiak' was shown as 28.0%. This was lower than that of early maturing cultivar 'Koolgrazer' which was shown as 35.8%(P$<$0.01). Among treatments, neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) of oat-rye mixture showed a similar trend made on ADF. In this experiment, the highest forage yield (12.356kg/ha) was obtained from early maturing rye cultivar and seeding rates of 100kg/ha of oat and 80kg/ha of rye mixture. A significant interaction between maturity of rye cultivar and seeding rate was found(P$<$0.01). The above results indicate that an early maturing rye cultivar at the seeding rate of 100kd/ha in mixtures with 80kg/ha of oat could be recommended as a succeeding cropping system after corn for silage.

Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on Nutritive Value of Pelleted Rye Hay (호밀건초 Pellet 조제시 NaOH 처리가 사료가치에 미치는 효과)

  • 한성윤;김대진
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2000
  • This syudy was conducted to increase the utility of forage rye which are suitable to be cultivated at high altitude Taekwllyong area. For that purpose two cultivars of rye (winter-more, kool-glazer) were cultivated for 3years using a randomized block design with 3 replications. The dry matter digestibility (DMD) was evaluated with the pelleted rye hay produced by adding sodium hydroxide and then the TDN value was calculated by the DMD. By adding NaOH, DMD and TDN value of rye pellets (Y=46.92+ 1.8X, ~ 0 . 9 7 )w ere increased significantly (p<0.05) and NDF (neutral detergent fiber) decrease significantly. However, ADF (acid detergent fiber) and lignin did not significantly decrease (p<0.05). Rye could be cultivated as a second crop after com at high altitude area in the same year and pelleted with NaOH in order to increase the nutritive values (p< 0.05). (Key words : Dry matter digestibility (DMD), Forage rye, NDF, ADF, Sodium hydroxide)

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