• Title, Summary, Keyword: Ruminal Acid Concentrations

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RUMINAL ACID CONCENTRATIONS OF GOATS FED HAYS AND SILAGES PREPARED FROM ITALIAN RYEGRASS AND ITS PRESSED CAKE

  • Ohshima, M.;Miyase, K.;Nishino, N.;Yokota, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 1991
  • From the same harvest of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam.), hay(H), wilted silage(WS), pressed cake hay (PCH) and pressed cake silage (PCS) were prepared. These four preserved roughages were restrictedly fed to four goats attached with rumen fistula by $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to determine the effect of different physical and chemical properties of the roughages on the ruminal acid concentrations. Each goat was given a diet at 2% of the body weight daily in dry matter basis by separating into two equal portions. Half was given at 9 AM and the other half at 5 PM. Ruminal pH was reduced to around 5.5 within 30 minutes after feeding PCS and it was recovered above 6 in 1-2 hours after feeding. By feeding WS, ruminal pH was also reduced but never fell below 6. The two hays rather increased ruminal pH after feeding. The reduction of ruminal pH in the silage feedings was due to the high lactic acid content of the silages, because the highest ruminal lactic acid concentration was observed 30 minutes after feeding when the lowest ruminal pH was attained. While the ruminal VFA concentrations became the highest 1-2 hours after feeding. The ruminal acetic acid concentration fluctuated so much that no significant tendency was observed among the four dietary treatments. The ruminal propionic acid concentration was higher in feeding silages reflecting the initial high lactic acid concentration. As the result, acetic/propionic acid ratio was lower in the silage feedings than in hay feedings. Higher ruminal butyric acid concentration was observed in WS than in others.

Effects of Level and Degradability of Dietary Protein on Ruminal Fermentation and Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Hanwoo Steers

  • Oh, Young-Kyoon;Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Won;Kang, Su-Won;Nam, In-Sik;Kim, Do-Hyung;Song, Man-Kang;Kim, Chang-Won;Park, Keun-Kyu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.392-403
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    • 2008
  • Four ruminally fistulated Hanwoo steers were used to determine the effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). Experiments were conducted in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design with a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were protein supplements with two ruminal crude protein (CP) degradabilities, corn gluten meal (CGM) that was low in degradability (rumen-degraded protein (RDP), 23.4% CP) or soybean meal (SBM) that was high in degradability (RDP, 62.1% CP), and two feeding levels of CP (12.2 or 15.9% dry matter). Ruminal fermentation rates and plasma metabolite concentrations were determined from the RD collected at 2-h intervals and from the blood taken by jugular puncture, respectively. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid, peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD collected at 2-h intervals were assessed by ninhydrin assay. Mean ruminal ammonia concentrations were 40.5, 74.8, 103.4 and 127.0 mg/L for low CGM, high CGM, low SBM and high SBM, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p<0.01 for CP level and p<0.001 for CP degradability). Blood urea nitrogen concentrations were increased by high CP level (p<0.001) but unaffected by CP degradability. There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between level and degradability of CP on blood albumin concentrations. Albumin was decreased to a greater extent by increasing degradability of low CP diets (0.26 g/dl) compared with high CP diets (0.02 g/dl). Concentrations of each SNAN fraction in RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) for high CP diets were higher than those for low CP diets, except for peptides but concentrations of the sum of peptide and free amino acid in RD and OD were significantly higher (p<0.05) for high CP diets than for low CP diets. Soybean meal diets increased free amino acid and peptide concentrations in both RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) compared to CGM diets. High level and greater degradability of CP increased (p<0.001) mean concentrations of total SNAN in RD and OD. These results suggest that RDP contents, increased by higher level and degradability of dietary protein, may increase release of free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins in the rumen and omasum from ruminal degradation and solubilization of dietary proteins. Because SNAN in OD indicates the terminal product of ruminal metabolism, increasing CP level and degradability appears to increase the amount of intestine-available nitrogen in the liquid phase.

