• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ruminal Peptides

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Effects of Popped Soybean on Concentration of Ruminal Peptide and Blood Amino Acids in Holstein Calves

  • Kim, H.D.;Ha, J.K.;Itabashi, H.;Kim, S.W.;Kim, W.Y.;Ko, Y.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 1998
  • This study conducted to evaluate effects of popped soybean on levels of ruminal peptides and blood amino acids in Holstein calves fed sudan grass hay as a forage source and popped (PSB) soybean as a concentrate supplement. At 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after feeding, rumen fluid and blood samples were collected from the rumen and jugular vein, respectively, and amino acids, peptides and other nitrogen-containing compounds in the rumen were analyzed. Ruminal pH tended to be higher in the RSB than in the PSB treatments, and declined upto 4 h after feeding, since then increased in both treatments. The concentrations of ammonia-N in all treatments increased upto 2 h after feeding, and then decreased gradually with time after feeding. The concentrations of ammonia N in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments, however, those in RSB treatment appeared to be higher. Also, protein concentrations in the rumen were not significantly different between the treatments. Peptide productions were the highest at 2 h after feeding in the group fed RSB which is rapidly degradable in rumen, whereas those in the group fed PSB which is slowly degradable in rumen were maximized at 4 h after feeding. The concentration of total free essential amino acids in plasma was higher in the RSB treatment than in the PSB, but disappearance rates of these amino acids out of plasma was higher in the PSB treatment than in the RSB treatment. Disappearance rates of free non-essential amino acids in plasma were not significantly different between the treatments. Consequently, this study implies that the production of peptide and utilization of blood amino acid may be controlled by the modification of protein degradability.

Effects of Level and Degradability of Dietary Protein on Ruminal Fermentation and Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Hanwoo Steers

  • Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Won;Kang, Su-Won;Nam, In-Sik;Kim, Do-Hyung;Song, Man-Kang;Kim, Chang-Won;Park, Keun-Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.392-403
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    • 2008
  • Four ruminally fistulated Hanwoo steers were used to determine the effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). Experiments were conducted in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were protein supplements with two ruminal crude protein (CP) degradabilities, corn gluten meal (CGM) that was low in degradability (rumen-degraded protein (RDP), 23.4% CP) or soybean meal (SBM) that was high in degradability (RDP, 62.1% CP), and two feeding levels of CP (12.2 or 15.9% dry matter). Ruminal fermentation rates and plasma metabolite concentrations were determined from the RD collected at 2-h intervals and from the blood taken by jugular puncture, respectively. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid, peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD collected at 2-h intervals were assessed by ninhydrin assay. Mean ruminal ammonia concentrations were 40.5, 74.8, 103.4 and 127.0 mg/L for low CGM, high CGM, low SBM and high SBM, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p<0.01 for CP level and p<0.001 for CP degradability). Blood urea nitrogen concentrations were increased by high CP level (p<0.001) but unaffected by CP degradability. There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between level and degradability of CP on blood albumin concentrations. Albumin was decreased to a greater extent by increasing degradability of low CP diets (0.26 g/dl) compared with high CP diets (0.02 g/dl). Concentrations of each SNAN fraction in RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) for high CP diets were higher than those for low CP diets, except for peptides but concentrations of the sum of peptide and free amino acid in RD and OD were significantly higher (p<0.05) for high CP diets than for low CP diets. Soybean meal diets increased free amino acid and peptide concentrations in both RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) compared to CGM diets. High level and greater degradability of CP increased (p<0.001) mean concentrations of total SNAN in RD and OD. These results suggest that RDP contents, increased by higher level and degradability of dietary protein, may increase release of free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins in the rumen and omasum from ruminal degradation and solubilization of dietary proteins. Because SNAN in OD indicates the terminal product of ruminal metabolism, increasing CP level and degradability appears to increase the amount of intestine-available nitrogen in the liquid phase.

Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

  • Khateri, N.;Azizi, O.;Jahani-Azizabadi, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.370-378
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    • 2017
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO), containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods: Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control), 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results: Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05) in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP) bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion:The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and protozoa and HAP bacteria count, blood cells and metabolites.

