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Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants

  • Roh, Sang-Gun;Suzuki, Yutaka;Gotoh, Takafumi;Tatsumi, Ryuichi;Katoh, Kazuo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2016
  • Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.

Small Ruminants: Imperatives for Productivity Enhancement Improved Livelihoods and Rural Growth - A Review

  • Devendra, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1483-1496
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    • 2001
  • Small ruminants form an important economic and ecological niche in small farm systems and agriculture. Their current low level of contribution is dismal, and is not commensurate with the potential capacity for higher levels of production. The context for productivity enhancement and increased socio-economic contribution relates to large sizes of small ruminant populations; wide distribution across various agro-ecological zones and production systems; and diversity of breeds, where 66% of all goat and 57% of sheep breeds in Asia are found in China, India and Pakistan. The advantages and disadvantages of small ruminants over larger ruminants are enumerated with reference to adaptation and environment, small size, production systems and products and interactions with the environment. Discussion focuses especially on efficiency of meat production and niche markets for higher-priced goat meat, and inefficient marketing systems given an estimated 40-45% loss of income to farmers presently. Increasing the quantity of meat produced is related to live weight and the total number of animals at Slaughter, which in turn, depend on the total number of offsprings weaned and lifetime productivity. At the national level, priority attention is essential to build up numbers in concerted breeding programmes, selection for efficiency of reproduction and meat production, and improvements to make traditional markets and marketing systems to respond to the changing environmental and consumer preferences. Post-production systems are neglected and improvements are associated with collection, handling, marketing, slaughter facilities and consumer requirements. Potential opportunities to expand and benefit from integrating small ruminants into annual and perennial cropping systems remain largely unexplored. Important development imperatives include choice of species and better use of available breeds, appropriate production systems that match available feed resources, and linkages between production, products and by-products to markets. Affirmative action is necessary, backed by official policy support, institutional commitment and increased resource use, that can target poverty and directly benefit the poor, and shift subsistence production to a more market-oriented opportunity. These efforts together constitute the challenges for both the owners and producers of small ruminants in the immediate future, as also the will to accelerate increased productivity, improve their livelihoods and promote rural growth.

Effect of Agro-ecological Zones, Farm Category and Season on Feeds and Feeding of Large Ruminants in Rural Bangladesh

  • Islam, M.R.;Rahman, M.M.;Rahman, M. Mahbubur;Zaman, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.643-649
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    • 2002
  • Availability of feeds and fodder and amount of their intake by large ruminants in eight different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) of Bangladesh were recorded over a year. Roughages such as straw, naturally grown green grass, water hyacinth, tree leaves, legumes and sugarcane tops were the major feedstuffs fed to the large ruminants. Amount of intake of these ingredients differed (p<0.01) across AEZ studied, but did not differ across seasons or farmers' categories (p>0.05) except for green grasses (p<0.01). Byproduct concentrates offered to animals in the studied areas were rice bran, wheat bran and different oil cakes. The amount of intake of concentrates by the animals also differed (p<0.01) across AEZs, but did not differ across seasons or farmers' categories (p>0.05), except for rice bran and wheat bran which differed between season and farm category, and season respectively (p<0.01). The large standard errors of mean indicate that there are wide variations in intake of roughages and concentrates across AEZ's, seasons and farmers' categories and even across days. This further indicates that the feeding practices of large ruminants are largely heterogeneous. In addition to feeding roughage and concentrates, the animals were allowed to graze for six hours a day. Grazing hours also differed (p<0.01) across AEZ, but not by farmers' categories or seasons.

Advanced estimation and mitigation strategies: a cumulative approach to enteric methane abatement from ruminants

  • Islam, Mahfuzul;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.122-137
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    • 2019
  • Methane, one of the important greenhouse gas, has a higher global warming potential than that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture, especially livestock, is considered as the biggest sector in producing anthropogenic methane. Among livestock, ruminants are the highest emitters of enteric methane. Methanogenesis, a continuous process in the rumen, carried out by archaea either with a hydrogenotrophic pathway that converts hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane or with methylotrophic pathway, which the substrate for methanogenesis is methyl groups. For accurate estimation of methane from ruminants, three methods have been successfully used in various experiments under different environmental conditions such as respiration chamber, sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, and the automated head-chamber or GreenFeed system. Methane production and emission from ruminants are increasing day by day with an increase of ruminants which help to meet up the nutrient demands of the increasing human population throughout the world. Several mitigation strategies have been taken separately for methane abatement from ruminant productions such as animal intervention, diet selection, dietary feed additives, probiotics, defaunation, supplementation of fats, oils, organic acids, plant secondary metabolites, etc. However, sustainable mitigation strategies are not established yet. A cumulative approach of accurate enteric methane measurement and existing mitigation strategies with more focusing on the biological reduction of methane emission by direct-fed microbials could be the sustainable methane mitigation approaches.

Osmotic fragility of erythrocyte in cattle, sheep and goats (Holstein 유우, 한우, 면양 및 한국재래산양 적혈구의 삼투적 취약성)

  • Min, Byeong-man;Lee, Bang-whan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.29-33
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    • 1990
  • The study was attempted to scrutinize the normal osmotic fragility of erythrocyte in the domestic ruminants, making a comparison with that of human and canine. The animals used in the experiment were apparently healthy adult Holstein cattle, Korean native cattle, sheep (Corriedale) and Korean native goats. Osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was the highest in the Korean native goats, and the next were sheep and Korean native cattle, and Holstein cattle in order. In other words, erythrocytic resistance to osmotic lysis was the strongest in Holstein cattle and the most weak in Korean native goats among the domestic ruminants. In general, resistance of erythrocytes was stronger in human and canine than in the domestic ruminants.