Effect of Forage to Concentrate Ratio and Monensin Supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid and trans-11 Octadecenoic Acid Concentrations of Ruminal Contents and Plasma in Sheep

  • Zhang, Yuzhi;Kong, Xianghao;Zhu, Xiaoping;Wang, Runlian;Yan, Yichai;Jia, Zhihai
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.699-704
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    • 2006
  • Twenty-four cannulated Small-tailed Han${\times}$Poll Dorset wethers (BW $47.5{\pm}2.1kg$) were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate ratio (40:60 vs. 70:30), monensin supplementation (0, 15 or 30 ppm, DM basis) and interactions of these two factors on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid (trans11-$C_{18:1}$) concentrations in ruminal contents and plasma in sheep. The experiment was designed as a $2{\times}3$ factorial. The diet contained Chinese wild rye grass hay (Aneurolepidium Chinese), cracked corn, soybean meal, NaCl, limestone and trace mineral premix. Dietary crude fat and linoleic acid ($C_{18:2n-6}$) were adjusted with soybean oil to about 7.0% and 24.0 mg/g (DM basis), respectively. High forage diets increased (p<0.001) the concentrations of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in ruminal contents and plasma. Monensin supplementation increased (p<0.001) the concentration of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ in ruminal contents, but had no effect on that of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Concentrations of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ (p<0.019) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (p<0.022) in plasma increased with dietary monensin levels. Interactions of forage: concentrate ratio and monensin level tended to affect the concentrations of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ (p<0.091) and $C_{18:2n-6}$ (p<0.083) in ruminal contents. Increasing forage levels increased the concentrations of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the rumen. Supplementing with monensin increased the ruminal production of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ and concentrations of trans11-$C_{18:1}$ and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in plasma.

Effects of Feeding Extruded Soybean, Ground Canola Seed and Whole Cottonseed on Ruminal Fermentation, Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Profile in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

  • Chen, P.;Ji, P.;Li, Shengli
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.204-213
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    • 2008
  • Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 43 days in milk (DIM) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square to determine the effect of feeding extruded soybean, ground canola seed and whole cottonseed on ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. One hundred and twenty lactating Holstein cows, 58 (${\pm}31$) DIM, were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized block design to study the effects of the three types of oilseeds on production parameters and milk fatty acid profile. The four diets were a control diet (CON) and three diets in which 10% extruded soybean (ESB), 5% ground canola seed (GCS) and 10% whole cottonseed (WCS) were included, respectively. Diets consisted of concentrate mix, corn silage and Chinese wild rye and were balanced to similar concentrations of CP, NDF and ADF. Ruminal fermentation results showed that ruminal fermentation parameters, dry matter intake and milk yield were not significantly affected by treatments. However, compared with the control, feeding cows with the three oilseed diets reduced C14:0 and C16:0 and elevated C18:0 and C18:1 concentrations in milk, and feeding ESB increased C18:2 and cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Production results showed that feeding ESB tended to increase actual milk yield (30.85 kg/d vs. 29.29 kg/d) and significantly decreased milk fat percentage (3.53% vs. 4.06%) compared with CON. Milk protein (3.41%) and solid non-fat (13.27%) from cows fed WCS were significantly higher than from cows fed CON (3.24% and 12.63%, respectively). Milk urea N concentrations from cows fed the ESB (164.12 mg/L) and GCS (169.91 mg/L) were higher than cows fed CON (132.31 mg/L). However, intake of DM, 4% fat corrected milk, energy corrected milk, milk fat and protein yields, milk lactose percentage and yield, somatic cell count and body condition score were not affected by different treatments. The proportion of medium-chain fatty acid with 14 to 16 C units in milk was greatly decreased in cows fed ESB, GCS and WCS. Feeding ESB increased the concentration in milk of C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and cis9, trans11-CLA content by 16.67%, 37.36%, 95.24%, 72.22%, respectively, feeding GCS improved C18:0 and C18:1 by 17.41% and 33.28%, respectively, and feeding WCS increased C18:0 by 31.01% compared with feeding CON. Both ruminal fermentation and production trial results indicated that supplementation of extruded soybean, ground canola seed and whole cottonseed could elevate the desirable poly- and monounsaturated fatty acid and decrease the medium chain fatty acid and saturated fatty acid content of milk fat without negative effects on ruminal fermentation and lactation performance.