A Comparison of Ammonia and Preformed Protein as a Source of Nitrogen for Microbial Growth in the Rumen of Sheep Given Oaten Chaff

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Leng, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.351-362
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    • 1998
  • Microbial growth efficiency in the rumen was studied in sheep given hourly, 31.25 g oaten chaff with either 0.31 and 0.88 g urea or 1.88 and 5.63 g casein (exp. 1) and 33.33 g oaten chaff with 1.04 casein or 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g urea or the mixture of the casein and urea (exp. 2). Concentrations of ruminal fluid ammonia increased with increasing nitrogenous supplements. Organic matter digestibility in sacco in the rumen was not different irrespective of N sources. Isoacids and valeric acid increased with increasing ingested casein but decreased with increasing urea intake. Peptide and amino acid pools in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia concentrations (exp. 2) suggesting that proteolytic activity and transportation of peptides and amino acids across microbial membrane of rumen microbes may be regulated by the metabolite mechanism (intracellular amino acids and $NH_4{^+}$, respectively). Densities of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia levels but that of small Entodinia decreased. The density of fungal sporangia growth on oat leaf blades decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations but appeared to remain constant in the presence of casein. Efficiency of net microbial cell synthesis was 15-28% higher when ammonia concentrations increased from 100 to above 200 mg N/l regardless of N sources. In conclusion, supplementation of preformed protein had no effect on rumen digestion and microbial growth efficiency. This could not be accounted for its effect on ruminal fluid ammonia. Increased microbial growth efficiency with increasing ammonia levels may be due to a reduction in the turnover of microbial cells within the rumen.

The Requirement of Ruminal Degradable Protein for Non-Structural Carbohydrate-Fermenting Microbes and Its Reaction with Dilution Rate in Continuous Culture

  • Meng, Q.X.;Xia, Z.G.;Kerley, M.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1399-1406
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    • 2000
  • A continuous culture study was conducted to determine the impact of ruminal degradable soy protein (S-RDP) level and dilution rate (D) on growth of ruminal non-structural carbohydrate-fermenting microbes. Corn starch, urea and isolated soy protein (ISP) were used to formulate three diets with S-RDP levels of 0, 35 and 70% of total dietary CP. Two Ds were 0.03 and $0.06h^{-1}$ of the fermenter volume in a single-effluent continuous culture system. As S-RDP levels increased, digestibilities of dietary dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) linearly (p=0.001) decreased, whereas digestion of dietary starch linearly (p=0.001) increased. Increasing D from 0.03 to $0.06h^{-1}$ resulted in decreased digestibilities of dietary DM and OM, but had no effect on digestibilities of dietary starch (p=0.77) and CP (p=0.103). Fermenter pH, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and daily VFA production were unaffected (p=0.159-0.517) by S-RDP levels. Molar percentages of acetate, propionate and butyrate were greatly affected by S-RDP levels (p=0.016-0.091), but unaffected by D (p=0.331-0.442). With increasing S-RDP levels and D, daily bacterial counts, daily microbial N production (DMNP) and microbial efficiency (MOEFF; grams of microbial N produced per kilogram of OM truly digested) were enhanced (p=0.001). The increased microbial efficiency with increasing S-RDP levels is probably the result of peptides or amino acids that served as a stimulus for optimal protein synthesis. The quantity of ruminal degradable protein from soy proteins required for optimum protein synthesis of non-structural carbohydrate-fermenting microbes appears to be equivalent to 9.5% of dietary fermented OM.

Effects of Protein Supply from Soyhulls and Wheat Bran on Ruminal Metabolism, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal and Omasal Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen of Steers

  • Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Won;Hong, Seong-Koo;Seol, Yong-Joo;Kim, Do-Hyung;Ahn, Gyu-Chul;Song, Man-Kang;Park, Keun-Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1267-1278
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    • 2009
  • Three beef steers fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used to determine the effects of protein supply from soyhulls (SH) and wheat bran (WB) on ruminal metabolism, blood metabolites, nitrogen metabolism, nutrient digestion and concentrations of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). In a 3${\times}$3 Latin square design, steers were offered rice straw and concentrates formulated either without (control) or with two brans to increase crude protein (CP) level (9 vs. 11% dietary DM for control and bran-based diets, respectively). The brans used were SH and WB that had similar CP contents but different ruminal CP degradability (52 vs. 80% CP for SH and WB, respectively) for evaluating the effects of protein degradability. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were higher for bran diets (p<0.01) than for the control, and for WB (p<0.001) compared to the SH diet. Similarly, microbial nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were significantly increased (p<0.05) by bran and WB diets, respectively. Retained nitrogen tended (p<0.082) to be increased by SH compared with the WB diet. Intestinal and total tract CP digestion was enhanced by bran diets. In addition, bran diets tended (p<0.085) to increase intestinal starch digestion. Concentrations of SNAN fractions in RD and OD were higher (p<0.05) for bran diets than for the control, and for WB than for the SH diet. More rumendegraded protein supply resulting from a higher level and degradability of CP released from SH and WB enhanced ruminal microbial nitrogen synthesis and ruminal protein degradation. Thus, free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins from microbial cells as well as degraded dietary protein may have contributed to increased SNAN concentrations in the rumen and, consequently, the omasum. These results indicate that protein supply from SH and WB, having a low level of protein (13 and 16%, respectively), could affect ruminal metabolism and nutrient digestion if inclusion level is relatively high (>20%).

Effects of Soybean Small Peptides on Rumen Fermentation and on Intestinal and Total Tract Digestion of Luxi Yellow Cattle

  • Wang, W.J.;Yang, W.R.;Wang, Y.;Song, E.L.;Liu, X.M.;Wan, F.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2013
  • Four Luxi beef cattle ($400{\pm}10$ kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square to assess the effects of soybean small peptide (SSP) infusion on rumen fermentation, diet digestion and flow of nutrient in the gastrointestinal tract. The ruminal infusion of SSP was 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/d. Ruminal SSP infusion linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased microbial protein synthesis and rumen ammonia-N concentration. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acid were linearly increased (p = 0.029) by infusion SSP. Rumen samples were obtained for analysis of microbial ecology by real-time PCR. Populations of rumen Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Streptococcus bovis, Ciliate protozoa, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Prevotella ruminicola were expressed as a proportion of total Rumen bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations which related to total bacterial 16S rDNA were increased (p<0.05), while Streptococcus bovis populations were linearly (p = 0.049) and quadratically (p = 0.020) decreased by infusion of SSP. Apparent rumen digestibility of DM and NDF were (Q, p<0.05; L, p<0.05) increased with infusion SSP. Total tract digestion of DM, OM and NDF were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased by infusing SSP. The flow of total amino acids (AA), essential amino acids (EAA) and individual amino acids were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased with infusion SSP. The digestibility of Lysine was quadratically (p = 0.033) increased and apparent degradability of Arginine was linearly (p = 0.032) and quadratically (p = 0.042) increased with infusion SSP. The results indicated that infusion SSP could improve nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and AA availability.

The Role of Protozoa in Feed Digestion - Review -

  • Jouany, J.P.;Ushida, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 1999
  • Protozoa can represent as half of the total rumen microbial biomass. Around 10 genera are generally present on the same time in the rumen. Based on nutritional aspects they can be divided in large entodiniomorphs, small entodiniomorphs and isotrichs. Their feeding behaviour and their enzymatic activities differ considerably. Many comparisons between defaunated and refaunated animals were carried out during the last two decades to explain the global role of protozoa at the ruminal or animal levels. It is now generally considered that a presence of an abundant protozoal population in the rumen has a negative effect on the amino acid (AA) supply to ruminants and contribute to generate more methane but, nevertheless, protozoa must not be considered as parasites. They are useful for numerous reasons. They stabilise rumen pH when animal are fed diets rich in available starch and decrease the redox potential of rumen digesta. Because cellulolytic bacteria are very sensitive to these two parameters, protozoa indirectly stimulate the bacterial cellulolytic activity and supply their own activity to the rumen microbial ecosystem. They could also supply some peptides in the rumen medium which can stimulate the growth of the rumen microbiota, but this aspect has never been considered in the past. Their high contribution to ammonia production has bad consequences on the urinary nitrogen excretion but means also that less dietary soluble nitrogen is necessary when protozoa are present. Changes in the molar percentages of VFA and gases from rumen fermentations are not so large that they could alter significantly the use of energy by animals. The answer of animals to elimination of protozoa (defaunation) depends on the balance between energy and protein needs of animals and the supply of nutrients supplied through the diet. Defaunation is useful in case of diets short in protein nitrogen but not limited in energy supply for animals having high needs of proteins.