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Advances in Enhancing Nutrient Utilization for Ruminants by Nutritional Manipulation to Reduce Environmental Contamination - Review -

  • Lu, De-xun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 2001
  • A review of present understanding of the dietary nutrient utilization in ruminant animals is presented. For increasing the utilization of dietary nutrients and reducing environmental contamination, highlighting the development and use of nutritional manipulation technique is suggested.

Effect of Cellulose Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Wild and Domestic Ruminants on In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Feed and Enzyme Production

  • Sahu, N.P.;Kamra, D.N.;Paul, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.199-202
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    • 2004
  • Cellulolytic bacterial strains have been isolated from the faeces of wild (blackbuck, Antilope cervicapra; nilgai, Baselophus tragocamelus chinkara, Gazella gazella spotted deer, Axis axis and hog deer, Cervus porcinus) and rumen liquor of domestic (sheep, Ovis aries) ruminants. Five best cellulose degrading bacterial isolates (Ruminococcus sp.) were used as microbial feed additive along with buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum to study their effect on digestibility of feed and enzyme production in in vitro conditions. The bacterial isolate from chinkara (CHI-2) showed the highest per cent apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility ($35.40{\pm}0.60$), true dry matter digestibility ($40.80{\pm}0.69$) and NDF ($26.38{\pm}0.83$) digestibility (p<0.05) compared to control ($32.73{\pm}0.56$, $36.64{\pm}0.71$ and $21.16{\pm}0.89$, respectively) and other isolates at 24 h of incubation with lignocellulosic feeds (wheat straw and wheat bran, 80:20). The same isolate also exhibited the highest activities of fibre degrading enzymes like carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, ${\beta}$-glucosidase and acetyl esterase. The bacterial isolate from chinkara (Gazella gazella) appears to have a potential to be used as feed additive in the diet of ruminants for improving utilization of nutrients from lignocellulosic feeds.

Tube agglutination test is superior than other serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants

  • Rahman, Md. Siddiqur;Jahan, Nusrat;Hossain, Mohammad Arif;Uddin, M.J.;Shil, Niraj Kanti;Islam, KBM Saiful;Ahasan, Md. Shamim;Rahman, A.K.M. Anisur;Song, Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.493-496
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    • 2008
  • Brucella spp. are small, non-motile Gram-negative coccobacilli known to cause disease in a number of vertebrate species including humans and brucellosis is one of the world's major zoonoses, alongside bovine tuberculosis and rabies. There are about 33.55 million goats and 1.16 million sheep in Bangladesh. The sheep and goats can significantly play an important role in the economic well being of the resource-poor farmer in Bangladesh. Sexually matured 362 female small ruminants(300 goats and 62 sheep) were examined. Approximately 3-5 ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of each animal and sera samples were prepared. Samples were then tested for brucellosis by using Rose Bengal test(RBT), plate agglutination test(PAT) and tube agglutination test(TAT). Among 362 small ruminants, irrespective of species(sheep or goat), diagnosed highest in TAT, 2.21%(n=8) and lowest both by RBT & PAT, 1.93%(n=7) and it is concluded that TAT is superior than RBT and PAT.

Isotyping of Immunoglobulin G Responses of Ruminants and Mice to Live and Inactivated Antigens of Cowdria ruminantium the Causative Agent of Cowdriosis in Ruminants

  • Kibor, A.C.;Sumption, K.J.;Paxton, E.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.541-548
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    • 2003
  • The Immunoglobulin $IgG_1$ and $IgG_2$ isotype immune responses of domestic ruminants and mice to Cowdria. ruminantium live infection or by immunization with inactivated organisms were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Immunization of goats with inactivated elementary bodies (IEBs) led to a predominant $IgG_1$ isotype response. This indicated that a Th2 response was induced. After challenge, the IgG isotype responses were mixed whereby both $IgG_1$ and $IgG_2$ antibodies were detected. Two goats that survived virulent challenge had a predominant $IgG_2$ isotype response. In cattle live infection by natur l challenge or experiment led to a predominant $IgG_1$ isotype response. Immunization of cattle with IEBs however led to mixed IgG responses characterized by similar $IgG_1$ and $IgG_2$ ratios. In the mouse live infection led to a predominant $IgG_2$ isotype response. This indicated the mouse developed a true Th1 type cell mediated immune response when inoculated with live organisms. Immunization with inactivated organisms on the other hand led to a dominant $IgG_1$ response. It is evident from this work that the immune responses of ruminants and mice to C. ruminantium are different and that using mice as the experimental model for immune responses to Cowdria ruminantium. is not the appropriate.

Dietary manipulation: a sustainable way to mitigate methane emissions from ruminants

  • Haque, Md Najmul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.15.1-15.10
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    • 2018
  • Methane emission from the enteric fermentation of ruminant livestock is a main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and a major concern for global warming. Methane emission is also associated with dietary energy lose; hence, reduce feed efficiency. Due to the negative environmental impacts, methane mitigation has come forward in last few decades. To date numerous efforts were made in order to reduce methane emission from ruminants. No table mitigation approaches are rumen manipulation, alteration of rumen fermentation, modification of rumen microbial biodiversity by different means and rarely by animal manipulations. However, a comprehensive exploration for a sustainable methane mitigation approach is still lacking. Dietary modification is directly linked to changes in the rumen fermentation pattern and types of end products. Studies showed that changing fermentation pattern is one of the most effective ways of methane abatement. Desirable dietary changes provide two fold benefits i.e. improve production and reduce GHG emissions. Therefore, the aim of this review is to discuss biology of methane emission from ruminants and its mitigation through dietary manipulation.