A Comparison of Ammonia and Preformed Protein as a Source of Nitrogen for Microbial Growth in the Rumen of Sheep Given Oaten Chaff

  • Kanjanapruthipong, J.;Leng, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.351-362
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    • 1998
  • Microbial growth efficiency in the rumen was studied in sheep given hourly, 31.25 g oaten chaff with either 0.31 and 0.88 g urea or 1.88 and 5.63 g casein (exp. 1) and 33.33 g oaten chaff with 1.04 casein or 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g urea or the mixture of the casein and urea (exp. 2). Concentrations of ruminal fluid ammonia increased with increasing nitrogenous supplements. Organic matter digestibility in sacco in the rumen was not different irrespective of N sources. Isoacids and valeric acid increased with increasing ingested casein but decreased with increasing urea intake. Peptide and amino acid pools in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia concentrations (exp. 2) suggesting that proteolytic activity and transportation of peptides and amino acids across microbial membrane of rumen microbes may be regulated by the metabolite mechanism (intracellular amino acids and $NH_4{^+}$, respectively). Densities of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in ruminal fluid increased with increasing ammonia levels but that of small Entodinia decreased. The density of fungal sporangia growth on oat leaf blades decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations but appeared to remain constant in the presence of casein. Efficiency of net microbial cell synthesis was 15-28% higher when ammonia concentrations increased from 100 to above 200 mg N/l regardless of N sources. In conclusion, supplementation of preformed protein had no effect on rumen digestion and microbial growth efficiency. This could not be accounted for its effect on ruminal fluid ammonia. Increased microbial growth efficiency with increasing ammonia levels may be due to a reduction in the turnover of microbial cells within the rumen.

NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SILAGES PREPARED FROM FIBER AND LIQUID RESIDUES AFTER THE SEPARATION OF LEAF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATE FROM ITALIAN RYEGRASS IN GOATS

  • Reddy, G.U.;Oshima, M.;Nishino, N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1992
  • Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was fractionated into leaf nutrient concentrate, fiber and deproteinised juice (DPJ). The fresh and fermented DPJs were concentrated and referred to as fresh deproteinised juice concentrate (FDPJC) and fermented deprotenised juice concentrate (FMTD DPJC). The FDPJC and FMTD DPJC were separately mixed with dried fiber and ensiled. Wilted crop silage and fresh fiber silage were also prepared from the same material crop. The nutritive value of these four silages were compared using four goats by $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Green crop fractionation resulted lesser amount of crude protein and ash, and higher amount of neurtal detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose in fresh fiber. The pH of fresh fiber silage was lower than that of the other silages. Addition of FDPJC or FMTD DPJC to the dried fiber at ensiling did not improve the silage qualities; but all the silages were satisfactorily preserved. Goats fed these silages showed similar ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations. But addition of FMTD DPJC was effective on increasing ruminal acetic acid concentration reducing propionic acid concentration. Ruminal n- and iso- butyric acid concentrations were proportional to that of propionic acid. High ammonia content of the silage containing FMTD DPJC was reflected to the ruminal ammonia concentration, urinary nitrogen excretion and serum urea level of goats. Inclusion of FDPJC or FMTD DPJC added 15 to 25% dry matter to the fiber silages with a little reduction in the digestibilities of most components of the silages.

The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

  • Heo, Wan;Kim, Eun Tae;Cho, Sung Do;Kim, Jun Ho;Kwon, Seong Min;Jeong, Ha Yeon;Ki, Kwang Seok;Yoon, Ho Baek;Ahn, Young Dae;Lee, Sung Sill;Kim, Young Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2016
  • This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

Metabolomics reveals potential biomarkers in the rumen fluid of dairy cows with different levels of milk production

  • Zhang, Hua;Tong, Jinjin;Zhang, Yonghong;Xiong, Benhai;Jiang, Linshu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2020
  • Objective: In the present study, an liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metabolomics approach was performed to investigate potential biomarkers of milk production in high- and low-milk-yield dairy cows and to establish correlations among rumen fluid metabolites. Methods: Sixteen lactating dairy cows with similar parity and days in milk were divided into high-yield (HY) and low-yield (LY) groups based on milk yield. On day 21, rumen fluid metabolites were quantified applying LC/MS. Results: The principal component analysis and orthogonal correction partial least squares discriminant analysis showed significantly separated clusters of the ruminal metabolite profiles of HY and LY groups. Compared with HY group, a total of 24 ruminal metabolites were significantly greater in LY group, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives (L-isoleucine, L-valine, L-tyrosine, etc.), diazines (uracil, thymine, cytosine), and palmitic acid, while the concentrations of 30 metabolites were dramatically decreased in LY group compared to HY group, included gentisic acid, caprylic acid, and myristic acid. The metabolite enrichment analysis indicated that protein digestion and absorption, ABC transporters and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis were significantly different between the two groups. Correlation analysis between the ruminal microbiome and metabolites revealed that certain typical metabolites were exceedingly associated with definite ruminal bacteria; Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes phyla were highly correlated with most metabolites. Conclusion: These findings revealed that the ruminal metabolite profiles were significantly different between HY and LY groups, and these results may provide novel insights to evaluate biomarkers for a better feed digestion and may reveal the potential mechanism underlying the difference in milk yield in dairy cows.

EFFECT OF ALKALINE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND PERACETIC ACID ON IN SACCO RUMINAL DIGESTIBILITY OF ASPEN SAWDUST

  • Myung, K.H.;Kennelly, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.635-641
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    • 1992
  • The influence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and peracetic acid treatment on in sacco digestion of aspen was evaluated in three non-lactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows fed a diet containing 90% forage and 10% concentrate on a DM basis. AHP treatment decreased lignin concentration by 40 to 60% resulting in increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and cellulose. Lignin concentrations in peracetic acid treated samples were less than 10% of values for control samples. In sacco disappearance rates of aspen DM, NDF, ADF and cellulose increased (p<.05) with AHP and peracetic acid treatment. Effective degradability of DM, NDF, ADF and cellulose were determined at a ruminal outflow rate of $.05h^{-1}$. Effective degradabilities of AHP treated aspen were approximately three-fold greater and peracetic acid treated samples five-fold greater than untreated control samples. For all parameters measured, peracetic acid treatment resulted in higher (p<.05) digestion coefficients than AHP treated aspen. Results demonstrate that peracetic acid or AHP treatment can enhance the nutritive value of aspen sawdust for ruminants to a level comparable to that reported for many forages.

Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculant on Fermentation Quality and in vitro Rumen Fermentation of Total Mixed Ration

  • Choi, Yeon Jae;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2019
  • Fermented total mixed ration (TMR) is a novel feed for ruminants in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the quality of TMR and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Strains of three LAB spp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. mucosae) were used in fermentation of TMR. Inoculations with the three LAB spp. lowered pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and total organic acid compared to non-LAB inoculated control (only addition of an equivalent amount of water) (p<0.05). Bacterial composition indicated that aerobic bacteria and LAB were higher. However, E. coli were lower in the fermented TMR than those in the control treatment (p<0.05). Among the treatments, L. brevis treatment had the highest concentration of total organic acid without fungus detection. Gas production, pH, and ammonia-nitrogen during ruminal in vitro incubation did not differ throughout incubation. However, ruminal total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.05) in the LAB spp. treatments than the control treatment at 48 hours. Overall, the use of L. brevis as an inoculant for fermentation of high moisture. TMR could inhibit fungi growth and promote lactic fermentation, and enhance digestion in the rumen.